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Sumerologi

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Sumerologi er et delområde under assyriologien. Den beskjeftiger seg med det metopotamiske folket sumerernes språk, historie, litteratur, religion, mytologi og kultur.

Selv om det sumeriske språk var det eldste av de vestasiatiske kileskriftspråkene, ble gammelpersisk og akkadisk – med hoveddialektene babylonsk og assyrisk dechiffrert langt tidligere. Vel ble det nokså tidlig funnet tospråklige ordbøker i Ninive, men deres betydning ble lenge omstridt før de ble forstått. Jules Oppert forstod i 1869 at det dreide seg om et eget språk, og det var han som kalte det sumerisk. Det skulle imidlertid gå tyve år til før språkets – og folkets – eksistens ble bevist.

Fra 1877 oppdaget Ernest de Sarzec og Léon Heuzey i utgravningene av residensbyen Girsu i den sumeriske staten Lagasj, diverse sumeriske skriftvitnesbyrd. I 1909 klarte François Thureau-Dangin å dechiffrere det sumeriske språk, og dermed legge det faste fundament for sumerologien som vitenskap.

Sumer var et oldtidsrike som lå mellom elvene Tigris og Eufrat, midt i den såkalte «sivilisasjonens vugge», og er en av de eldste kulturene som er kjent. Selv om de tidligste historiske nedtegnelsene i regionen ikke går lengre tilbake enn til rundt 2500 f.Kr., har moderne historikere forsikret at Sumer ble først gang bosatt en gang mellom rundt 4500 og 4000 f.Kr. av et ikkesemittisk folk som muligens ikke snakket sumerisk språk (stedsnavn på byer, elver cheap glass water bottles, basisord og lignende som bevis). Dette første, førhistoriske folket er i dag kalt for «ureufratere» eller «ubaidere», og det er teoretisert at de har utviklet seg fra Samarrakulturen i nordlige Mesopotamia. Dette urfolket var den første siviliserte eller kultiverte makten i Sumer. De drenerte myrene for jordbruk, utviklet handel trail running waist pack, og etablerte industrier, inkludert veving, lærarbeid, metallarbeid best water bottles for toddlers, murerhåndverk, og keramikk.

Den sumerske sivilisasjonen tok form i Urukperioden (3000-tallet f.Kr.), fortsatte inn i Jemdat Nasr og de tidlige dynastiske periodene. Kulturen ble erobret av semittisktalende konger fra Det akkadiske rike en gang rundt 2270 f.Kr. (kort kronologi). Innfødt sumersk styre oppsto på nytt for rundt et århundre i Urs tredje dynasti på 2000- til 1900-tallet f.Kr. Byene i Sumer var de første sivilisasjonene som praktiserte intensivt jordbruk året rundt, kanskje allerede fra rundt 5000 f.Kr. som viser tegn på bruk av grunnleggende jordbruksteknikker, inkludert omfattende kultivering av land i stor skala, monoavling, organisert irrigasjon (vanning), og bruk av spesialisert arbeidskraft. Overskuddet av lagret mat skapt av denne økonomien førte til at befolkningen ble boende på et sted framfor å migrere etter avlingen og beitemarker. Det gjorde det også mulig å opprettholde en større befolkningstetthet. Sumer var også stedet for tidlig utvikling av skriftsystem, progresjonen fra et stadium av en form for urskrift på midten av 3000-tallet f.Kr stainless steel meat tenderizer. til et reellt utviklet skriftsystem på 2000-tallet f.Kr. (Jemdet Nasr-perioden).

1830–39 Atlantic hurricane seasons

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The decade of the 1830s featured the 1830–39 Atlantic hurricane seasons. While data is not available for every storm that occurred, some parts of the coastline were populated enough to give data of hurricane occurrences. Each season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic basin. Most tropical cyclone formation occurs between June 1 and November 30.

I. A hurricane moved from Trinidad to western Cuba between August 3 and August 9.

II. First noted in the Leeward Islands on August 11, a hurricane moved into the Caribbean in the middle of August. It moved west-northwestward, and approached the coast of Florida. It came close to present-day Daytona Beach on August 15, but recurved northeastward before landfall, although land was not spared from effects. It made landfall near Cape Fear on the 16th and went out to sea that night, eventually well to the north of Bermuda just offshore the Canadian Maritimes. The hurricane broke a three-month drought, but caused heavy crop damage in the process.

III. A hurricane tracked north of the Leeward Islands on August 19 through the southwest and western Atlantic by August 26.

IV. A hurricane moved from north of Puerto Rico on September 29 to well northeast of Bermuda on October 1.

V. A tropical storm struck South Carolina on October 6.

I. A tropical storm made landfall in northeast Florida on 10 June.

II. A hurricane formed circa 22 June at an unusually low latitude and moved from south Barbados to the Yucatán Peninsula by 28 June.

III. On 10–17 August, an intense Category 4 hurricane left cataclysmic damage across the Caribbean. After striking Barbados on 10 August, this „Great Barbados Hurricane“ damaged Saint Vincent (island), Saint Lucia, Martinique. The storm completely destroyed, Saint Johns Parish church and the town of Les Cayes, Haiti and damaged Santiago de Cuba. The hurricane then drove into Louisiana on 17 August. It left 2,500 people dead and $7 million (1831 dollars) in damage.

IV. A strong tropical storm or minimal hurricane struck western Louisiana between 27–30 August.

V. A hurricane hit near the mouth of the Rio Grande, causing heavy rain over Texas and Mexico.

I. A hurricane moved through the Bahamas around 5 June, causing 52 deaths. At Bermuda, the gale began from the northeast at 8 pm on 6 June, with the center likely passing quite close to the island as the wind shifted to southwest at 10:30 pm. The storm lasted until 3 a.m. on 7 June. Two schooners were damaged during the system.

II. On 7 August, a hurricane struck Jamaica. On 12 August, Key West noted a tropical cyclone. The cyclone moved across the eastern Gulf of Mexico, striking northwest Florida. It then recurved through the American South, moving through South Carolina by 18 August.

III. On 21 August, someone witnessed a tropical storm west-southwest of Cape Verde in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

IV. A hurricane on 23–27 August moved from the central Leeward Islands to the east of Jamaica.

V. On 14 October, a tropical storm moved into South Carolina.

A hurricane passed offshore of Norfolk, Virginia, in late August, keeping ships at harbor but causing no damage.

I. On September 4 a hurricane hit South Carolina stainless steel meat tenderizer, causing 37 deaths. It moved through North Carolina and Virginia, capsizing the ship E. Pluribus Unum. The crew made it safely to shore.

II. A hurricane struck the island of Dominica on 20 September, bringing heavy winds and a 12 feet (3.7 m) storm surge that devastated the capital of Roseau water bottle sports; 230 people are believed to have been killed by the hurricane’s onslaught. Then the hurricane made its second landfall at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic on the 23 September. About 170 sailors died when their ships sank in the Ozama River. On land the hurricane disrupted the funeral service of Padre Ruiz, a Roman Catholic priest. A total of 400 people were killed from the hurricane.

III. Also in September, a hurricane hit south Texas, causing heavy damage. This or another severe tropical cyclone visited Galveston, Texas.

I. A hurricane was first detected near Antigua on August 12. It moved over Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Cuba, causing at least 3 casualties. It moved across the Florida Straits and the Gulf of Mexico, hitting near the mouth of the Rio Grande on August 18. There, it destroyed small villages, caused strong storm surge, and killed 18 people.

II. A mid-September hurricane smashed Cape Florida and Key Biscayne, creating the Norris Cut and knocking over the Ponce de Leon lighthouse. From there, the storm entered the Gulf of Mexico and took a hard northeast tack best workout belt, damaging Fort Brooke in Tampa, then moving northward into Georgia and the Carolinas, making the trip „all the way into New England.“

A hurricane hit the Cayman Islands during this season.

A hurricane swept through Woodstock, New Brunswick on July 27, 1836. Likely a Category 1.

I. On 9/10 July, a tropical storm impacted Barbados.

II. On 26 July, a storm hit Martinique and Barbados. As a hurricane, the system moved ashore in southern Florida and then through the northeast Gulf of Mexico into Alabama by 5 August. It caused 57 deaths.

III. A hurricane, noted in the Atlantic north of the Bahamas on 1 August, moved northwest to the Florida/Georgia border and dissipated well inland by 5 August.

IV. A hurricane passed by Antigua on 1 August. The storm then entered Humacao, Puerto Rico, around 5-6 pm 2 August, and left the island through Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, and Dorado, Puerto Rico, ten to twelve hours later (3-6 am 3 August). The eye passed very near San Juan, Puerto Rico, where the barometric pressure (available for the first time in Puerto Rico) registered 28.00 inches of mercury (94.8 kPa). The hurricane sunk all ships in the Bay of San Juan. The worst damages occurred in the northeastern part of the island. Thereafter, the tropical cyclone moved northwest to the Florida/Georgia border before recurving through the western Carolinas on 7 August.

V. A tropical storm formed near the northern Bahamas on 13 August. It moved northeast through the western Atlantic Ocean on 15 August.

VI. A tropical system was observed east of the West Indies on 13 August. It moved through the islands and passed the Bahamas on 16 August. While recurving, it hit the North Carolina coast on 18 August. It slowly moved over land, causing 48 hours of strong winds, and moved back offshore into the Atlantic on 20 August, bypassing southern New England by 22 August.

VII. A tropical storm moved east of Bermuda on 21–25 August 21.

VIII. A hurricane moved east-northeast from the Gulf of Mexico on 31 August, struck Apalachee Bay, and moved just offshore the Carolinas by 2 September.

IX. A tropical storm moved across Saint Augustine, Florida, affecting northeast Florida between 24–26 September.

X. A tropical storm moved across the western Caribbean Sea in late September. A hurricane struck Jamaica on 26–27 September. A storm moved across the Yucatán Peninsula and the western Gulf of Mexico, where it moved near Brownsville, Texas, on 2 October. It stalled near the coast for three days and then recurved to the east, visited Galveston, Texas insulated glass water bottle, hit Louisiana, affected Pensacola, Florida, and ultimately moved into the Atlantic Ocean on 11 October. This hurricane caused 105 deaths.

XI. A tropical storm crossed central Cuba on 26 October, moving north-northeast offshore the coast of the Southeast United States through 29 October.

I. On September 7, a hurricane hit near Cape Florida, causing 38 deaths.

II. A late season hurricane hit the east coast of Mexico on November 1, sinking 2 U.S. ships.

I. A hurricane hit Charleston, South Carolina on August 28. It passed over North Carolina and Virginia before going out to sea on the 30th.

II. This cyclone is known as Reid’s Hurricane. The system moved from east of the West Indies into the southwest Atlantic. Swells were noted as early as September 9 at Bermuda. During late on the September 11 and early on September 12, this hurricane struck Bermuda. The storm tide was measured as 11 feet/3.3 meters. Thousands of trees were downed. The tower on Tower Hill was levelled. Damage done to private property totalled 8000 pounds sterling (1839 pounds). This was one of the first hurricanes to be studied by William Reid in person, in this case as governor of the island the year after his publication of „The Law of Storms“. (from Beware the Hurricane)

III. During the middle of September, a hurricane approached the coast of Louisiana. It struck near Lake Charles, then known as Charley’s Lake, on September 15.

IV. A late season hurricane hit Galveston, Texas on November 5.

Cryptophyta

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Order Cryptomonadales Order Goniomonadales

Kryptomonaderne (eller kryptofytterne) er en gruppe alger, hvoraf de fleste har grønkorn. De er almindelige i ferskvand, men træffes også i miljøer med salt- eller brakvand. Hver celle er ca bottle stainless steel. 10-50 μm lang med en flad form, der afsluttes foran og bagtil med en fordybning eller lomme. Ved kanten af lommen findes typisk to uens lange flageller stainless steel meat tenderizer.

Nogle af dem kan have mixotrofi.

Kryptomonader er kendetegnet ved, at de har nogle karakteristiske, såkaldte extrusomer (ejectisomer eller ejectosomer), der består af to forbundne, spiralsnoede bånd, der holdes spændt. Hvis cellerne bliver udsat for mekanisk, kemisk eller lysstress, udløses de og driver cellen frem i en zig-zag bane bort fra forstyrrelsen. Store ejectisomer, der er synlige under lysmikroskop, sidder i nærheden af lommen, mens de mindre findes underneden periplasten, den cellevæg, som er typisk for cryptofytterne.

Oprindeligt blev cryptomonaderne betragtet som nære slægtninge til dinoflagellaterne på grund af deres (tilsyneladende) ensartede pigmentering. Senere har botanikere behandlet dem som en særlig afdeling, Cryptophyta, mens zoologer har opfattet dem som hjemmehørende i flagellatordenen Cryptomonadida. Der er solide beviser for, at kryptomonadernes grønkorn er beslægtede med heterokonternes og haptofytternes, og de tre grupper samles ofte som Chromista. For tiden diskuteres det, om de skal høre til hos riget Chromalveolata og danne gruppen hacrobia sammen med haptofytterne.

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