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Derivative chromosome

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A derivative chromosome (der) is a structurally rearranged chromosome generated either by a rearrangement involving two or more chromosomes or by multiple aberrations within a single chromosome (e.g. an inversion and a deletion of the same chromosome, or deletions in both arms of a single chromosome) best running water backpack. The term always refers to the chromosome that has an intact centromere. Derivative chromosomes are designated by the abbreviation der when used to describe a Karyotype. The derivative chromosome must be specified in parentheses followed by all aberrations involved in this derivative chromosome. The aberrations must be listed from pter to qter and not be separated by a comma.

For example, 46,XY,der(4)t(4;8)(p16;q22)t(4;9)(q31;q31) would refer to a derivative chromosome 4 which is the result of a translocation between the short arm of chromosome 4 at region 1, band 6 and the long arm of chromosome 8 at region 2, band 2, and a translocation between the long arm of chromosome 4 at region 3, band 1 and the long arm of chromosome 9 at region 3, band 1.

Derivative chromosomes and other abnormalities could be drawn online using CyDAS online tools (Hiller B, Bradtke J, Balz H and Rieder H (2004): „CyDAS Online Analysis Site“ football tee, )

An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature spill proof water bottle with straw, Shaffer, L.G reusable bpa free water bottles., Tommerup N. (eds); S. Karger, Basel 2005

Abra Delgada (bergspass i Jujuy)

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Abra Delgada är ett bergspass i Argentina. Det ligger i provinsen Jujuy football jersey buy online, i den norra delen av landet, 1 400 kilometer norr om huvudstaden Buenos Aires. Abra Delgada ligger 1 942 meter över havet.

Terrängen runt Abra Delgada är huvudsakligen bergig, men den allra närmaste omgivningen är kuperad. Den högsta punkten i närheten är 2 438 meter över havet, 1,4 kilometer nordväst om Abra Delgada

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. Runt Abra Delgada är det mycket glesbefolkat, med 2 invånare per kvadratkilometer.. I trakten runt Abra Delgada finns ovanligt många namngivna berg.

I omgivningarna runt Abra Delgada växer i huvudsak lövfällande lövskog. Ett tropiskt höglandsklimat råder i trakten. Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 14 °C. Den varmaste månaden är november 1 liter glass bottles, då medeltemperaturen är 18 °C, och den kallaste är maj, med 10 °C. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 896 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är januari spill proof water bottle with straw, med i genomsnitt 216 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är juli, med 2 mm nederbörd.


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Lagrivea is a fossil genus of squirrel from the Middle Miocene of France. The single species, L. vireti, is known from three mandibles (lower jaws) and two isolated teeth. All come from the fissure filling (a fossil deposit formed when a rock fissure filled with sediment) of La Grive L5, part of the La Grive-Saint-Alban complex in Saint-Alban-de-Roche, southeastern France. Lagrivea was a large tree squirrel with flat lower incisors and a large, triangular fourth lower premolar (p4). Each of the four cheekteeth (p4 and three molars, m1 through m3) bears a deep basin in the middle of the crown. The m3 is about rectangular in shape, but rounded at the back. Although m1 and m2 have two roots, m3 has three.

Pierre Mein and Léonard Ginsburg described Lagrivea vireti in 2002 in a review of the ages and faunas of the Miocene fossil sites of La Grive-Saint-Alban in southeastern France. They suggested that it was probably a tree squirrel and related to the Sciurini. Lagrivea belongs to the squirrel family (Sciuridae), which first appears in the Late Eocene of North America and Early Oligocene of Europe. The specific name, vireti, honors Jean Viret for his work on the mammals of La Grive-Saint-Alban.

Lagrivea is known from three mandibles (lower jaws)—one, the holotype, with the fourth premolar (p4) and all three molars (m1–3) preserved; one with the incisor and m2; and one with the incisor, p4, m1, and m2—an isolated lower incisor, and an isolated m2. It was large for a squirrel, and can be distinguished from the fossil squirrels Palaeosciurus white socks wholesale, Aliveria, and Ratufa obtusidens by its larger size.

In the mandible, the diastema (gap) between the incisors and the cheekteeth (premolars and molars) is relatively deep. The mental foramen (an opening in the bone) is located relatively high and before the p4. The upper and lower masseteric ridges, which are located on the outer side of the jaw and anchor some of the chewing muscles football jerseys wholesale, meet at the m1. The surfaces of the incisor are very flat, but there are small, irregular striations in the enamel along the length of the tooth.

The cheekteeth increase regularly in size from front to back. They all consist of a large central basin surrounded by cusps and crests. The basins are deeper than in Palaeosciurus and Ratufa obtusidens and lack crenulations in the enamel, which distinguishes them from another fossil squirrel, Albanensia spill proof water bottle with straw. The first cheekteeth, p4, is large and about triangular in form, short and quite broad at the back. The two cusps at the front, the protoconid and metaconid, are isolated from each other. In front of the metaconid, there is a small cuspule, an anteroconid, at the lingual side of the tooth (the side of the tongue). The central basin of the tooth is relatively deep. At the back of the tooth, the entoconid cusp is connected to the posterolophid, a crest that forms the back margin. Of the two roots nalgene water bottles, the one at the front is round and the one at the back is broad.

Although m1 is nearly rectangular, the width at the front is still smaller than the width at the back. There is a strong anteroconid. A crest, the metalophid, reaches from the protoconid nearly to the metaconid. A small cusp, the mesostylid, is connected to the metaconid in front of it, unlike in Miopetaurista and Aliveria. There are two broad roots. The next tooth, m2, is similar to m1 in most respects, but the width at the front is virtually equal to the width at the back, so that the tooth is about rectangular. The back of m3 is rounded, but the tooth is still nearly rectangular. There is a long anteroconid, with is mainly connected to the metaconid. There is no metalophid. This tooth has three roots: two at the front and a larger one at the back.

The remains of Lagrivea were probably collected by Viret at the site La Grive L5 in the village of Saint-Alban-de-Roche, department of Isère, southeastern France. La Grive L5 is one of several fissure filling sites in the area, collectively known as La Grive-Saint-Alban, which have yielded rich fossil faunas. Another site, La Grive M, is the reference locality for the MN zone MN 7/8, about 13 to 11 million years ago. La Grive L5 is one of the younger sites of La Grive, and Mein and Ginsburg proposed placing it in a separate zone MN 8. Other squirrels at La Grive-Saint-Alban include species of Heteroxerus, Spermophilinus, Palaeosciurus, and chipmunks, and flying squirrels in the genera Albanensia, Miopetaurista, Forsythia, Hylopetes, and Blackia. Miopetaurista neogrivensis, Spermophilinus bredai, and Heteroxerus huerzeleri are also known from La Grive L5. In 2012, Ginsburg and Mein described an indeterminate squirrel from the older (MN 6) site of Sansan, France, on the basis of a single p4. This tooth is similar in size to Lagrivea, but differs in a narrower talonid.

Burg Mühlhausen/Thüringen

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Die Burg Mühlhausen ist eine abgegangene Befestigungsanlage der Stadt Mühlhausen im heutigen Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis in Thüringen.

Unmittelbar am südlichen Unstrutufer, auf dem jetzigen Gelände des Busbahnhofs soccer jerseys wholesale free shipping, lag die Anlage auf einer Fläche von etwa 1,5 Hektar, mit Gräben und Wasserläufen umgeben. Straßennamen erinnern an die ehemaligen Begrenzungen und auch zwei Tore sowie eine Zisterne.

775 wurde die Stadt als „Molinhuso“ erstmals urkundlich erwähnt. Es kann aber auch durch Grabungen bewiesen werden, dass Mühlhausen in dieser Zeit schon eine Rolle spielte. Damals war 974 die Stadt ein Königshof. Kaiser Otto schenkte seiner Gemahlin verschiedene Besitzgüter, darunter die Reichsburg Mulinhusa. Viele Könige und Kaiser weilten hier mit Konrad dem Staufer, was den Rang des Ortes bestätigte. Kaiser Lothar III spill proof water bottle with straw. söhnte sich 1135 mit Konrad dem Staufer aus. Im Kampf Heinrichs des Löwen mit Kaiser Friedrich I. Barbarossa begann der Welfe 1180 die Streitigkeiten. Die Zerstörung Mühlhausens war die Folge. Burg und Stadt wurden wieder aufgebaut. 1198 fand hier die Königswahl des Philipp von Schwaben statt. Die Burg wurde von mehreren Reichsministerialen geleitet. 1251 baute man zwischen Burg und Stadt eine Trennmauer glass water bottle with filter. 1256 wurde die Burg zerstört und 1287 wiederaufgebaut. Bei der nächsten Zerstörung wurde die Burg nicht wieder aufgebaut.

Independent Broadcasting Authority

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The Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television (ITV and Channel 4 and limited satellite television regulation – cable television was the responsibility of the Cable Authority) – and commercial and independent radio broadcasts. The IBA came into being when the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972 gave the Independent Television Authority responsibility for organising the new Independent Local Radio (ILR) stations. Independent Television Commission formally replaced the IBA on 1 January 1991 in regulatory terms, however the Authority itself was not officially dissolved until 2003.

The IBA appointed and regulated a number of regional programme TV contractors and local radio contractors, and built and operated the network of transmitters distributing these programmes through its Engineering Division. It established and part-funded a National Broadcasting School to train on-air and engineering staff.

The IBA’s approach to regulation was more robust than its successors, and it assumed the ultimate role of the broadcaster (whereas today, TV licensees are termed „broadcasters in their own right“). The IBA took a very „hands-on“ approach and placed the interests of the viewer before anything else. For example, if two ITV licensees wanted to merge, or another wanted to change its broadcast name, this would require approval by the IBA. This direct approach extended to programmes also; the IBA could (and did) place limits on how many soap episodes could be shown per week, if they believed programme quality would be compromised.

As well as setting guidelines on advertising content, quantity and timings, the IBA also operated monitoring systems for the quality of programme content and the technical quality of programme play-out.

There were also limits on the value of prizes that could be given away – this dated from the broadcast of the UK version of Twenty One in 1958 in which a contestant won enough money to buy both a car and a house. In 1960, two years after the scandal in America replica football jerseys, the IBA’s predecessor (the ITA) imposed a £1,000 cap on the value of prizes that would remain until 1993 (the cap was increased from £1,000 to £6,000 in 1981). British versions of popular American quiz shows had to be adjusted – The $64,000 Question having a maximum prize initially of 64,000 sixpences (£1,600) in the late 1950s, and in the early 1990s of just £6,400. „The Six Thousand Four Hundred Pound Question“ was only asked every other week so as not to break the regulatory £3,200/week maximum.

For several years until July 1990 the IBA put out a short weekly programme under the title Engineering Announcements, transmitted outside normal programme hours, and not otherwise advertised. These provided valuable technical information for members of the radio and television trade.

Regional programming on ITV was a major concern for the IBA, particularly in the 1980 franchise round. The IBA was determined each franchise provided the best possible local service, so the South of England transmission region was split in two, with the successful applicant required to provide separate news services for the South and South East, while in the Midlands ATV’s commitment to regional output in the Midlands had been a long-running issue for the IBA; in 1980, they were allowed to keep their franchise, but with several tough conditions.

The Experimental and Development Department, as part of the IBA’s Engineering Division, was responsible for much leading edge research into broadcasting technology as well as being responsible for the design and manufacture of specialist equipment that could not be procured from commercial manufacturers. In particular, the IBA’s E&D Department developed SABRE (Steerable Adaptable Broadcast Receiving Equipment) that enabled mainland broadcast television channels to be received for re-broadcasting in the Channel Islands. During the early 1980s, the E&D Department designed and manufactured the specialised broadcast receiving and monitoring equipment used to build the national broadcast network for Channel Four. Subsequently, E&D’s engineers proposed a system of analogue television encoding known as MAC (Multiplexed Analogue Component) to provide a standard for the forthcoming satellite television broadcasts that was more robust than an extension of the existing PAL system used for terrestrial broadcasts. E&D’s engineers also designed and built some of the first digital audio equipment for satellite broadcasting including systems using data packets. E&D’s engineers made many important contributions to digital television data-rate reduction whereby the encoding of a standard analogue PAL colour signal requiring some 130 Megabits/second has been reduced to less than 4 Megabits/second as used on current digital television broadcasting.

In the late 1980s the IBA was appointed as regulator and transmitter operator for the first DBS (Direct Broadcasting by Satellite) service for the UK and awarded the franchise to BSB (British Satellite Broadcasting). In advance of this, the rival Sky Television plc was able to launch an analogue service from Luxembourg regulated satellites. After around a year, the company merged with BSB.

The IBA was disbanded as part of the Broadcasting Act 1990, being replaced on New Year’s Day 1991 by the Independent Television Commission (ITC) (which also absorbed the Cable Authority), and the Radio Authority (RAu), which have since been merged with other regulators such as Broadcasting Standards Commission (BSC) and Oftel (Office of Telecommunications) to form one regulator, Ofcom. All of the IBA’s engineering function, except for a limited number of Quality Control engineers, was transferred to a newly set-up private company best running hydration backpack, National Transcommunications Limited (NTL), which continued to run the former IBA transmitter masts retro football shirts cheap. These assets are now within the portfolio operated by Arqiva. In 2008 the IBA’s extensive archive was lodged with the University of Bournemouth.

The IBA’s Membership of the European Broadcasting Union was passed to United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting (UKIB).

Such was the sense of purpose and camaraderie amongst former employees of the IBA that they still meet up for an annual reunion, the most recent event[when?] boasting an attendance of over fifty.

The Engineering staff of the IBA contributed many papers to international standards groups and conferences over many years. The IBA also operated an Engineering Information service in support of the receiver industry and the general public offering information and advice about the transmitter networks and reception issues. Its lasting legacy is a set of IBA Technical Reviews published over a period of 16 years from 1972 to 1988. The complete set of these Reviews as well as some other documents and records is available for free download.

The reviews were primarily written by the technical staff of the IBA but some articles were written by others from the Independent Television companies and by external specialists. The first volume was published in September 1972 when the Engineering Division was located in Brompton Road, London prior to its move to Crawley Court near Winchester in 1973. Other members of the Division manned the transmitting stations and maintenance bases spread across the UK. The series ended with the 24th volume published in November 1988. One reason for the termination of the publications was the abolition of the IBA in 1990 and the subsequent privatisation of the Engineering activities as National Transcommunications Limited [NTL]; the government white paper proposing this was published in the autumn of 1988.

These Reviews are valuable in recording the activities of the various Departments of the Division during a period of considerable change in broadcasting. IBA staff members were active not only in designing, building and operating transmitter networks they also made significant contributions to new digital broadcasting standards and their implementation. The laboratories of the IBA were in the forefront of the development of digital television technology, as can be seen in some of the reviews but, after the abolition of the IBA, NTL continued to contribute significantly to the development and implementation of the successor technology that underlies modern Freeview transmissions.

Copyright in these documents originally vested in the IBA spill proof water bottle with straw. On its abolition, its assets were distributed between the Independent Television Commission [ITC] and NTL, each of which has subsequently been absorbed by other bodies. The ITC was absorbed by OfCom and the original NTL has evolved into an independent company, Arqiva. The copyright is now vested in OfCom.

Notable IBA locations included:

Notable ex-IBA Employees include: John Whitney (Director General 1982-89), Gareth Mitchell, Julian Prictoe, Nic Robertson

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