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The More You Ignore Me, the Closer I Get

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

The More You Ignore Me, the Closer I Get è un brano del cantante inglese Morrissey.

Primo singolo estratto dall’album Vauxhall and I, il disco venne pubblicato il 28 febbraio del 1994 dalla Parlophone e raggiunse la posizione numero 8 della UK Singles Chart e la numero uno della Modern Rock Tracks, la classifica della rivista statunitense Billboard.

«Circa una volta ogni nove anni ho la sensazione che è più importante avere il corpo di qualcuno piuttosto che la loro amicizia. Una volta che hai il loro spirito, poi vuoi anche il loro corpo. Beh, questo non ha mai funzionato per me. Ma avevo una sorta di saggezza galoppante quando ho scritto quella canzone.»

Scritto in collaborazione con Boz Boorer e registrato nell’estate del 1993, il disco vide per la prima volta la presenza di Steve Lillywhite in qualità di produttore, in un lavoro di Morrissey.

La copertina ritrae una foto del cantante, realizzata da Linder Sterling. Il videoclip promozionale, diretto da Mark Romanek, è stato realizzato utilizzando immagini di Morrissey che interpreta il brano in un corridoio, tra lampade penzolanti e con foto di David Baxter attaccate alle pareti e tratte dall’autobiografia di Terence Stamp, dal titolo Coming Attraction. L’attrice-bambina che compare nel video è la figlia di Boz Boorer, chitarrista della band.

Anthony Allen Shore

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Anthony Allen Shore, né le à Rapid City (Dakota du Sud) et mort le à Huntsville Unit (Texas), est un tueur en série américain reconnu coupable de meurtres et pédophilie.

Ce père de famille, présenté comme particulièrement doué en musique, a avoué avoir tué une fillette, deux adolescentes et une femme d’origine hispanique sur une décennie. D’autres femmes ont relaté qu’il les avait violées. Il a opéré de 1986 à 2000, et était connu comme le « Tourniquet Killer » en raison de son utilisation d’une ligature avec une brosse à dents ou un bâton de bambou pour serrer ou desserrer la ligature. L’instrument était semblable à un mors, un outil utilisé par les agriculteurs et les cavaliers pour contrôler les chevaux.

Il est exécuté le par injection létale dans la prison d’Huntsville Unit dans le Texas.

Ses parents étaient tous les deux militaires et il est né dans le Dakota du Sud où son père était en poste. Suite à l’engagement de ses parents dans l’armée, la famille Shore déménagea à neuf reprises avant qu’il entre au lycée. Il a deux sœurs. Il s’est marié et a eu deux filles, Tiffany et Ambre, mais plus tard divorcé, il perdra la garde de ses deux jeunes filles. Il se mariera ensuite une nouvelle fois et divorcera de nouveau.

L’arrestation de l’homme à la vie apparemment bien rangée, travaillant, élevant ses filles et jouant dans des clubs de jazz, est intervenue huit ans après son dernier crime connu, le meurtre en 1995 d’une adolescente de 16 ans, Dana Sanchez. Il a été confondu par des analyses ADN.

Âgée de 14 ans et tuée le 26 septembre 1986, elle est sa première victime connue. Elle se rendait à son école à Houston quand il l’a attaquée. Après avoir essayé de l’agresser sexuellement, il l’a étranglée puis a jeté son corps derrière un restaurant mexicain.

Âgée de 21 ans, elle a été assassinée le 16 avril 1992 : après l’avoir agressée sexuellement il l’a étranglée. C’était une immigrante mexicaine qui travaillait comme garde d’enfant. Le 16 avril 1992, son corps à moitié nu a été retrouvé à l’arrière d’un Dairy Queen.

Le 19 octobre 1993, il est entré dans la maison de la jeune fille, âgée de 14 ans, puis l’a attachée et l’a agressée sexuellement ; il ne l’a pas tuée cependant et a préféré s’enfuir à pied.

Âgée de 9 ans, elle a été tuée le 8 aout 1994 : il l’a rouée de coups, agressée sexuellement et étranglée. Elle vivait à Houston dans le quartier surnommé The Heights, à l’avant d’un petit duplex. Le jour de sa mort, on l’avait aperçue dans une épicerie locale. Les employés l’ont vue quitter le magasin en toute sécurité, mais jamais elle n’est rentrée chez elle. On a retrouvé son corps le lendemain sur un quai de chargement derrière un bâtiment. Une piste a été donnée à la police par un voisin qui a fourni la description d’une fourgonnette qui fréquentait l’endroit. On a relié son affaire à celle de Maria del Carmen Estrada en raison du mode opératoire du tueur : autour du cou de la victime on a trouvé une corde munie d’un bâton de bambou.

Dana Sanchez, 16 ans, a été tuée le 6 juillet 1995. Il lui avait proposé de lui faire faire une promenade dans sa camionnette. Comme elle résistait à ses avances il l’a étranglée. Sept jours plus tard, par un appel téléphonique anonyme à une chaine d’informations locale, il a lui-même dirigé la police vers le corps dans un champ du comté de Harris.

The Road of Bones

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The Road of Bones is a 2006 young adult novel written by Anne Fine. It was shortlisted for the 2007 Carnegie Medal. The judges described it as being „incredibly well-written“ and having „political resonance for young people“.

The story is set in Stalinist Russia, a totalitarian state with prison camps in the icy north. The author has said that it was inspired by Anne Applebaum’s Gulag.

The story centres on a Russian boy named Yuri who in school is taught that the revolution liberated his country, and that the new leaders are always working for greater good. But the life for his family and people around him is full of poverty and misery, and the government only punishes those who protest. And one day Yuri is considered an ‚enemy of the state‘ for saying a few careless words, and is sent to a camp in the frozen wastelands of Siberia.

Reviewers commented on the power and intelligence of the book while noting its appropriate bleakness. The Scotsman rated it „without doubt one of the top novels of the year“ and the Sunday Times reviewer wrote: „This ambitious book is a rare achievement… This book is subtle, stimulating and morally complex, but it is also evocative and convincing: we feel keenly the chill of both soulless hegemony and its frozen wastes“.

Spaniens flag

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Spaniens flag består af tre vandrette striber i farverne rød-gul-rød, hvor den midterste gule stribe er dobbelt så bred som de røde. Spaniens rigsvåben er afbildet på den gule stribe, mens flaget uden rigsvåbnet benyttes som en variant både på land og som koffardiflag til søs.

Rød og gul blev første gang indført som flag til brug til søs i 1785. Farverne er hentet fra Kastiliens våben: Et gult slot på rød bund samt Aragonien: Fire røde striber på gult. Flaget i sin nuværende form blev reguleret ved lov af 19. december 1981.

De første „spanske“ flag var middelalderfaner og våbenskjolde, som nu er samlet i det spanske våbenskjold:

Aragoniens flag/fane har fire røde striber på en gylden baggrund. Der er mange teorier om, hvor det stammer fra, og hvornår det begyndte at blive brugt. Man mener, at det var Ramón Berenguer IV, der introducerede det i 1150, hvori de fire røde striber symboliserer de fire kongeriger, der udgør Kongeriget Aragonien (Katalonien, Aragonien, Valencia og De Baleariske Øer). Det er det ældste heraldiske symbol i verden sammen med Leóns løve. En legende siger, at våbenskjoldet stammer fra Wilfred den Behåredes (Barcelonas første selvstændige greve, ?-897) tid. Under et slag ved Generobringen blev Wilfred dødeligt såret, så han fik hentet et gyldent skjold for at bestemme, hvordan grevskabets våbenskjold skulle se ud. Han døde lige før, så Karl den Skaldede tog hans blodbesudlede hånd og malede fire røde striber med Wilfreds fingre på skjoldet.

Kastiliens flag/fane er et gyldent slot på rød baggrund. Slottet er sat i forbindelse med navnet Castilla (gamle Bardulia), som på oldkastiliansk betyder „Slottenes Land“. Man ved ikke præcist, hvornår det begyndte at blive brugt. Mange mener, at da Fernán González gjorde Kastilien til et selvstændigt grevskab i 931, begyndte flaget at bruges, selvom mange historikere mener, at korset var det officielle flag. Alligevel er det først med Alfonso VIII i 1212, at historikerne bliver enige om flagets officielle brug. Flaget blev sat sammen med Kongeriget Leóns flag i 1230, da disse to riger blev forenet under Fernando III den Helliges styre.

Leóns flag/fane er en kronet, violet løve på en hvid (nogle gange sølv) baggrund. León betyder løve på kastiliansk (officielle spanske sprog), så betydningen af løven på flaget siger jo sig selv, selvom der er uenighed om, hvorvidt løven repræsenterede kongens styrke eller kongeriget i sig selv. Leóns løve er det ældste symbol for et kongerige i Europa, endda før Danmarks tre løver (1190). Man har for første gang kendskab til dens eksistens i Leóns faner ved Alfonso VII, kejserens tid (1126-1157). |}

Navarras flag/fane stammer ifølge traditionen fra Slaget ved Las Navas de Tolosa (1212), hvor kong Sancho VII (Richard Løvehjertes svoger) af Navarra efter kaliffen Muhammad an-Nasir’s tilbagetogt nåede hen til kaliffens telt, hvor hans mænd tog kamelernes kæder (med ædelsten, som man kan se på smaragden i midten i den nyere version) med hjem til Pamplona. Dér viste de dem frem på et hvidt klæde, som efter sigende var blevet rødt af maurisk blod, til minde om sejren. Nyere forskning viser, at det kommer fra Theodobalds segl, hvor kongen rider på en hest med et skjold, som viser jernforstærkninger på kors, på tværs og på randen af skjoldet. Efter dette er sagnet dukket op.

Granadas flag/fane er et granatæble på en hvid (nogle gange sølv) baggrund og blev for første gang brugt af Henrik IV af Kastilien i hans personlige våbenskjold under mottoet: At regere er sursødt. Senere hen ville det blive brugt af De Katolske Monarker (Henrik IV var Isabella I’s bror) som Granadas nye våbenskjold og flag i modsætning til de gyldne mauriske ord i rød baggrund i det gamle flag.

Da Spanien blev forenet under De Katolske Monarker, blev Spaniens første officielle flag lavet. Det blev brugt under De Katolske Monarkers styre og deres datter Juana I. Det bestod af Kastilien og Leóns flag øverst til venstre og nederst til højre på skjoldet og Aragoniens flag sammen med Begge Siciliers flag øverst til højre og nederst til venstre. Begge Siciliers blev indsat i flaget, eftersom Fernando krævede dette rige, som Spanien til sidst fik. Navarras flag er ikke med, eftersom dette rige ikke blev erobret før år 1512.

I 1506 kommer et nyt flag forBurgund. Korset var Filip I’s livgardes flag. Lidt efter lidt begyndte dette flag at blive brugt som Spaniens militære og koffardiflag. Under Karl I blev flaget officielt det Spanske Imperiums flag. Fra 1785 til 1927 førte Spanien et koffardiflag, som adskiller sig fra flaget, som vi kender det i dag. Flagdugen var da gul og havde to smalle røde striber et stykke fra øvre og nedre kant af flagdugen. Koffardiflaget i denne form blev indført ved dekret af 28. maj 1785 og blev først erstattet af flaget, vi kender i dag ved kongelig forordning af 14. juli 1927.

I tiden efter 1785 fungerede flaget med røde striber helt ud til yderkanterne og med datidens rigsvåben i den gule stribe som Spaniens orlogsflag. Fra 1843 til 1931 var dette også Spaniens statsflag på land og til søs. Flagene blev ændret i forbindelse med Spaniens overgang til republik i 1931, men genindført i modificeret form efter borgerkrigen og republikkens fald i 1936.

Under den anden spanske republik fra 1931 til 1939 blev den nedre, røde stribe erstattet af en stribe i lilla farve. Samtidig blev striberne gjort lige brede. Denne variant af flaget blev benyttet både som koffardiflag og, med tillæg af republikkens rigsvåben, som statsflag og orlogsflag. Disse flag blev afskaffet, da republikken led nederlag til nationalisterne i den spanske borgerkrig. Flaget bliver stadigvæk brugt af de spanske republikanere, selvom der er uenighed mellem dem. De højreorienterede republikanere plejer at satse på det samme flag, bare med den lilla farve i rødt ligesom den nuværende, men med den samme bredde og med det republikanske våbenskjold. Dette flag blev brugt under Den Første Spanske Republik.

Det spanske søværn benytter en forenklet form af rigsvåbnet som orlogsgøs. Her vises felterne for Kastilien, Leon, Aragonien og Navarra. Gøsen er kvadratisk.

Spaniens kongeflag er blåt og har det kongelige våben i midten. Våbnet er omgivet af det Det Gyldne Skinds orden.

En serie særflag dannes ved tillæg af emblemer i flagets frie ende. Således bærer det spanske toldflag bogstavene HH med kroner over. Postflaget har bogstaverne CM. Ambulanceskibe har et hvidt malteserkors i midten. Lystfartøjer fører en stor, blå krone i den gule stribe.

Сид (Final Fantasy)

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Сид (яп. シド Сидо) — персонаж, появляющийся почти во всех видеоиграх серии Final Fantasy. Обычно его роль заключается в предоставлении героям средства передвижения (чаще всего в виде воздушного корабля) по ходу игры. Сид обычно представлен как инженер или учёный. Во второй игре серии он дружит с женщиной по имени Хильда, и имеет близкие отношения с женщинами с таким же именем в девятой и одиннадцатой частях. В пятой части игры у него есть внук по имени Мид. Создатели игры сказали, что Сид является аналогом Йоды для мира Final Fantasy, направляя героев по ходу их путешествия.

В этой игре Сид не упоминался, однако в позднейших переизданиях — Final Fantasy Origins для PS1 и Final Fantasy I&II: Dawn of Souls он упоминается как создатель единственного в мире воздушного корабля, живший за несколько столетий до событий игры. Также присутствует в играх Dissidia: Final Fantasy и Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy.

Сид — изобретатель воздушного корабля. Эту идею взяла на вооружение Паламецийская Империя и создала свой воздушный флот, включая гигантский летающий Дредноут. Сам Сид жил в деревушке Пофт (Poft) и на собственном кораблике оказывал услуги «воздушного такси», естественно, не бесплатно. Сид же придумал план, как уничтожить Дредноут. Сид погиб в вызванном Императором смерче, но перед смертью завещал свой корабль повстанцам.

Сид Хейз (Haze) — изобретатель с Парящего Континента, создатель воздушных кораблей. Он был пойман в ловушку Джинна в деревне Казус (Kazus) и превратился в привидение. Героям помогает в благодарность за своё спасение и исцеление его больной жены.

Сид Поллендина (Pollendina) — игровой персонаж, механик и изобретатель (включая воздушный корабль Энтерпрайз (Enterprize)), жил вместе со своей дочерью в королевстве Барон (Baron). Конструировал боевые воздушные корабли для королевского флота. Друг главного героя — Сесила, за попытку его защитить перед лицом лжекороля был посажен в тюрьму, но был освобожден героями. При попытке прорваться в Подземелье прыгнул в ведущий вниз кратер верхом на бомбе. Каким-то образом выжил и восстановил для героев древний воздушный корабль Сокол (Falcon), а затем модернизировал его. В Final Fantasy IV After Years у него есть внук Мид.

Сид Превия (Previa) — учёный и изобретатель из города Карнак (Karnak). Создал корабль-Огнеход (Fire Ship). Был обвинен в разрушении кристалла и посажен в тюрьму, выбрался оттуда с помощью героев. У него есть внук Мид, тоже изобретатель. Вместе они восстанавливают древний воздушный корабль, поднятый со дна океана.

Сид дель Норте Маргес (Cid del Norte Marguez) — учёный из Империи. Он изучал древних существ — Эсперов и открыл возможность использовать их силы в машинах — так появились Магитеки (Magitek). Сам Сид по наивности не представлял, для чего используется его работа, и продолжал конструировать оружие для Империи. Близок имперскому генералу Селес Шер, она называла его ‚дедушкой‘. После конца света, в Мире Руин, Сид жил в домике на островке и заботился о Селес. От действий игрока зависит, умрет ли заболевший Сид или останется в живых.

Сид Хайвинд (Highwind) — игровой персонаж, инженер из Ракетного Города (Rocket Town). Постоянно курит и крайне невоздержан на язык. Работал на компанию Шин-Ра, построил для неё воздушный корабль Хайвинд (Highwind). Должен был стать первым космонавтом и отправиться в космос на ракете Shinra No.26, однако сам расстроил пуск, спасая свою бывшую невесту Шеру (Shera). Построил самолет Тайни Бронко (Tiny Bronco). Герои и президент компании Шин-Ра одновременно пытаются одолжить у него самолет, после чего ‚Тайни Бронко‘ превращается в водоплавающее транспортное средство. После угона воздушного корабля Сид возглавляет его команду. Сид Хайвинд также присутствует в Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII и в играх серии Kingdom Hearts.

Сид Крамер (Kramer) — директор военной академии Сад Баламб (Balamb Garden), тихий, мягкий и довольно плохо приспособленный к этой должности человек. Муж колдуньи Эдеи и её рыцарь. Вместе они содержали приют, а потом создали Сады на деньги Магистра НОРГа (Magister NORG). До того момента, когда Ультимеция оставляет тело Эдеи, Сид и его жена находятся по разные стороны баррикад. После неудачной попытки убийства Эдеи НОРГ пытается устроить в Саду переворот, приказав курсантам убить Сида; однако герои защищают его. В конце концов Сид уходит на покой и уединяется с Эдеей в бывшем приюте, оставив управление Садом главному герою.

Сид Фабул IX (Fabool) — правитель (регент) города-государства Линдблюм (Lindblum). Сын регента Сида Фабула VIII, создателя воздушных кораблей, работающих на Мгле (Mist) — впрочем, и сам гениальный изобретатель и создает паровой воздушный корабль Хильда Гарде (Hilda Garde). В ходе игры претерпевает удивительные метаморфозы: его жена Хильда в приступе ревности превратила его в жука-оглопа (oglop) и сбежала на экспериментальной модели корабля. При попытке героев снять проклятие Сид превращается в лягушку. Только под конец игры он возвращается в человеческий облик.

Сид из FFX принадлежит к расе Аль-Бжед (и является их лидером), которые в отличие от всех остальных рас в мире Спира, пытаются спасти этот самый мир от монстра Sin’a (грех) не при помощи магии, а при помощи техники. После атаки Евона на Дом Аль-Бжедцев, Сид вместе с командой покидает место аварии на Воздушном корабле (Airship). Так же, он является отцом Рикку и дядей Юны.

В Final Fantasy XI Сид — главный инженер республики Басток, но является создателем воздушных кораблей и играет важную роль в игровых миссиях и квестах.

Учёный, изучающий силу кристалла Nethicite (Нефицит). После поездки Сида в Гирувеган, Венат — представитель божественной расы Оккурия, захватил его тело, Сид стал злым и одержимым исследованием кристаллов. Впоследствии начал помогать Вэйну в разработке искусственного кристалла. Данный Сид является первым в серии антагонистом среди Сидов.

Сид Рэйнес (Raines) — бригадный генерал армии Санктума, который в глубине души не доверяет своему правительству. Сид Рэйнес является самым молодым из всех Сидов в основной серии игр Final Fantasy.

Сид Софьяр вместе со своей внучкой Сидни владеет гаражом Хаммерхэд.

Граф Сидольфас Орландо (count Cidolfas Orlandu), он же Громовик Сид (T.G.Cid — Thundergod Cid) — правитель графства Зельтения (Zeltennia), глава рыцарского ордена Нантен (Nanten) и сам могучий рыцарь. Возглавлял в Войне Львов армию принца Голтаны. Из-за интриг Делиты был обвинен в заговоре против сюзерена, был спасен из тюрьмы героями и присоединился к ним.

Верховный Судья Сид Рэнделл (Cid Randell), в реальном мире — отец Мьюта (Mewt), неудачник, после смерти жены пребывающий в постоянной депрессии. Однако в Ивалисе он превращается в Верховного Судью (Judgemaster), самого сильного воина в стране, пользуется огромным влиянием и ставит закон превыше всего, даже выше жизней своего сына и «жены» — королевы Ремеди. Его можно заполучить в отряд, выполнив все 300 квестов.

Союзник главного героя. Именно он нашёл его в лесу после перемещения в этот мир.

Доктор Сид (Doctor Sid) — гениальный учёный, открывший возможность использования био-энергии. Именно благодаря его открытиям в фильме действуют энергопаки, лучевое оружие и силовые щиты вокруг городов. По традиции он входил в совет Барьерного Города Нью-Йорк, но там его недолюбливали из-за увлечения Сида теорией Геи. Сид создал проект по избавлению Земли от фантомов через сбор духов, в чём ему помогала его ученица Аки Росс.

Молодой изобретатель внутреннего мира, который когда-то создал Поезд, куски этого самого мира объединивший. В настоящее время работает с повстанцами и о своём прошлом не говорит.

Orientalism in early modern France

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Orientalism in early modern France refers to the interaction of pre-modern France with the Orient, and especially the cultural, scientific, artistic and intellectual impact of these interactions, ranging from the academic field of Oriental studies to Orientalism in fashions in the decorative arts.

The first attempts to study oriental languages were made by the Church in Rome, with the establishment of the Studia Linguarum in order to help the Dominicans liberate Christian captives in Islamic lands. The first school was established in Tunis by Raymond Penaforte in the 12th and early 13th century. In 1311, the Council of Vienne decided to create schools for the study of oriental languages in the universities of Paris, Bologna, Oxford, Salamanca and Rome.

From the 16th century, the study of oriental languages and cultures was progressively transferred from religious to royal patronage, as Francis I sought an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman embassies soon visited France, one in 1533, and another the following year.

Guillaume Postel became the first French Orientalist after 1536, when he went to Constantinople as a member of the 12-strong French embassy of Jean de La Forêt to the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Postel brought back numerous books in Arabic, either religious or scientific in content (mainly mathematics and medicine), to France.

Scientific exchange is thought to have occurred, as numerous works in Arabic, especially pertaining to astronomy were brought back, annotated and studied by Postel. Transmission of scientific knowledge, such as the Tusi-couple, may have occurred on such occasions, at the time when Copernicus was establishing his own astronomical theories.

Guillaume Postel envisioned a world where Muslims, Christians and Jews would be united in harmony under one rule, a message he developed two decades before the Universalist Jean Bodin. He claimed that Islam was only a branch of Christianity, a simple heresy that could be reintegrated into Christianity, in his book Alcorani seu legis Mahometi et evangelistarum concordiae liber (1543).

Postel also studied languages and sought to identify the common origin of all languages, before Babel. He became Professor of Mathematics and Oriental Languages, as well as the first professor of Arabic, at the Collège royal.

In 1547, a second embassy was sent by the French king to the Ottoman Empire, led by Gabriel de Luetz. The embassy included numerous scientists, such as the botanist Pierre Belon, naturalist Pierre Gilles d’Albi, the future cosmographer André Thévet, philosopher Guillaume Postel, traveler Nicolas de Nicolay, or the cleric and diplomat Jean de Monluc, who would publish their findings upon their return to France and contribute greatly to the early development of science in France.

Knowledge of the Ottoman Empire allowed French philosophers to make comparative studies between the political systems of different nations. Jean Bodin, one of the first such theorists, declared his admiration for the power and administrative system of the Ottoman Empire. He presented as a model Turkish frugality, the Ottoman system of punishments for looting, and promotion on merit in the Janissaries. Such views would be echoed by 18th century comparative works such as L’Espion Turc or the Lettres persanes.

French novels and tragedies were written with the Ottoman Empire as a theme or background. In 1561, Gabriel Bounin published La Soltane, a tragedy highlighting the role of Roxelane in the 1553 execution of Mustapha, the elder son of Suleiman. This tragedy marks the first time the Ottomans were introduced on stage in France. Turquerie and chinoiserie were notable fashions that affected a wide range of the decorative arts.

Oriental studies continued to take place towards the end of the 16th century, especially with the work of Savary de Brèves, also former French ambassador in Constantinople. Brèves spoke Turkish and Arabic and was famed for his knowledge of Ottoman culture. Through his efforts, Capitulations were signed between Henry IV of France and Sultan Ahmed I on 20 May 1604, giving a marked advantage for French trade, against that of the English and the Venetians. In these capitulations, the protection of the French king over Jerusalem and the Holy Land is also recognized. Brèves was interested in establishing an Arabic printing press under his own account in order to introduce Oriental studies in France. He had Arabic, Turk, Persian and Syriac types cast while in Istanbul. He also brought to France a large collection of Oriental manuscripts. These excellent types, followed those of Guillaume Le Bé at the end of the 16th century.

While in Rome he set up a publishing house, the Typographia Savariana, through which he printed a Latin-Arab bilingual edition of a catechism of Cardinal Bellarmino in 1613, as well as in 1614 an Arabic version of the Book of Psalms. For the editorial work and the translations, Brèves used the services of two Lebanese Maronite priests, former students of the Maronite College, Gabriel Sionita (Jibrā’īl aṣ-Ṣahyūnī) and Victor Scialac (Naṣrallāh Shalaq al-‚Āqūrī).

In 1610–11, Al-Hajari, a Moroccan envoy to France, met with the Orientalist Thomas Erpenius in September 1611 in Paris, and taught him some Classical Arabic. Through the introduction of Erpenius, Al-Hajari also met with the French Arabist Étienne Hubert d’Orléans, who had been a court physician for Moroccan ruler Ahmad al-Mansur in Marrakech from 1598 to 1601.

A protégé of Savary de Brèves, André du Ryer published the first ever translation of the Qur’an in a vernacular language, L’Alcoran de Mahomet (1647), and published in the West the first piece of Persian literature Gulistan (1634).

According to McCabe, Orientalism played a key role „in the birth of science and in the creation of the French Academy of Sciences“.

France started to set up numerous consulates throughout the Ottoman realm, in Tripoli, Beirut, Alexandria, and Chios. Intense trade also started to develop, centered on the city of Marseille, called „the door of the Orient“. In Egypt, French trade was paramount, and Marseille was importing in large quantities linens, carpets, dyes, hides, leather, or waxes. In 1682, the Sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail, following the embassy of Mohammed Tenim, allowed consular and commercial establishments, and again in 1699 ambassador Abdallah bin Aisha was sent to Louis XIV.

An Ottoman embassy was sent to Louis XIII in 1607, and from Mehmed IV to Louis XIV in 1669 in the person of ambassador Müteferrika Süleyman Ağa, who created a sensation at the French court and triggered a fashion for things Turkish. The Orient came to have a strong influence in French literature, as about 50% of French travel guides in the 16th century were dedicated to the Ottoman Empire. In Paris, Suleiman set up a beautiful house where he offered coffee to Parisian society, with waiters dressed in Ottoman style, triggering enthusiastic responses, and starting the fashion for coffee-drinking. Fashionable coffee-shops emerged such as the famous Café Procope, the first coffee-shop of Paris, in 1689. In the French high society wearing turbans and caftans became fashionable, as well as lying on rugs and cushions.

The establishment of strong diplomatic and commercial relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Capitulations led to French money being drained to the Levant and Persia for the purchase of luxury goods such as knotted-pile carpets. Due to these concerns, and also because French luxury arts had collapsed in the disorders of civil violence in the Wars of Religion, Henri IV attempted to develop French luxury industries that could replace imports. The king provided craftsmen with studios and workshops. These efforts to develop an industry for luxury goods was continued by Louis XIII and Louis XIV.

Henry IV made the earliest attempt at producing substitutes for luxury goods from the Orient. He experimented with planting mulberry trees in the garden of the Palais des Tuileries. Ultimately, silk manufacturing would become one of the major industries of France into the 19th century, and one of the major reasons for the development of France-Japan relations in the 19th century.

During the 17th century, from being an importer, France became a net exporter of silk, for example shipping 30,000 pounds sterling worth of silk to England in 1674 alone.

The Savonnerie manufactory was the most prestigious European manufactory of knotted-pile carpets, enjoying its greatest period circa 1650–1685. The manufactory had its immediate origins in a carpet manufactory established in a former soap factory (French savon) on the Quai de Chaillot downstream of Paris in 1615 by Pierre DuPont, who was returning from the Levant and wrote La Stromatourgie, ou Traité de la Fabrication des tapis de Turquie („Treaty on the manufacture of Turkish carpets“, Paris 1632). Under a patent (privilège) of eighteen years, a monopoly was granted by Louis XIII in 1627 to Pierre Dupont and his former apprentice Simon Lourdet, makers of carpets façon de Turquie („in the manner of Turkey“). Until 1768, the products of the manufactory remained exclusively the property of the Crown, and „Savonnerie carpets“ were among the grandest of French diplomatic gifts.

Chinese porcelain had long been imported from China, and was a very expensive and desired luxury. Huge amounts of gold were sent from Europe to China to pay for the desired Chinese porcelain wares, and numerous attempts were made to duplicate the material. It is at the Nevers manufactory that Chinese-style blue and white wares were produced for the first time in France, using the faience technique, with production running between 1650 and 1680.

Chinese porcelain was collected at the French court from the time of Francis I. Colbert set up the Royal Factory of Saint-Cloud in 1664 in order to make copies (In the original „Contre-façons“, i.e. „Fakes“) of „Indian-style“ porcelain.

France was one of the first European countries to produce soft-paste porcelain, and specifically frit porcelain, at the Rouen manufactory in 1673, which was known for this reason as „Porcelaine française“. These were developed in an effort to imitate high-valued Chinese hard-paste porcelain.

France however, only discovered the Chinese technique of hard-paste porcelain through the efforts of the Jesuit Father Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles between 1712 and 1722. Louis XIV had received 1,500 pieces of porcelain from the Siamese Embassy to France in 1686, but the manufacturing secret had remained elusive. The English porcelain-manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood may also have been influenced by the letter of Father d’Entrecolles and his description of Chinese mass-production methods. After this initial period, until the end of the 18th century, French porcelain manufactories would progressively abandon their Chinese designs, to become more French in character.

The Siamese Embassy to France in 1686 had brought to the Court samples of multicolor Thai Ikat textiles. These were enthusiastically adopted by the French nobility to become Toiles flammées or Siamoises de Rouen, often with checkered blue-and-white designs. After the French Revolution and its dislike for foreign luxury, the textiles were named „Toiles des Charentes“ or cottons of Provence.

Textiles imported from India, types of colored calicoes which were called Indiennes, were also widely adopted and manufactured, especially in Marseille, although there were difficulties in obtaining comparable dyes, especially the red dye madder.

French literature also was greatly influenced. The first French version of One Thousand and One Nights was published in 1704. French authors used the East as a way to enrich their philosophical work, and a pretext to write commentaries on the West: Montesquieu wrote the Lettres persanes, a satirical essay on the West, in 1721, and Voltaire used the Oriental appeal to write Zaïre (1732) and Candide (1759). French travelers of the 17th century, such as Jean de Thévenot or Jean-Baptiste Tavernier routinely visited the Ottoman Empire.

By that time, the Confucian canon had already been translated into Latin by Jesuit missionaries to China’s Ming and Qing Empires. Michele Ruggieri’s work in the 1580s remained long unpublished but Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault’s work On the Christian Expedition… (Augsburg, 1615), Philippe Couplet and others‘ Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese (Paris, 1687), François Noël’s Six Classics of the Chinese Empire (Prague, 1711), and Jean-Baptiste Du Halde’s Description of China (Paris, 1735) all spoke in glowing terms of the moral and cultural achievements of the Chinese, supposedly reached through the use of reason. It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment.

In particular, cultural diversity with respect to religious beliefs could no longer be ignored. As Herbert wrote in On Lay Religion (De Religione Laici, 1645):

Many faiths or religions, clearly, exist or once existed in various countries and ages, and certainly there is not one of them that the lawgivers have not pronounced to be as it were divinely ordained, so that the Wayfarer finds one in Europe, another in Africa, and in Asia, still another in the very Indies.

Starting with Grosrichard, analogies were also made between the harem, the Sultan’s court, oriental despotism, luxury, gems and spices, carpets, and silk cushions with the luxury and vices of France’s own monarchy.

By the end of the 17th century, the first major defeats of the Ottoman Empire reduced the perceived threat in European minds, which led to an artistic craze for things Turkish, Turquerie, just as there was a fashion for Chinese things with Chinoiserie, both of which became constitutive components of the Rococo style. Orientalism started to become hugely popular, first with the works of Jean-Baptiste van Mour, who had accompanied the embassy of Charles de Ferriol to Istanbul 1699 and stayed there until the end of his life in 1737, and later with the works of Boucher and Fragonard.

According to historian McCabe, early orientalism profoundly shaped French culture and gave it many of its modern characteristics. In the area of science, she stressed „the role of Orientalism in the birth of science and in the creation of the French Academy of Science“. In the artistic area, referring to Louis XIV’s fashion efforts that contrasted with the contemporary fashion for austere Spanish dress: „ironically, endorsing oriental sartorial splendor at court gave rise to the creation of ‚Frenchness‘ through fashion, which became an umbrella definition that broke through the class barrier“.

Corazón (Santana album)

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Corazón is the twenty-second studio album (thirty-seventh album overall) by Santana, released on May 6, 2014.

Produced by Lester Mendez, the album features collaborations with various singers like Gloria Estefan, Ziggy Marley and Cindy Blackman.

„La Flaca“ featuring Juanes, the first single from the album was released in November 2013. The album was certified double platinum in the Latin by the RIAA for shipping over 120,000 copies in the United States; furthermore, it has sold over 95,000 copies in the country according to Nielsen SoundScan.

The album received mixed to positive reviews by critics. Rolling Stone’s Will Hermes considered the album a Latin pop version of Supernatural and that its music „remains an unmistakable, undeniable sound“. Thom Jurek from AllMusic felt „Santana actually sounds hungry again“ and stated that „while some of these cuts are forgettable, his inventive engagement with Latin pop here is not only successful, but satisfying“. Billboard’s Leila Cobo considered the album to be guitar-driven despite of the many vocalists. Overall, she praised the album, but pointed a few songs that she considered not to have worked, such as „Feel It Coming Back“, in which she felt that Diego Torres struggled with the language; and „Indy“, in which Miguel’s improvisations „lack structure and tend to meander“. Jeremy Williams-Chalmers from So So Gay felt the album might „be the record that finally knocks Supernatural off its throne as Santana’s definitive release“ and considered it to be „everything a Santana record needs to be“, while joining Cobo on criticizing Torres‘ English skills. The Independent’s Nick Coleman said the album „contains a brightly recorded, punchy collection of ‚Latin‘ beats and melodies, plus some rock, featuring a handful of distinguished guests and the familiar overflying drone of Carlos’s own guitar obbligati“ and that it „is certain to be a hit in its target territories“.

Relix’s Bill Murphy considered Carlos Santana’s guitar playing in the album to be the „best he’s done in decades“ and felt that „where too many cooks may have overwhelmed Supernatural, Corazón simmers with spicy variety“. Jon Pareles, writing for The New York Times, considered the songs to be radio-aimed and described the contrast between Santana’s guitar and the guest singers vocals as follows: „The way Mr. Santana answers the lyrics and grapples for the foreground until verse and chorus gave way to full-fledged guitar solos is the audio equivalent of photobombing the lead vocal. Luckily, Mr. Santana’s guitar can be as impassioned as any singer’s voice.“ However, he considered some tracks (such as „Oye 2014“ and „Yo Soy La Luz“) to be „awkward moments“.

Writing for New York Daily News, Jim Farber was not so impressed by the album. He criticized it being promoted as a Latin pop album while having half of its lyrics in English. He also saw negatively the artists chosen for this album: „Santana’s glistening leads compete with, rather than complement, these artists. […] Latin alternative music features so many artists who would have paired better with Santana’s style. […] Wrangling artists like those would have made this album a true first“. Ultimate Guitar Archive’s team felt Santana himself had little space in some of the songs and considered the album to be „a compilation of well formulated, radio-friendly Latino pop which often times ends up sounding somewhat bizarre“. They also labeled the lyrics as „repetitive“ and concluded by saying: „The outcome which appears on […] Corazon falls short of any preset expectations. […] Considering the album’s pop-driven outcome it leaves the listener puzzled as to where Santana was hoping to proceed with this effort“.

The album was nominated for Best Contemporary Pop Vocal Album at the Latin Grammy Awards of 2014.

^shipments figures based on certification alone

Pennsylvania Route 419

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Pennsylvania Route 419 (PA 419) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The route runs from U.S. Route 322 (US 322) in West Cornwall Township, Lebanon County north to PA 183 in Bethel Township, Berks County. The route heads east from US 322 through Quentin and Cornwall to Schaefferstown, where it turns east and passes through Newmanstown. PA 419 enters Berks County and passes through Womelsdorf, where it comes to a junction with US 422. From the route, the route continues north and passes through Rehrersburg and has an interchange with Interstate 78 (I-78)/US 22 near Schubert before coming to its northern terminus. PA 419 is a two-lane undivided road its entire length and passes through rural areas. The portion of the route in Lebanon County is designated the Lebanon Cornwall Scenic Byway, a Pennsylvania Scenic Byway.

What is now PA 419 was designated as part of PA 5 between Quentin and Cornwall and part of PA 83 between Rehrersburg and north of Schubert in 1927. A year later, PA 483 was designated between US 22/PA 3 (now US 422) in Womelsdorf and PA 83 in Rehrersburg while PA 72 was designated concurrent with PA 5 between Quentin and Cornwall. US 322 replaced PA 5 in the 1930s. PA 483 was decommissioned in the 1940s. By 1960, PA 72 was shifted off the road between Quentin and Cornwall while PA 83 was moved off the road between Rehrersburg and Schubert, with US 322 removed from the road in 1963. PA 419 was designated by 1966 onto its current alignment.

PA 419 begins at an intersection with US 322 (Horseshoe Pike) in West Cornwall Township, Lebanon County, heading east on two-lane undivided Main Street. The route passes through the residential community of Quentin and comes to an intersection with PA 72 (Quentin Road). The road continues into the borough of Cornwall and becomes Freeman Drive, running through a mix of farmland and woodland with some homes. PA 419 turns to the northeast and crosses into South Lebanon Township, where the name becomes Schaeffer Road and it continues east through agricultural areas with occasional development. The route enters Heidelberg Township and passes through the community of Buffalo Springs before it passes to the north of Keller Brothers Airport. The road runs through more rural land with some homes before it reaches the community of Schaefferstown. At this point, PA 419 comes to an intersection with PA 897 (South 5th Avenue), with that route turning east to join PA 419 in a concurrency along Heidelberg Avenue. The two routes cross PA 501 and continue east through residential areas with some businesses. PA 419 splits from PA 897 by turning north onto Market Street and passes more homes before leaving Schaefferstown. The road heads northeast into farmland with some trees and homes, crossing into Millcreek Township and becoming an unnamed road. The route curves east through more agricultural land before turning northeast again and passing through the communities of Millbach Springs and Millbach. PA 419 heads into the community of Newmanstown, where it is called Main Street and is lined with homes. After leaving Newmanstown, the road comes to a bridge over Norfolk Southern’s Harrisburg Line. In Lebanon County, PA 419 is known as the Lebanon Cornwall Scenic Byway, a Pennsylvania Scenic Byway.

PA 419 enters Heidelberg Township in Berks County and heads northeast through farmland on Newmanstown Road. The route turns north and heads into the borough of Womelsdorf, where it becomes South 2nd Street and is lined with homes. PA 419 turns west onto West High Street for a block before it heads north along North 3rd Street. The route runs past residences and commercial establishments before it reaches a junction with US 422 (Conrad Weiser Parkway) in an area of businesses. Past this intersection, the road becomes Rehrersburg Road and leaves Womelsdorf for Heidelberg Township again before it crosses the Tulpehocken Creek into Marion Township. PA 419 continues through agricultural areas before it curves northwest into a mix of farmland and woodland with some homes. The road enters Tulpehocken Township and passes through the community of Host, continuing north-northwest. Near Rehrersburg, the route splits from Rehrersburg Road by turning north onto Four Point Road and heading through farmland with some trees and homes. PA 419 crosses Little Swatara Creek into Bethel Township and crosses Old Route 22 before it reaches an interchange with I-78/US 22 near a few businesses. Past this interchange, the road passes near farm fields and homes in Schubert before it enters forested areas at the base of Blue Mountain. PA 419 curves northeast and reaches its northern terminus at an intersection with PA 183.

When routes were first legislated in Pennsylvania in 1911, the present-day route of PA 419 was not designated as a legislative route. At this time, the roadway was paved in Millcreek Township, while an unpaved road continued south to Schaefferstown and north to Legislative Route 149 in Womelsdorf. The portion of the route between Quentin and Cornwall was designated as part of PA 5 and the current route north of Rehrersburg was designated as part of PA 83 in 1927. In 1928, PA 483 was designated to run from US 22/PA 3 (now US 422) in Womelsdorf north to PA 83 in Rehrersburg along unpaved Rehrersburg Road. At this time, the segment of PA 5/PA 72 between Quentin and Cornwall and the segment of PA 83 between Rehrersburg and north of Schubert, along with the unnumbered road between Schaefferstown and Womelsdorf, was paved. The unnumbered road between Rexmont and Schaefferstown was unpaved. By 1930, the road between Cornwall and Schaefferstown along with the entire length of PA 483 were paved. In the 1930s, US 322 replaced the PA 5 designation that ran concurrent with PA 72 between Quentin and Cornwall. The PA 483 designation between US 422 in Womelsdorf and PA 83 in Rehrersburg was decommissioned in the 1940s.

By 1960, PA 83 was shifted east to a new alignment through Strausstown, leaving the road between Rehrersburg and north of Schubert unnumbered. Also by this time, PA 72 was removed from US 322 between Quentin and Cornwall after it was moved to a new alignment between Quentin and Lebanon. In 1963, US 322 was shifted to bypass Cornwall along with PA 72, removing it from the road that ran between Quentin and Cornwall. PA 419 was designated by 1966 to run from US 322 in Quentin east and north to PA 183 north of Schubert along its current alignment. PA 419 and PA 897 previously ran concurrent with PA 501 in Schaefferstown between Stiegel Pike and Carpenter Street. In 2013, PA 501 was shifted to bypass Schaefferstown to the west along a new alignment, eliminating the concurrency with PA 419 and PA 897.

Route map:

BRUZZ (mediahuis)

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BRUZZ is een Nederlandstalig Brussels mediahuis. Het ging van start op 20 april 2016 als samensmelting van het weekblad Brussel Deze Week, de cultuurbijlage Agenda, radio FM Brussel, tv-zender TV Brussel en hun gezamenlijke website brusselnieuws.be. De term is een samensmelting van „Brussel“ en „buzz“.

In 1970 besliste de toenmalige Nederlandse Cultuurcommissie om een maandblad voor Nederlandstalige Brusselaars op te richten, genaamd Deze Maand in Brussel. Het blad kreeg een weekritme in 1985: Deze Week in Brussel zag het levenslicht. Het weekblad heeft een socio-culturele insteek. Vanaf 1998 werd het blad onder impuls van Brigitte Grouwels een echte stadskrant als Brussel Deze Week. In 2002 kwam de drietalige culturele bijlage Agenda erbij, later Agenda Magazine, om in 2004 ook online te gaan met Brusselnieuws.

Op 13 oktober 2015 werd de opstart van BRUZZ door de raad van Bestuur van de Vlaams-Brusselse Media aangekondigd als reorganisatie volgend op een woelige periode nadat de vorige CEO een ontslagronde en het opdoeken van FM Brussel had aangekondigd.

Estrée-Cauchy

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Estrée-Cauchy ist eine französische Gemeinde mit 376 Einwohnern (Stand: 1. Januar 2015) im Département Pas-de-Calais in der Region Hauts-de-France. Die Gemeinde gehört zum Arrondissement Béthune und zum Kanton Bruay-la-Buissière (bis 2015: Kanton Houdain). Die Einwohner werden Maisnilois genannt.

Estrée-Cauchy liegt etwa 15 Kilometer südlich von Béthune. Umgeben wird Estrée-Cauchy von den Nachbargemeinden Fresnicourt-le-Dolmen im Norden, Servins im Osten und Nordosten, Cambligneul im Süden, Caucourt im Westen sowie Gauchin-Légal im Nordwesten.

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