Julio Licinio is currently Senior Vice President for Academic and Health Affairs, as well as Executive Dean, Dean of the College of Medicine, and Professor in Departments of Psychiatry fabric battery, Pharmacology, and Medicine at State University of New York Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York. He was formerly deputy director (Translation Strategy and Process) at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, where he was head of the Mind & Brain Theme. He was simultaneously Matthew Flinders Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry at Flinders University in Adelaide, clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in Albuquerque, adjunct professor of psychiatry at the UT (University of Texas) Health Science Center at Houston, and visiting professor of psychiatry, University of Minho in Braga. He is the former director of the John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University (from 2009 to 2013), where he founded the John Curtin Medical Research Foundation. Licinio is the founding and current chief editor of three journals from Springer Nature, namely Molecular Psychiatry, Translational Psychiatrywaterproof plastic bags, and The Pharmacogenomics Journal.
His area of scientific expertise is pharmacogenomics, as well as the biology of depression, and he has edited books on both topics. He has also published considerable research on translational psychiatry, as well as on obesity and the possible link between obesity, depression, and antidepressants.
Licinio lived in the United States for 25 years (1984–2009), but originally received his MD from the Federal University of Bahia in 1982, and completed his residency in internal medicine at the University of São Paulo from 1982 to 1984. He then moved to the United States and completed training in endocrinology at The University of Chicago, and psychiatry at Albert Einstein in the Bronx as well as at Weill Cornell Medical College. Licinio is registered as a specialist in psychiatry by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. He is board certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and he is a Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Licinio was previously an assistant professor of psychiatry at Yale University, then he was a Unit Chief within the Clinical Neurodocrinology Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health NIH Intramural Research Program (1993–1999), and later was professor of psychiatry and medicine/endocrinology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA from 1999 until 2006, where he had multiple roles, such as Founding Director of three NIH funded programs: the Interdepartmental Center on Clinical Pharmacology, the Graduate Training in Translational and Clinical Investigation and the Mentored Clinical Pharmacology Scholars Program; he also co-directed (with Ma-Li Wong) the UCLA Center for Pharmacogenomics, was Associate Program Director of the UCLA General Clinical Research Center, and Vice-Chair of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences. In 2006 he was appointed the Miller Professor of Psychiatry, Chairman of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and subsequently Associate Dean for project development, responsible for starting the Clinical and Translational Science Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, where he worked until 2009, when he moved to Australia as Director of the John Curtin School of Medical Research.
During the period 1993–2001, Licinio was a Temporary Advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO), having co-chaired ten WHO scientific meetings in seven countries, and co-edited the resulting ten books containing the proceedings of those meetings, mostly focused on the role of dysthymia in neurological disorders.
In 2005–2010, Licinio was a member of the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee of Genetics Health and Society (SACGHS). The key issue addressed during his term was the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), which was strongly supported by the SACGHS. GINA was enacted on 21 May 2008 (Pub.L. 110–233, 122 Stat. 881) as an Act of Congress in the United States, designed to prohibit the use of genetic information in health insurance and employment. The Act prohibits group health plans and health insurers from denying coverage to a healthy individual or charging that person higher premiums based solely on a genetic predisposition to developing a disease in the future. The legislation also bars employers from using individuals‘ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions. Senator Ted Kennedy called it the „first major new civil rights bill of the new century.“ The Act contains amendments to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
Licinio’s work has broad international recognition. He has advised on more than 90 review panels and committees, had over 200 abstracts at meeting presentations, and organised more than 60 symposia, conferences and workshops. He is the head of the Australian node of the German-Australian Institute for Translational Medicine (GAITM), directed by Stefan R. Bornstein. In 2013 he gave the opening Presidential Lecture at the European Congress of Psychiatry, Nice, France, the Eliahu Youdim Memorial Lecture at National Institute for Psychobiology in Jerusalem, Israel, the Kester Brown (opening) Lecture at the Australian Society of Anaesthesiology Annual Meeting in Canberra, the Roche Oration, Australasian Society of Psychiatric Research in Melbourne, the Opening Plenary Lecture at the Bio21 Cluster and Museum Victoria Conference: Biological Markers for Mental Health. He delivered the opening keynote lecture of the German 2014 Conference “Biomarkers & Biologically guided options of Child Psychiatric Disorders” in Frankfurt, and was appointed Visiting Professor of Psychiatry at Paris Descartes University (Université Paris 5 René Descartes, also known as Paris V) (2012-2014) and University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, competitively funded by the governments of France and Portugal. He was invited to give a Distinguished Psychiatrist lecture at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) of which he is a member (past co-chair) of the Scientific Program Committee. In the last 5 years he published collaboratively with 190 colleagues from 54 institutions, located in 19 countries, including Nobel Laureates Andrew Schally and Rita Levi-Montalcini. He is a current reviewer for the large translational centre programs funded by the governments of the UK (Biomedical Research Centres and Units, NIHR), Canada (Support for People and Patient-Oriented Research and Trials – SUPPORT – Units, Canadian Institutes of Health Research), and Switzerland (National Centers for Competence in Research, Swiss National Science Foundation).
According to Google Scholar, Licinio has an h-index of 65, with over 21,000 citations. He has published over 240 papers indexed in Pubmed, as well as 12 books.
Licinio is known for his research into leptin and its role in conveying a feeling of satiety. For example, in 2002, he identified three people from Turkey who suffered from a genetic disorder called leptin deficiency – the only three adults known at that time to have this disorder – all of whom were severely overweight as a result metal sports water bottles. He then administered daily leptin injections to each of them, and found that after ten months, the patients had lost half of his or her original body weight. He discovered that despite being produced by a dispersed mass of fat cells, leptin is secreted in a highly organised manner with distinct pulsatility and circadian rhythm and that it appears to regulate the minute-to-minute rhythms of several endocrine axes, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Licinio and his colleagues were the first to suggest that leptin may have antidepressant effects, a concept that was subsequently extended by other groups. He also contributed to pioneer the concept that leptin has pro-cognitive effects in humans.
With his group, Licinio conducted an extensive body of work on the pharmacogenomics of depression that started in 2000 as part of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences NIH Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN). In that project, he and his team studied a Mexican-American population with major depressive disorder in the city of Los Angeles, in the context of an extensive process of community engagement, which received Certificates of Commendation both from the California State Legislature and the United States Congress. He contributed the Mexican-American samples to the International HapMap Project. His pharmacogenetics research has resulted in several publications on predictors of antidepressant treatment response in this population.
Wong and Licinio contributed some of the earliest work on the role of cytokines and immune mediators in the brain, with implications for the underlying biology of major depressive disorder, and published scientific articles on the localisation of gene expression for interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, interleukin 1 receptor, type I (IL1R1), also known as CD121a (C lustre of D ifferentiation 121a), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mammalian brain. They also showed that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist is an endogenous neuroprotective agent. They have shown that the central and peripheral cytokine compartments are integrated but differentially regulated. In collaboration with colleagues at Columbia University Licinio and his team showed that inflammation-mediated up-regulation of secretory sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase in vivo represents a possible link between inflammatory cytokines and atherogenesis. Licinio’s line of research examining the effects of peripheral inflammation in brain, behaviour and metabolism is ongoing in their lab.
Licinio conceptualised, obtained funding for, and directed three graduate training programs with master’s degrees in translational investigation, for physician-scientists, at UCLA (supported by an NIH K30 award), University of Miami (supported by an NIH K30 award), and Australian National University. He also created and obtained NIH T32, NIH K12, and PhRMA Foundation (2004 Center of Excellence in Clinical Pharmacology) funding for the UCLA Interdepartmental Clinical Pharmacology Training Program, of which he was founding director (1999–2006). Licinio was the recipient of an NIH K24 award to mentor early career physician-scientists (2002–2007).
Licinio is often asked to comment on items related to his field and more broadly to medical research, science, and academic career development in general. He wrote four book reviews for Science, including a commentary on the current diagnostic system in psychiatry, the American Psychiatry Association (APA)’s „Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders“, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the controversial exhibit on Sigmund Freud at the US Library of Congress. Licinio writes a popular blog on science-related matters for the general public.
Licinio’s wife, Ma-Li Wong is also an expert on depression, pharmacogenomics and psychoneuroimmunology; they have worked together for over 20 years, and have co-authored over 150 papers, and co-edited two multi-authored books on pharmacogenomics and the biology of depression. Wong and Licinio have two adult children.
The Secret of Monkey Island is a 1990 point-and-click graphic adventure game developed and published by Lucasfilm Games. It takes place in a fantastic version of the Caribbean during the age of piracy. The player assumes the role of Guybrush Threepwood, a young man who dreams of becoming a pirate and explores fictional islands while solving puzzles.
The game was conceived in 1988 by Lucasfilm employee Ron Gilbert, who designed it with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman. Gilbert’s frustrations with contemporary adventure titles led him to make the player character’s death almost impossible, which meant that gameplay focused the game on exploration. The atmosphere was based on that of the Pirates of the Caribbean theme park ride. The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth game built with the SCUMM engine, which was heavily modified to include a more user-friendly interface.
Critics praised The Secret of Monkey Island for its humor, audiovisuals, and gameplay. The game spawned a number of sequels, collectively known as the Monkey Island series. Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman also led the development of the sequel Monkey Island 2: LeChuck’s Revenge. LucasArts released a remake of the original in 2009, which was also well received by the gaming press.
The Secret of Monkey Island is a 2D adventure game played from a third-person perspective. Via a point-and-click interface, the player guides protagonist Guybrush Threepwood through the game’s world and interacts with the environment by selecting from twelve verb commands (nine in newer versions) such as „talk to“ for communicating with characters and „pick up“ for collecting items between commands and the world’s objects in order to successfully solve puzzles and thus progress in the game. While conversing with other characters, the player may choose between topics for discussion that are listed in a dialog tree; the game is one of the first to incorporate such a system. The in-game action is frequently interrupted by cutscenes. Like other LucasArts adventure games, The Secret of Monkey Island features a design philosophy that makes the player character’s death nearly impossible (Guybrush does drown if he stays underwater for more than ten minutes).
A youth named Guybrush Threepwood arrives on the fictional Mêlée IslandTM, with the desire to become a pirate. He seeks out the island’s pirate leaders, who set him three trials that must be completed to become a pirate: winning a sword duel against Carla, the island’s resident swordmaster, finding a buried treasure, and stealing a valuable idol from the governor’s mansion. These quests take Guybrush throughout the island, where he hears of stories of the Ghost Pirate LeChuck, who apparently died in an expedition to the mysterious Monkey IslandTM, an act that was meant to win the love of the governor Elaine Marley. Guybrush meets several characters of interest, including a local voodoo priestess, Stan the Used Boat Salesman, Carla the Sword Master, a prisoner named Otis, and Meathook, whose hands have been replaced by hooks.
Guybrush also encounters the governor and is instantly smitten, and she soon reciprocates. However, as he completes the tasks set for him, the island is raided by LeChuck and his undead crew, who abduct Elaine and then retreat to their secret hideout on Monkey IslandTM. Guybrush takes it upon himself to rescue her, buying a ship and hiring Carla, Otis, and Meathook as crew before setting sail for the fabled island. When Guybrush reaches Monkey Island, he discovers a village of cannibals in a dispute with Herman Toothrot, a ragged castaway marooned there. He settles their quarrel, and then recovers a magical „voodoo root“ from LeChuck’s ship for the cannibals, who provide him with a seltzer bottle of „voodoo root elixir“ that can destroy ghosts.
When Guybrush returns to LeChuck’s ship with the elixir, he learns that LeChuck has returned to Mêlée IslandTM to marry Elaine at the church. He promptly returns to Mêlée IslandTM and gatecrashes the wedding, only to ruin Elaine’s own plan for escape; in the process he loses the elixir. Now confronted with a furious LeChuck, Guybrush is savagely beaten by the ghost pirate in a fight ranging across the island. The fight eventually arrives at the island’s ship emporium, where Guybrush finds a bottle of root beer. Substituting the beverage for the lost elixir, he sprays LeChuck, destroying the ghost pirate. With LeChuck defeated, Guybrush and Elaine enjoy a romantic moment, watching fireworks caused by LeChuck exploding.
Ron Gilbert conceived the idea of a pirate adventure game in 1988 metal sports water bottles, after completing Zak McKracken and the Alien Mindbenders. He first wrote story ideas about pirates while spending the weekend at a friend’s house. Gilbert experimented with introductory paragraphs to find a satisfactory idea. His initial story featured unnamed villains that would eventually become LeChuck and Elaine; Guybrush was absent at this point. He pitched it to Lucasfilm Games’s staff as a series of short stories. Gilbert’s idea was warmly received, but production was postponed because Lucasfilm Games assigned its designers, including Gilbert, to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure. Development of The Last Crusade was finished in 1989, which allowed Gilbert to begin production of The Secret of Monkey Island, then known internally under the working title Mutiny on Monkey Island.
Gilbert soon realised that it would be difficult to design the game by himself; he decided to join forces with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman, both of whom he hired for Lucasfilm. The game’s insult sword fighting mechanics were influenced by swashbuckling movies starring Errol Flynn, which Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman often watched for inspiration. They noticed that pirates in those films often taunted their opponents instead of attacking them, which gave the designers the idea to base the game’s duels on insults rather than combat. Writer Orson Scott Card helped them write the insults during a visit to Lucasfilm’s headquarters at Skywalker Ranch. Many of Gilbert’s original gameplay ideas were abandoned during the production process, although he stated that „most of that stuff was left out for a reason“.
The game’s plot, as described by Dave Grossman: „It’s a story about this young man who comes to an island in search of his life’s dream. He’s pursuing his career goals and he discovers love in the process and winds up thinking that was actually more important than what he was doing to begin with. You’re laughing, but there’s actually something deeper going on as well.“ When work on the plot began, Gilbert discovered that Schafer’s and Grossman’s writing styles were too different to form a cohesive whole: Grossman’s was „very kind of a dry, sarcastic humor“ and Schafer’s was „just a little more in your face“. In reaction, Gilbert assigned them to different characters and story moments depending on what type of comedy was required. Grossman believed that this benefited the game’s writing, as he and Schafer „were all funny in slightly different ways, and it worked well together“. Schafer and Grossman wrote most of the dialogue while they were programming the game; as a result, much of it was improvised. Some of the dialogue was based on the designers‘ personal experiences, such as Guybrush’s line „I had a feeling in hell there would be mushrooms“, which came from Schafer’s own hatred of fungi.
The game’s world and characters were designed primarily by Gilbert. After having read Tim Powers‘ historical fantasy novel On Stranger Tides, he decided to add paranormal themes to the game’s plot. He also cited Powers‘ book as an influence on the characters, particularly those of Guybrush and LeChuck. Inspiration for the game’s ambiance came from Gilbert’s favorite childhood amusement park ride, Pirates of the Caribbean. Grossman said that Gilbert always wanted „to step off the ride“ and „talk to the people who lived in that world“. Near the final stages of the design work, Gilbert introduced several characters who were not directly related to the game’s story. He considered this to be an important decision, as the player would need those seemingly minor characters in later parts of the game and would receive a chance to „really interact with them“.
Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman’s primary goal was to create a simpler and more accessible gameplay model than those presented in previous Lucasfilm titles. Gilbert had conceived the main designs and puzzles before production began, which resulted in the bulk of the designers‘ work to flesh out his ideas. He was frustrated by the adventure games that Sierra On-Line was releasing at the time, and later said that „you died any time you did anything wrong“. Gilbert considered such gameplay as „a cheap way out for the designer“. He had previously applied his design ideas to the 1987 graphic adventure title Maniac Mansion, but committed a number of mistakes during development, such as dead-end situations that prevented the player from completing the game and poorly implemented triggers for cutscenes. Gilbert aimed to avoid such errors in The Secret of Monkey Island. The team decided to make it impossible for the player character to die, which focused gameplay primarily on world exploration. The Sierra game-over screen was parodied, when Guybrush falls off a cliff only to be bounced back up by a „rubber tree“.
The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth Lucasfilm Games project powered by the SCUMM engine, originally developed for Maniac Mansion. The company had gradually modified the engine since its creation. For Maniac Mansion, the developers hard coded verb commands in the SCUMM scripting language. These commands become more abstract in subsequent versions of the engine. The developers carried over the practice of referring to individual segments of the gameworld as „rooms“, even though the areas in Monkey Island were outdoors. The game uses the same version of the engine used in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, with minor changes. A dialog tree was added, which facilitated conversation options and the sword-fighting puzzles. The developers removed the „What is“ option (an input command that describes an on-screen object to the player) in favor of allowing the player to simply highlight the object with the mouse cursor. The game’s improved interface became the standard for the company’s later titles. The game also introduced logical verb shortcuts, which could be performed with the mouse; for example, clicking on a character defaults to the „talk“ action, the most obvious action in the situation. SCUMM’s visuals were updated for the game—the original EGA version had a 320×200 pixel resolution rendered in 16 colors. According to artist Steve Purcell, that became a major limitation for the art team; due to a low number of „ghastly“ colors, they often chose bizarre tones for backgrounds. They chose black and white for Guybrush’s outfit for the same reason. The VGA version of the game later corrected these issues by implementing 256 color support, which allowed for more advanced background and character art. The VGA (and other platform releases) removed the infamous „stump joke“ from the game, which was a joke in the EGA version in which the player would examine a tree stump in the forest. Guybrush would exclaim that there is an opening to a system of catacombs and attempt to enter, but this would result in a message stating the player needed to insert disc 22, then 36, then 114 in order to continue. The joke resulted in numerous calls to the LucasArts hotline asking about missing discs. As a result, the joke was removed from later editions and is a mentioned as a conversation option for the LucasArts Hint Hotline in the sequel.
The game’s „pirate reggae“ music was composed by Lucasfilm Games‘ in-house musician Michael Land in MIDI format. It was his first project at the company. The game was originally released for floppy disk in 1990, but a CD-ROM version with a high-quality CD soundtrack followed in 1992. The music has remained popular, and has been remixed by the musicians of OverClocked ReMix and by the game’s fans.
LucasArts released a remake with updated audiovisuals titled The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition in July 2009 for iPhone, Microsoft Windows, and Xbox 360 exclusively via digital distribution. PlayStation 3, macOS and iPad versions followed early in 2010 for download on their respective services. LucasArts confirmed the game’s development on June 1 insulated water container, 2009; rumors appeared several days earlier when the Xbox 360 version of the game received an USK rating. The game was first displayed to the public at the 2009 E3 in June. The remake features hand-drawn visuals with more detail, a remastered musical score, voice work for characters, and a hint system. The developers included the function to switch between 2009 and original audiovisuals at will. The voice actors included Dominic Armato as Guybrush Threepwood and Earl Boen as LeChuck; most had provided voice work in sequels to The Secret of Monkey Island.
LucasArts’s game producer Craig Derrick and his team conceived the idea of the remake in 2008. After researching the Monkey Island series‘ history, they decided to make „something fresh and new while staying true to the original“, which resulted in the idea of The Secret of Monkey Island’s remake. The developers tried to leave much of the original design unchanged. Any changes were intended to achieve the level of immersion desired for the original. To that end, they added details like a pirate ship or pirates talking in the background of scenes. While the team considered the SCUMM interface revolutionary at the time, LucasArts community manager Brooks Brown noted that it is incompatible with an analog stick, which most consoles use. The designers made the cursor contextual to the game objects as the primary interface. Brown had considered updating the reference to advertise Star Wars: The Force Unleashed because Loom was not on the market at the time, but concluded that the game would not be the same if such changes were implemented. Prior to the Special Edition release, however, LucasArts announced that Loom, along with other games from its back catalog, would be made available on Steam. Brown stated that the decision to distribute the game online was because „digital downloads have finally gotten going“.
The Secret of Monkey Island sold well and received positive reviews from critics. Hartley, Patricia, and Kirk Lesser of Dragon praised the designers‘ attention to detail, and cited the game’s humor as a high point. Although they believed that the game was too expensive, they summarized it as „a highly enjoyable graphic adventure replete with interesting puzzles, a fantastic Roland soundtrack, superb VGA graphics, smooth-scrolling animation, and some of the funniest lines ever seen on your computer screen.“ Duncan MacDonald of Zero praised the graphics and found the game „quite amusing“. His favorite aspect was the fine-tuned difficulty level, which he believed was „just right“. He ended his review, „At last an adventure game that’s enjoyable rather than frustrating.“ Paul Glancey of Computer and Video Games consider the game superior to Lucasfilm’s earlier adventure titles, and wrote that, „Usually the entertainment you get from an adventure is derived solely from solving puzzles, but the hilarious characters and situations, and the movie-like presentation … make playing this more like taking part in a comedy film, so it’s much more enjoyable.“ He considered the puzzles to be „brilliantly conceived“ and found the game’s controls accessible. He summarized it as „utterly enthralling“.
ACE‚s Steve Cooke also found the controls convenient, and he praised the game’s atmosphere. He wrote that, „in graphics and sound terms … Monkey Island, along with King’s Quest V, is currently at the head of the pack.“ However, he disliked the designers‘ running joke of placing „TM“ after character and place names, which he thought detracted from the atmosphere. He singled out the game’s writing, characters and plot structure as its best elements. Amiga Power‚s Mark Ramshaw wrote, „With The Secret of Monkey Island, the mouse-controlled, graphic-adventure comes of age.“ He lauded its comedic elements, which he believed were the highlight of the game. The reviewer also praised the control scheme, noting that it allows the player to „more or less forget about the specifics of what [they are] physically doing … and lose [themselves] in the adventure instead.“ He noted that the game’s plot and visual and aural presentation fit together to create a thick atmosphere, and finished, „Forget all those other milestone adventures (Zork, The Hobbit, Lord of the Ringset al) — for sheer enjoyment and general all-round perfection, The Secret of Monkey Island creams ‚em all in style.“ The game, along with its sequel, was ranked the 19th best game of all time by Amiga Power.
Writing for The One, Paul Presley stated that „Lucasfilm appears to have taken all of the elements that worked in its previous releases and, not only incorporated them into this tale of scurvy swashbuckling, but even improved on them in the process!“ Like the other reviewers, he praised its controls. He also lauded its „hilarious storyline, strong characters and … intriguing setting“, but complained about graphical slowdowns. Nick Clarkson of Amiga Computing cited the game’s graphics as „flawless“, noting that „the characters are superbly animated and the backdrops simply ooze atmosphere.“ He highly praised its sound effects and music, and believed that its controls „couldn’t be simpler“. The staff of Amiga Action wrote that the „attention to detail and the finely tuned gameplay cannot be faulted.“ They called the graphics „stunning throughout“, and believed that, when they were combined with the „excellent Caribbean tunes“, the result is a game filled with „character and atmosphere.“ They ended by stating that „there is absolutely no excuse for not owning this game.“
The Secret of Monkey Island has featured regularly in lists of „top“ games, such as Computer Gaming World’s Hall of Fame and IGN’s Video Game Hall of Fame. In 1996, Computer Gaming World ranked it as the 19th best game of all time, writing, „Who could ever forget the insult-driven duel system or the identity of the mysterious Swordmaster?“. In 2004, readers of Retro Gamer voted it as the 33rd top retro game. IGN named The Secret of Monkey Island one of the ten best LucasArts adventure games in 2009, and ranked the Xbox Live Arcade version as the 20th best title of all time for that platform in 2010. In 2017, The Secret of Monkey Island ranked 78th in the „Scientifically Proven Best Video Games of All Time,“ a statistical meta-analysis compiled by Warp Zoned of 44 „top games“ lists published between 1995 and 2016.
Like the original release, The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition received positive reviews from critics. Sean Ely of GamePro praised its updated audio, and said that the new graphics „blow the old clunker visuals … out of the water“. He cited its script, humor, plot, puzzles and balanced difficulty level as high points, and finished, „The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition is impressive, hilarious and downright worth your money.“ Daemon Hatfield of IGN wrote remington clothes shaver, „Almost 20 years after its release, [The Secret of Monkey Island] remains a blast to play.“ He called the new graphics „slick, if a little generic“, and noted that the „original graphics have a certain charm to them that the fancy pants new visuals just don’t.“ However, he enjoyed the redone music, the new hint function, and the added sound effects and voice acting. He summarized it as „one of the best times you’ll ever have pointing and clicking“, and noted that „few games are this funny.“ Justin Calvert of GameSpot noted that „the Special Edition looks much better and is the only way to play if you want to hear … what characters are saying, whereas the original game’s interface is less clunky.“ However, he wrote that „the voice work is such a great addition to the game that it’s difficult to go back to the original edition.“ He praised its humor, writing, puzzles and characters, and he believed that it had aged well. Eurogamer’s Dan Whitehead wrote, „Purists like me will almost certainly find something to grumble about over the span of the game, but the overall impact of the redesign is undeniably for the better.“ However, he preferred the original game’s Guybrush design, and believed that the new control system was „rather less intuitive“ than the old one. He finished by stating that „few games can stand the test of time with such confidence“.
The Secret of Monkey Island spawned four sequels. The first, Monkey Island 2: LeChuck’s Revenge, was released in 1991 and focuses on LeChuck’s return. Six years later, LucasArts released The Curse of Monkey Island, which features a new visual design. In 2000, the company released Escape from Monkey Island, which uses the GrimE engine of Grim Fandango to produce 3D graphics. The next title, Tales of Monkey Island released in 2009, is a series of five episodic chapters.
Elements of the game have appeared elsewhere in popular culture. The original version was selected as one of five for the exhibition The Art of Video Games in the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2011. A fictive drink recipe in the game for grog was mistakenly reported as real in 2009 by Argentinian news channel C5N, which urged adolescents against consuming the dangerous „Grog XD“ drink. In Tales of Monkey Islandenglish football shirts, Guybrush refers to this news story while pushing the Grog XD button on a Grog machine.
Grider Field (IATA: PBF, ICAO: KPBF, FAA LID: PBF) is a city-owned, public-use airport located four nautical miles (7 km) southeast of the central business district of Pine Bluff, a city in Jefferson County, Arkansas, United States thermos water bottle. According to the FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2009–2013, it is categorized as a general aviation airport.
Grider Field covers an area of 750 acres (300 ha) at an elevation of 206 feet (63 m) above mean sea level stainless steel water bottles safe. It has one runway designated 18/36 with an asphalt surface measuring 5,998 by 150 feet (1,828 x 46 m).
For the 12-month period ending May 31, 2009, the airport had 39,875 aircraft operations, an average of 109 per day: 94% general aviation, 5% military and 1% air taxi. At that time there were 50 aircraft based at this airport: 84% single-engine, 12% multi-engine and 4% ultralight.
Opened in April 1941 with 6,300′ x 6,380′ open turf field. Began training United States Army Air Corps flying cadets in under contract to Pine Bluff School of Aviation. Assigned to United States Army Air Forces Gulf Coast Training Center (later Central Flying Training Command) as a primary (level 1) pilot training airfield. Had five auxiliary airfields assigned for emergency and overflow landings. Flying training was performed with Fairchild PT-19s as the primary trainer metal sports water bottles. Also had several PT-17 Stearmans and a few P-40 Warhawks assigned. Also provided flexible gunnery training.
Inactivated on 30 November 1944 with the drawdown of AAFTC’s pilot training program best college football uniforms. Declared surplus and turned over to the Army Corps of Engineers on 30 September 1945. Eventually discharged to the War Assets Administration (WAA) and returned to being a civil airport.
In November 2007, it was announced that Grider Field will undergo an extensive renovation, and modernization project. Also, a new partnership with the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff has been announced.