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Mandarin (comics)

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The Mandarin is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is the archenemy of Iron Man. The character was created by Stan Lee and designed by Don Heck, first appearing in Tales of Suspense #50 (February 1964). The character is described as being born in China before the Communist revolution, to a wealthy Chinese father and an English aristocratic mother, both of whom died when he was very young. He is characterised as a megalomaniac, attempting to conquer the world on several occasions, yet also possessing a strong sense of honor.

The Mandarin is portrayed as a genius scientist and a superhumanly skilled martial artist. However, his primary sources of power are ten power rings that he adapted from the alien technology of a crashed space ship. Each ring has a different power and is worn on a specific finger.

In other media, the Mandarin has been shown in several forms of animation and computer games. A version of the character loosely serves as the main villain of the 2013 film Iron Man 3. In 2009, Mandarin was ranked as IGN’s 81st Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

The Mandarin first appeared in Tales of Suspense #50 (February 1964), written by Stan Lee and illustrated by Don Heck.

The Mandarin’s late father was one of the wealthiest men in pre-revolutionary mainland China (and a descendant of Genghis Khan), while his late mother was an English noblewoman. Their son was born in an unnamed village in mainland China before the Communist revolution. The boy’s parents died soon after his birth, and he was raised by his (paternal) aunt, who was embittered against the world and raised him with much the same attitude. Every last bit of the family fortune was spent obsessively training the Mandarin in science and combat, with the result that he was penniless by adulthood. Without the wealth to pay the taxes on his ancestral home, the Mandarin was evicted by the government.

Hoping to find a means of avenging himself upon the civilization that had taxed him and rendered him homeless, the Mandarin explores the forbidden Valley of Spirits, where no one has dared to set foot for centuries. There he finds the skeleton and starship of Axonn-Karr, an intelligent dragon-like alien from the planet Maklu IV, who had come to Earth centuries ago and died. Over the following years, the Mandarin studies Makluan science until he masters it. He also learns how to use the ten rings he found within the starship, which are apparently its propulsion source, among other things. The Mandarin then becomes a conqueror, and subjugates the villages around the Valley, and through his advanced science, rapidly becomes a power that not even the Chinese Army can successfully challenge. He then embarks on a long series of attempts to achieve world domination. The Chinese, though fearing him, ask for his help, but he will not become subservient to them.

The Mandarin sees technology as the surest means to achieve his goals. Over the years, he frequently attempts to turn the weapons of various nations against them. Among the Mandarin’s earliest schemes is the sabotage and theft of American missiles and spy planes built by Tony Stark. To restore public confidence in his workmanship, Stark dons his Iron Man armor and flies to China to investigate. Iron Man soon became the Mandarin’s principal obstacle against his plans for world domination.

During three of their early confrontations meat tenderizer solution, the Mandarin manages to take Iron Man (or his alter ego Tony Stark) captive, but fails to kill him. Similarly, Iron Man thwarts the Mandarin’s various schemes, but is unable to bring him to justice. Some of the Mandarin’s early technological achievements are the launching of a small orbiting satellite whose „death-ray“ he aims at Stark Industries, and the building (later retconned as „the reprogramming, the refitting, and the recharging“) of Ultimo, a 30-foot (9.1 m) android possessing vast destructive powers. The Mandarin will employ Ultimo four times over the years, but it is always defeated by Iron Man.

The Mandarin’s teleportation technology, derived from Makluan science, enables him to kidnap people at will or teleport himself out of threatening situations. He teleports the Swordsman to his castle just before the Avengers capture him, plotting to use him to destroy the Avengers and adding technology to his sword to aid him, though the Swordsman betrays him and throws the bomb away. During his fifth encounter with Iron Man, the Mandarin teleports Harold „Happy“ Hogan, a friend and confidant of Iron Man, to his castle in China half a world away. Hogan is wearing the Iron Man armor at the time to help protect his employer’s secret identity, and the Mandarin mistakes him for his true foe. In rescuing Hogan, Iron Man physically bests the Mandarin in personal combat for the first time. Iron Man redirected the missiles that the Mandarin had launched so that they hit the Mandarin’s castle, destroying it. The Mandarin escaped by means of his teleportation machinery, and he materialized aboard his orbiting satellite. There, he constructs a gemlike device capable of broadcasting „hate-rays“ toward Earth. The Mandarin, using his teleportation technology, assembles several former enemies of the Avengers to perform missions for him: the Living Laser, who attacks Asia with Ultimo but is beaten by Thor and Hawkeye; the original Power Man and the Swordsman, who with an army of mercenaries attacked a South American country but are beaten by Goliath, the Wasp, and Iron Man; the Enchantress; and the Executioner, who lead an army of Trolls in Africa, but are beaten by Hercules and the Scarlet Witch. The Avengers manage to thwart the Mandarin’s scheme after getting to the satellite, despite being hit by his hate-rays that make each of them attack the person nearest to themselves. However, the Wasp is nearest to the Mandarin and her attack on him shuts off the rays. The Mandarin is sucked into space and the Avengers are able to destroy his satellite.[volume & issue needed]

The Mandarin then establishes a base in China’s Gobi Desert, and turns his attention to the Hulk for a time, hoping to make the dull-witted brute an accomplice. Two attempts at controlling the Hulk proved futile. First he places a device on the Hulk’s neck, hoping to use him to start a war which will allow the Mandarin to take over the world. However Nick Fury foils this scheme. Next the Mandarin allies himself with the American criminal the Sandman, who has just been beaten by the Hulk.[volume & issue needed] The Hulk destroys the Mandarin’s desert base and the Mandarin sends the Sandman into a hot vat, turning him to glass.[volume & issue needed] The glass later shatters, and the Sandman has to recover slowly in the Mandarin’s satellite den.[volume & issue needed] When the Mandarin next attacks Iron Man, he employs an android in the Hulk’s likeness rather than the real Hulk. The Mandarin sets up a makeshift base of operations in the United States, and attempts to discredit Anthony Stark publicly. Holding Iron Man captive for the fourth time, the Mandarin tries to learn if Iron Man is actually Stark, but Stark fools him with a rubber mask over his own features. His plans thwarted, the Mandarin tries to kill Stark’s girlfriend, Janice Cord, but the Mandarin’s betrothed Mei Ling saves her at the cost of her own life.[volume & issue needed]

Returning to China, the Mandarin seeks a means to increase his rings‘ power, and learns of the legendary Eye of Yin, a talisman of power created by an ancient group of Chinese sorcerers. The Mandarin manipulates the Royal Family of the Inhumans, who at the time, live in the nearby Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, into locating the idol for him. Yet before he can fully incorporate the Eye’s power in his rings, Black Bolt, the ruler of the Inhumans, overpowers him, strips him of his ten rings, and hides them. Unable to find the rings, the Mandarin journeys back to the Valley of Spirits and the ruins of the Makluan starship, wherein he first acquired the rings. There he found a headband containing technology which enabled him to recover the rings. The Mandarin uses his newfound power to restore his castle to its original state. The Unicorn, another frequent opponent of Iron Man, seeks the Mandarin’s aid in curing him of a progressive disease. The Mandarin and the Unicorn travel to the United States to attack their common enemy, Iron Man, but in the heat of battle, the Mandarin finds that the headband has somehow exchanged his consciousness with that of the Unicorn. The Mandarin is forced to flee, desperate to separate himself from the Unicorn’s dying body.

When the Mandarin arrives at his castle in China, he finds that it has been taken over by the Yellow Claw, another professional criminal and warlord of Chinese origin. The Mandarin is forced to find another laboratory to try to restore his mind back to its rightful body, which he manages with the unwilling aid of the Japanese mutant Sunfire.[volume & issue needed] In a subsequent battle with Iron Man, the Mandarin’s interim headquarters is destroyed. The Mandarin then launches an attack on the Yellow Claw in an attempt to regain his own castle, but is fatally injured when the Yellow Claw robot he is battling explodes. As the Mandarin is dying, he uses the headband’s mind-transferring capacities to transfer his consciousness into his ten rings.[volume & issue needed] When the rings are confiscated by the Yellow Claw’s power-hungry servant Loc Do, the Mandarin’s consciousness enters his body, permanently driving out Loc Do’s. Using his matter-rearranger ring, the Mandarin transformed Loc Do’s body into a younger duplicate of his own original one.

The Mandarin returns to his castle, discovering that it has again been destroyed. After rebuilding it, the Mandarin attempts to capture Iron Man with his teleportation devices, but once again catches someone else clad in his armor. This time it is Michael O’Brien, later to become a friend of Stark’s and the second man to wear the Guardsman’s armor. Iron Man flies to O’Brien’s rescue, clad in an old set of armor, saves O’Brien, thwarts the Mandarin’s attempt to bomb the United States, and for a second time bests him in personal combat. Perhaps due to the effect of the Mandarin’s mental domination ring on him, Iron Man does not take the Mandarin into custody, but allows him to remain free.

The Mandarin later schemes to turn the Great Vibranium Mound of Wakanda into Type II Vibranium, which destroys the molecular cohesion of metals. He also tries to destroy China’s entire rice crop with radiation in an attempt to force a starving nation into war. In the second of these plots, the Mandarin encounters James Rhodes during Rhodes‘ custodianship of the Iron Man armor.

When Stark tries to set up a branch of Stark Enterprises in Hong Kong, Iron Man and the Mandarin once again come into conflict. The Mandarin has taken the name of Zhang Tong, and had become a financial leader in Hong Kong. As Tong, he controls a number of government officials and industry leaders of Hong Kong. The Mandarin thwarts all of Stark’s attempts to set up a business branch, even resorting to murder. The Mandarin now employs a group called the Hand to do his dirty work. When on a mission, a Hand member is allowed to take one of the Mandarin’s rings and use its powers. As a precaution, if the Hand member is to be captured, he will fanatically try to kill himself. If the Hand member is to be killed or knocked out, the ring will automatically teleport back to the Mandarin. The Mandarin’s agents kidnap James Rhodes and several of Stark’s other employees, forcing Iron Man into single combat in exchange for their lives. Iron Man defeats the Mandarin once again, and helps Stark’s employees escape the Hand. The Mandarin’s minions are left without their weapons when their master is knocked unconscious, causing his rings to teleport back to him automatically and leaving them unarmed and unable to stop Stark’s employees from fleeing.[volume & issue needed]

At one point, during a period in which the then thought-dead X-Men had disbanded, the mutant heroine Psylocke passes through the mystic portal known as the Siege Perilous. The portal relocates her to an Asian shore, leaving her an amnesiac. The man known as Matsu’o Tsurayaba finds her and believes he could save his brain-dead lover Kwannon by switching her mind with Psylocke. He makes an arrangement with the Mandarin to help him with the switch, since his rings will be able to facilitate it. Working with the otherdimensional sorceress known as Spiral, they are able to do this successfully. Mandarin conditions Psylocke (now in Kwannon’s body) to believe herself to be Lady Mandarin, the Mandarin’s assassin. During this time, the Mandarin teams up with several other villains during the „Acts of Vengeance“ storyline. He also confronted the Avengers. After completing several assignments for him, Psylocke is eventually rescued by her X-Men teammates Wolverine and Jubilee. The three then defeat the Mandarin, causing events which lead to the severing of the Mandarin’s relationship with the Hand.

Some time later, the Mandarin discovered that one of his rings is an elaborate counterfeit. One of his underlings had betrayed him, surrendering the ring to Chen Hsu, an ancient wizard who lived in San Francisco. Hsu, elfin in appearance but puissant in power, gives up the ring to the Mandarin, who collapses as soon as he put it on. Chen Hsu tends to him, removing the veil of confusion from his mind; soon the Mandarin realizes that his memories had been fragmented because of the theft of the ring, because the rings were still linked to his consciousness.[volume & issue needed]

Next Chen Hsu makes the Mandarin an offer that involves them traveling to the Valley of the Dragons. There, Chen Hsu uses a magic herb to awaken Fin Fang Foom, an ancient and powerful dragon. Under the control of Hsu, the dragon obeys the Mandarin, laying waste to an army sent by the Chinese government to stop him. Soon the Mandarin claims a third of China’s territory, and the authorities sent out a call for help to Iron Man.[volume & issue needed]

When Iron Man confronts the Mandarin and Fin Fang Foom, eight other dragons appear. It is revealed that many thousands of years ago, a number of aliens from the planet Kakaranathara, the fourth planet of the star Maklu, traveled to Earth to look for the conflict which was unknown in their culture, and which they craved. The ship crashed, stranding them on Earth for thousands of years, after which the Mandarin found the ship and claimed their rings. Now, they demand them back, but he refuses them. Iron Man forcibly combines his power with the rings, and manages to destroy the Makluan dragons. The blast vaporizes the Mandarin’s hands, and renders him comatose.[volume & issue needed]

For months, he lies in a state between life and death, in the care of a peasant woman who does not know who he is. Over time, his hands grow back, though they do so as reptilian claws, and the rings called to him again, to reclaim them.[volume & issue needed]

The Mandarin discovers the Heart of Darkness, an orb of apparently mystic energy; the alien Century believes it is an ancient artifact which acts as a „lens“ to attract and focus all manner of dark power. The Mandarin uses its power to turn back time in China, and literally transforms it into a feudal nation again, one in which electronic equipment cannot not operate. Iron Man, with his team Force Works and ally War Machine defeat him, but not before the Mandarin discovers that Tony Stark is the man inside the Iron Man armor.

Iron Man infects the Mandarin with a techno-organic virus, and the Heart, seeing him infected with technology, rejects the Mandarin and implodes. Iron Man believes him dead, though in reality the Mandarin has been transported and transformed, by the last flare of the orb’s magic, into a janitor in the Hong Kong branch of Stark Enterprises.

Eventually, the Mandarin’s memories return to him. The Mandarin believes that the feudalism of yesterday has merely been transformed into the capitalism of today, leading him to set into motion plans to create a giant flying fortress, called the Dragon of Heaven, through which he can conquer Russia and eventually the world. During this time, Iron Man reappears after being believed dead in a battle against the psychic menace Onslaught. The Mandarin initiates a series of attacks on Iron Man, culminating in a battle with the Dragon of Heaven. Eventually it is revealed that the Mandarin’s primary purpose is not to conquer Russia, but instead to test Iron Man himself, prove him worthy as a foe, and to justify the Mandarin’s own thoughts on the feudal nature of capitalism. The Mandarin appears to die as the Dragon of Heaven explodes, but Iron Man is not convinced that his foe has truly met his end.

Despite the uncertainty of his fate, it would be nearly ten years before the Mandarin returned to the pages of Iron Man. In the interim, Iron Man faces Mandarin’s son, Temugin. Temugin has precious few memories of his father, and most of them involve his father taking him to the monastery where he was raised and trained by monks. Temugin is sensitive, spiritual, and extremely powerful because of his control of chi, the living force in all things.[volume & issue needed]

One day, Temugin receives a package containing the severed hands of the Mandarin, bearing all the rings of power. Temugin knows that he is honor-bound to fulfill his father’s wishes for him. He challenges Iron Man in order to avenge his father’s death, and he proves a deadly adversary even without the rings.

After Tony Stark reveals a conspiracy for mass murder in his own ranks, Temugin appears to have forgiven Iron Man for the death of his father and to have turned to more lofty pursuits, but events indicate that the evil power of the rings has corrupted his soul.[volume & issue needed]

Temugin had been named after his, and the Mandarin’s, claimed ancestor Genghis Khan, whose birth name was Temujin (also spelled Temuchin, Temudjin, u also variates to ü).[volume & issue needed]

Temugin is later contacted by the double-crossing Spot, who gives him a super-weapon that MODOK had been planning to steal. In this appearance, Temugin speaks of the Mandarin as „my late father“, and bears the rings, one of which he uses to imprison Spot in another dimension with nothing but money. In the following issue, the Puma tears off at least one of Temugin’s hands, but despite this, he retained at least half of the rings – and possibly all, as Nightshade, who used the rings on his lost hand, is not seen with them at the end of the story.

Nevertheless, he later reappeared without the rings, and with a cybernetic arm, as a member of the Atlas Foundation, having been selected as a secondary candidate for the position of its ruler by the ancient dragon Mr. Lao. In this capacity he is a constant irritant to Jimmy Woo, the head of Atlas.[volume & issue needed]

The Mandarin is revived in a subsequent Iron Man story arc, in which he is revealed to have been in a prison in central China for some time. It is revealed that he has lost his hands (most likely the hands that were sent to Temugin were, in fact, actually the Mandarin’s), and that he has been living with no food or water for years, an ability that is likely due to his mastery of chi. Despite being handless and starved, he is able to kill several men armed with guns via his mastery of the martial arts. His rings have been returned to him, and are reassimilated into his body by heating them and burning them into his spine.

After attacking Iron Man, via S glass water bottle canada.H.I.E.L.D. – with dozens of unwitting proxies in the form of extremist splinter groups, equipped by him with hyper-advanced biological weapons – he eventually resurfaces as Tem Borjigin (yet another name of Genghis Khan), now employing artificial hands.[volume & issue needed]

The Mandarin infiltrates the U.S. government via his role as CEO of Prometheus, a corporation specializing in bio-engineered weaponry. He appears to be using Tony Stark’s former love interest Maya Hansen to produce an army of soldiers enhanced with Extremis, an artificial biotech virus created by Hansen that when introduced into a subject with a specific gene receptive to it (which only 2.5% of the population possess), grants that subject a super-boosted immune system and a greatly enhanced healing ability that can spontaneously generate new, improved organs, but which increases aggression and kills anyone injected with it who lacks the gene for it. Mandarin is also financing and arming terrorists around the globe, and plans to unleash the Extremis virus on the public, expecting the 97.5% fatality ratio to cause a mass catastrophe of deaths. The Mandarin admits to Hansen that even he will die in the outbreak, but she and those with the gene to survive will become free from disease and effectively immortal wholesale boxers and socks. Though he has his Extremis disabled, Iron Man defeats the Mandarin while wearing the Silver Centurion armor by tearing five of the rings out of the Mandarin’s spine, blasting him with those rings, his unibeam, and repulsors at the same time, and then freezing him as he is engulfed in deadly concentrated Extremis virus. Iron Man then prevents the Extremis outbreak.

When the Mandarin’s apparently frozen body is autopsied, all that is found is a blackened husk, not unlike an Extremis chrysalis.

In 2007, the Mandarin appeared in Iron Man – Enter the Mandarin, an expanded and modified retelling of his earliest appearances in Tales of Suspense. The series was written by Joe Casey and drawn by Eric Canete.

In Invincible Iron Man Annual #1 by Matt Fraction, a new updated origin of the Mandarin is offered. Here, the Mandarin kidnaps a young up and coming film producer to tell his life’s story. He relates the same story he once told Iron Man in Tales of Suspense of his English noblewoman mother and his schooling at the finest boarding schools in the land. The director learns that much of what the Mandarin says is contradictory and false, and it is hinted that the Mandarin has used one of his own rings to make himself believe this tapestry of half-truths. The director discovers that the Mandarin was the son of an opium den prostitute who went on to become a powerful underworld figure before discovering the Ten Rings of Power in an alien craft, the pilot of which he brutally slew to obtain them. The Mandarin slaughtered the Red Chinese army officials for daring to cross him while financing his operations with drug and gun smuggling, aided by the mercenary Raza. In this retelling, he is also said to have been at the camp in which Tony Stark constructed his Iron Man armor, though Stark is unaware of this fact.

Angered at the Mandarin holding his wife hostage, the director shoots the movie as he wishes, not as the Mandarin dictates. The Mandarin denounces this telling of his past as lies and angrily destroys the theater in which it was being shown, before having the director killed. Later, he regrets murdering the director, noting that he really did love his films.

At the conclusion of the 2010 – 2011 „Stark Resilient“ storyline, it is revealed that the Mandarin is the father of Sasha Hammer, as she introduces her boyfriend Zeke Stane to her parents.

With help from Zeke Stane, Mandarin recruits Blizzard, Chemistro, Crimson Dynamo, Firebrand, Firepower, Living Laser, Melter, Mauler, a Titanium Man, Vibro, and Whirlwind as well as building some new Dreadnought robots in a plot to take out Iron Man.

In the 2012 storyline „The Long Way Down“, it is revealed that the Mandarin has gained some measure of mental control over Tony Stark, apparently established around the time of the „World’s Most Wanted“ and „Stark Disassembled“ arcs, wherein Stark effectively wiped his own mind to safeguard critical S.H.I.E.L.D. data from Norman Osborn and H.A.M.M.E.R. How the Mandarin gained this control is as yet unrevealed, but it has been stated that he is „in [Stark’s] head“, and had been observing and influencing his actions since Stark’s return to public life. Among these actions were implanted design ideas for „Titanomechs“, huge squid-like war machines apparently capable of taking over the world (as seen in an alternate future in Invincible Iron Man #500).

This lead into the next storyline „The Future“ in which the Mandarin kidnaps Stark, and brings him to Mandarin City to develop ten Titanomechs, which Mandarin plans to use as host bodies for each of his ten rings, which he reveals are actually vessels for the souls of ten alien beings. In truth, the Mandarin serves these beings, and has planned all along to „resurrect“ them in this fashion.

Tony forms an alliance with others that Mandarin has imprisoned, including Ezekiel Stane, Whirlwind, Blizzard, and Living Laser. In a rebellion against Mandarin, Stark manages to alert his staff at Stark Resilient to find him, and manages to destroy the Titanomechs. In the ensuing battle, Mandarin is apparently killed by Stane, much to the dismay of Iron Man.

In the Marvel NOW relaunch of Iron Man by writer Kieron Gillen, the Mandarin’s rings managed to escape from S.H.I.E.L.D.’s Weapon Vault Omega, the Mento-Intensifier Ring staying behind to create the illusion that the rings were still there. Each of the rings later started finding new hosts with the purpose of „saving Earth from Tony Stark“, using persuasive language and mind-control to bend them towards the cause against Iron Man. Each one has been codenamed from Mandarin-One to Mandarin-Ten:

However, after the dark elf Malekith the Accursed beheaded Mandarin-One and Mandarin-Nine, as well as cutting off the hands of Mandarin-Six, the remaining six Mandarins joined forces just in time to attack Malekith while Iron Man was also mounting an assault on the Dark Elves.[volume & issue needed] With Malekith defeated, the Mandarins initially contemplated continuing to work together due to Kumar’s influence, but after Tony and Arno were able to use the four rings they’d recovered already to form a ‚Master Ring‘ that could control the others, as well as convincing the former Mandarin-Six to help them, most of the remaining Mandarins were defeated in a final assault; the only one to escape was the Mole Man, who concluded that the rings had been more trouble than they were worth, as he was content with the status quo.[volume & issue needed]

With all ten rings now in custody, Iron Man realized the recovered Recorder 451’s corpse from deep space was transmitting an alien frequency that had upgraded the rings to become sentient.

The Mandarin is a superb athlete with tremendous skill in the various martial arts. Through repeated practice, he has toughened all the striking surfaces of his body, especially his hands, which are covered with thick calluses. He can even split Iron Man’s magnetic-beam reinforced alloy armor with repeated blows. So great is the Mandarin’s martial arts ability, that he can even survive years without food and water, apparently sustaining himself purely via his mastery of chi. The precise degree of The Mandarin’s martial art powers has been the subject of multiple implied retcons by Marvel Comics. Initially, Mandarin was portrayed as being such a superhumanly skilled martial artist that he could destroy Iron Man’s armor with his bare hands.

The Mandarin is one of Marvel Earth’s greatest scientific geniuses, and highly skilled in various sciences. Not only has he made himself into an expert authority on alien Makluan science, but he has also built upon this knowledge by making further discoveries based upon it.

The principal personal weapons of the Mandarin are the ten rings which he wears on the fingers of both hands. The rings‘ operations cannot be explained by contemporary Earth science, but it is known that they served as near-limitless power sources for the warp-drive engines of the Makluan starship of Axonn-Karr. The Mandarin learned how to convert the rings to his personal uses and to make them respond to his mental commands. The fingers on which he wears each ring, and the known functions for which he uses each ring, are given below.

As of writer Kieron Gillen’s tenure on Iron Man, new names have been revealed for some rings which the rings – apparently sentient – use to identify one another. Capable of speech and inter-communication via telepathy, the rings demonstrate personality traits and are even capable of mocking and humiliating the Nightbringer ring for failing to find a host at the same time as its fellows.

Over the years through mental discipline achieved through meditation and long practice in use of the rings, the Mandarin has established a strong psionic link with his ten power rings, which was made many times stronger during the period in which his mind/spirit actually inhabited them[volume & issue needed]. One result is that no one who wears the rings other than the Mandarin himself can command them without his permission. The Mandarin can now command the rings even when they are separated from him by vast distances. He can mentally monitor events taking place near a ring that has been separated from him. Continued exposure to the alien rings made his hands green and scaly. He can voluntarily give temporary control over a ring to his servants. If the servant dies or falls unconscious, the rings teleport back to the Mandarin. Conversely, if the Mandarin himself is knocked out, all the rings automatically return to him. On one occasion[volume & issue needed], this left the Mandarin’s servants powerless to stop some of Tony Stark’s employees, that the Mandarin had kidnapped, from escaping.

The Mandarin has also used a force field generator[volume & issue needed], but this is not part of his standard weaponry[citation needed].

He has also used a head band enabling him to transfer his mind into his rings or into another’s body, and a teleportation device hidden on his person, both examples of Makluan technology.

The Mandarin is a brilliant and brutal tactician and a gifted strategist. He also abides by a very strict code of honor. When he attempted to stop Stark Enterprises from establishing itself in Hong Kong, the Mandarin challenged Iron Man to a duel, stating that if he won, he would take control of Stark Enterprises‘ Hong Kong operations, and that he would cease hindering Stark’s activities if he lost. When Iron Man defeated him in fair combat, he lived up to his end of the agreement. On another occasion, he killed one of his minions for attempting to drug him during a practice session, angry that one of his students would use such dishonorable tactics.

In the Spider-Ham universe, there is a version of the Mandarin who is a Ring-tailed lemur named Mandaringtail.

In the Heroes Reborn reality created by Franklin Richards, a version of the Mandarin exists, but is revealed to be a robot created by Dr. Doom as a puppet to control HYDRA.

In Marvel Mangaverse The Mandarin was an enemy of Iron Man and Iron Girl. The Mandarin is killed by the Hand who steal his rings and severe his hands.[volume & issue needed]

In the House of M reality, the Mandarin was a long-dead Chinese warlord famous for his supernatural rings. The rings (still bonded to the Mandarin’s mummified hands) were apparently uncovered by Shang-Chi and his gang, but this was revealed to be a trap set by the Kingpin.

In the Ultimate Marvel Universe, the Mandarin appears in a flashback in Ultimate Avengers vs. New Ultimates, with Tony Stark in an earlier armor prototype attacking Mandarin holding James Rhodes captive. This is actually not in continuity with the Ultimate Universe, as this is an Iron Man animated series which Nick Fury is watching; the Mandarin is a fictional character invented for the self-promoting cartoon.

Although the initial incarnation does not actually exist, a version of the Mandarin appears in Ultimate Comics: Iron Man as an organization rather than a lone supervillain. Mandarin International is a company that helped Howard Stark build Stark International into a successful company. Years later, they reclaim what was „theirs“: Tony Stark and his legacy. Stark located them in Hong Kong, and came into conflict with their „caretakers“ Taku and Jane stealing DNA from Stark and access their defense satellites. With help from War Machine and S.H.I.E.L.D., they were stopped and their facility was destroyed, although it sent a message to caretaker Li from an unknown individual.

In Secret Wars, the Mandarin is the ruler of the K’un-Lun region of Battleworld. Here he is named Zheng Zu, Master of the Ten Rings, and is the father of Shang-Chi (thus making him a composite character of the Mandarin and Fu Manchu).

Mandarin is featured in the direct-to-video animated movie The Invincible Iron Man voiced by Fred Tatasciore. This version is an ancient ruler of a vicious Chinese dynasty that used some supernatural means (his servants were of each element: Air, Fire, Water, and Earth) and has two Guardians: the dragon Fin Fang Foom and the Ice Dragon Zhen Ji Xang. Another difference between this Mandarin is that he has five rings instead of 10 (and was left behind around the globe, should all rings be re-united, the Mandarin will rise and rule the Earth). He appears only briefly as a spiritual projection at the film’s climax but was destroyed by his descendant, Li-Mei (voiced by Gwendoline Yeo) to save a wounded Tony Stark.

James Hunt

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James Simon Wallis Hunt (Londra, 29 agosto 1947 – Londra, 15 giugno 1993) è stato un pilota automobilistico e commentatore televisivo britannico, vincitore del Campionato mondiale di Formula 1 1976.

Soprannominato Hunt „The Shunt“, cioè Hunt „Lo schianto“, per indicare i suoi frequenti incidenti, corse per la maggior parte della sua carriera in Formula 1, categoria in cui vinse 10 Gran Premi. Terminata la carriera di pilota a soli 31 anni divenne commentatore televisivo per la BBC, mantenendo tale ruolo fino alla morte, avvenuta il 15 giugno 1993 a seguito di un attacco cardiaco.

James Hunt nacque il 29 agosto 1947 a Belmont, nel Borgo londinese di Sutton, secondo figlio di Sue e Wallis Hunt. Aveva due sorelle, Sally e Georgina, e tre fratelli, Peter, Timothy e David. Inizialmente la famiglia visse in un appartamento a Cheam, per poi trasferirsi a Sutton quando Hunt aveva undici anni e infine spostarsi a Belmont. Prima di compiere cinque anni la famiglia lo iscrisse in una scuola materna ad Ambleside, dopodiché frequentò le scuole a Hastings e il Wellington College. In questo periodo giocò per due anni a cricket e si dedicò al calcio, facendo il portiere. All’età di dodici anni prese parte anche a un torneo di tennis under 16.

Fin da bambino aveva una personalità ribelle e, secondo i genitori, cominciò a fumare fin dall’età di dieci anni. Nonostante i tentativi di indurlo a smettere Hunt continuò a praticare il suo vizio. Mentre era in vacanza con la famiglia in Galles imparò a guidare utilizzando un trattore in una fattoria. Inizialmente però si sentiva frustrato per non avere la forza necessaria per cambiare la marcia del mezzo. Una settimana dopo il suo diciassettesimo compleanno prese la patente e affermò che da quel momento la sua vita era veramente iniziata. Nel 1965 cominciò a praticare lo sport sciistico recandosi in Scozia, replicando la spedizione pure nel 1966, occasione nella quale riportò un infortunio al braccio. Prima del suo diciottesimo compleanno si recò a casa di Chris Ridge con cui faceva coppia nelle gare di doppio nel tennis. In questa occasione conobbe suo fratello Simon, pilota di Mini, che stava preparando una gara per il fine settimana. Hunt si recò con loro a Silverstone per vedere la gara e rimase affascinato dal mondo dell’automobilismo.

Hunt cominciò la propria carriera di pilota nelle corse con le Mini. Si iscrisse per la prima volta in una gara a Snetterton, ma i commissari di gara gli impedirono di partecipare perché giudicarono la sua vettura irregolare. Per potere partecipare ad altre corse lavorò quindi per una compagnia telefonica, procurandosi i soldi necessari per disputare altre tre gare.

Nel 1968 passò alla Formula Ford, correndo con una Russell-Alexis Mk 14 che il pilota pagò a rate. All’esordio, nonostante un errore nel settaggio dell’accensione del motore, che gli fece perdere 15 cv, riuscì a concludere al quinto posto. Ottenne la sua prima vittoria sul circuito di Lydden Hill e a Brands Hatch fece segnare il giro record.

Il 10 agosto del 1969, a Mallory Park, Hunt fece il suo debutto nel campionato inglese di Formula 3 alla guida di una Brabham BT21 della Motor Racing Enterprises, arrivando all’ottavo posto. Già nella gara successiva a Brands Hatch, Hunt stupì tutti, conquistando un ottimo terzo posto dietro ad Emerson Fittipaldi e a Roy Pike. A fine campionato, grazie ad un altro paio di gare finite a punti si classificherà al quindicesimo posto.

Visto il suo ottimo debutto nella categoria nell’annata seguente divenne osservato speciale da parte di molti team manager. In realtà Hunt, che nel frattempo era passato alla Lotus, sarà protagonista di una stagione costellata da pochi alti (due secondi posti ottenuti a Oulton Park e Brands Hatch) e molti bassi, a partire da diverse uscite di strada che gli costarono il soprannome „Hunt The Shunt“. Uno dei momenti più celebri fu il controverso incidente con Dave Morgan durante la gara svoltasi al Crystal Palace. Dopo avere duellato per tutta la gara durante l’ultimo giro Morgan attaccò Hunt all’esterno della curva South Tower, ma le due vetture si toccarono ed entrambi i concorrenti furono costretti al ritiro. Hunt, una volta sceso dalla propria vettura, raggiunse Morgan e lo prese a spinte, facendolo cadere a terra. Entrambi i piloti vennero convocati dalla RAC che, dopo avere analizzato le sequenze dell’incidente, assolse Hunt e punì Morgan con una sospensione di un anno della licenza per correre. Sempre in quella stagione vinse la sua prima gara, anche se non valevole per il campionato inglese. A Rouen, il 28 giugno 1970, riuscì a battere in volata Wilson Fittipaldi e Mike Beuttler, dopo che una gara tragica che vedrà perire in due distinti incidenti i francesi Denis Dayan e Jean-Luc Salomon. Lo stesso anno Hunt si incontrò anche con John Hogan e Gerry Birrell, stringendo un accordo di sponsorizzazione con la Coca Cola. Nel 1971 Hunt passa alla March, con la quale aveva già disputato una gara nel 1969: nonostante venga indicato da molti osservatori come uno dei favoriti per il titolo la sua stagione si rivelerà molto deludente. Arrivò terzo nel campionato B.A.R.C. (in quel periodo in Inghilterra si disputavano tre campionati di Formula 3) e vinse un’altra gara in Francia, a Montlhéry. Debuttò inoltre in Formula 2 nella gara fuori campionato di Brands Hatch.

La carriera di Hunt continuò alla March, con cui si accordò per disputare la stagione 1972. Dopo un inizio di stagione che lo aveva visto cogliere un podio e alcuni piazzamenti a punti, nella gara a Zandvoort fu costretto a fare da spettatore. La March gli comunicò a maggio l’intenzione della scuderia di sostituirlo con Jochen Mass. Hunt si rivolse quindi al suo ex team manager Chris Marshall, che gli mise a disposizione una vettura di riserva, ma spesso venne costretto al ritiro a causa di vari guasti meccanici. La carriera di Hunt pareva giunta al capolinea, quando incrociò nella sua strada l’eccentrico e ricco Lord Alexander Hesketh, che deluso dai risultati del suo team in F3 progettava il salto di categoria nel ben più difficile campionato europeo di F2. Hunt ebbe a disposizione una vecchia March del 1971 con la quale debuttò a Salisburgo il 3 settembre ottenendo una fenomenale prima fila durante le qualifiche. In gara ruppe il motore, ma le sue ottime prestazioni in Austria non passarono inosservate. Hunt arrivò inoltre terzo ad Oulton Park, dietro a Ronnie Peterson e Niki Lauda e quinto ad Albi. Ottenne inoltre un quinto posto alla Rothmans 50,000, una gara mista fra F1, F2, Sport e F.5000 disputata a Brands Hatch. Nel 1973 Lord Hesketh decise di passare alla Surtees, che l’anno precedente aveva vinto il titolo nella serie cadetta. La scelta non fu però azzeccata in quanto la TS15 non si dimostrò molto competitiva meat tenderizer solution, surclassata in termini di prestazioni dalla March 732 a motore BMW. Dopo alcune gare Hunt ed Hesketh deciserò di abbandonare la serie.

Hunt fece il proprio debutto in Formula 1 nel 1973 al Gran Premio di Monaco, alla guida di una March 731 acquistata dal team di Lord Alexander Hesketh. Lo sviluppo della monoposto fu invece affidato a Harvey Postlethwaite. Inizialmente le altre scuderie non presero troppo sul serio la partecipazione della squadra inglese al campionato, ma ben presto Hunt cominciò a ottenere risultati rilevanti: in Francia conquistò un sesto posto, mentre in Gran Bretagna giunse quarto e fece segnare il giro più veloce. Andò, poi, a podio due volte, arrivando terzo in Olanda e secondo negli Stati Uniti. Concluse quindi all’ottavo posto in campionato con quattordici punti ottenuti.

Lo stesso anno fece breve apparizione alla 9 Ore di Kyalami, guidando in coppia con Derek Bell e giungendo secondo. Vinse anche il Trofeo Campbell, assegnato dalla RAC, come miglior pilota britannico dell’anno.

Nel 1974 fu pilota della Hesketh Racing. Nella prima stagione ottenne tre podi, mentre nel 1975 conquistò una grande vittoria in Olanda e giunse quarto in classifica piloti. A fine stagione la Hesketh, che per scelta correva senza sponsor („non si possono appiccicare adesivi sull’Union Jack“, diceva Lord Hesketh), si ritrovò in pesanti difficoltà economiche, e Hunt si ritrovò senza più un team. Si accordò quindi con la McLaren, rimasta orfana di Emerson Fittipaldi, andato a correre per la Fittipaldi Automotive del fratello Wilson Fittipaldi. La Hesketh riuscì comunque a continuare a competere in Formula 1.

Hunt ottenne i migliori risultati alla guida della McLaren. Uomo dal carattere irruento ed anticonformista, ebbe spesso contrasti con l’ambiente delle corse automobilistiche. Nel 1976 si aggiudicò il titolo di campione del mondo di Formula 1 precedendo di un solo punto il ferrarista Niki Lauda. La stagione sembrava ormai di marchio Ferrari con Lauda protagonista. L’incidente al Gran Premio di Germania occorso a Lauda permise a James Hunt di recuperare gran parte dello svantaggio accumulato in campionato, proponendosi come principale avversario del pilota Ferrari. Lauda tornò al volante dopo soli 42 giorni dall’incidente, al Gran Premio di Italia. Il duello con Hunt proseguì fino all’ultima gara, il Gran Premio del Giappone sul circuito del Fuji.

La gara venne corsa sotto una pioggia torrenziale, e Lauda, nel corso del secondo giro, preferì fermarsi ai box e ritirarsi per la pericolosità delle condizioni, causando, tra l’altro, l’ira di Enzo Ferrari in persona. Hunt proseguì ed ottenne il piazzamento necessario a vincere il titolo. L’inglese rimarrà in McLaren anche per i due anni successivi, conquistando tre vittorie (Gran Bretagna, Stati Uniti Est e Giappone), tutte nel 1977. Con questo episodio, Hunt siglò un record anomalo: è infatti riuscito a essere in testa alla classifica mondiale solamente una volta, ma fu proprio quella della sua vittoria del mondiale, record eguagliato nel 2010 da Sebastian Vettel.

Fece scalpore, la stagione successiva, la sua polemica con Riccardo Patrese riguardo alle cause dell’incidente in cui perse la vita a Monza Ronnie Peterson nel corso del Gran Premio d’Italia 1978: inizialmente fu attribuita a Patrese la causa del terribile incidente con le accuse che partirono da Hunt prima di essere appoggiate dagli altri corridori. Successivamente nuove riprese televisive evidenziarono come le „responsabilità“ dovessero essere ripartite fra più piloti best hydration pack for running, tra cui lo stesso Hunt.

Nel 1979 passò alla Wolf, sostituendo Jody Scheckter e firmando un contratto annuale da ottocento milioni di lire. Il pilota inglese, in cerca di rilancio, sperava di poter competere, se non per la vittoria del titolo mondiale, almeno per la conquista di qualche gara. In realtà la WR7, con cui la scuderia canadese intendeva disputare la stagione, si rivelò scarsamente competitiva e molto difficoltosa nella messa a punto. Hunt, sempre più demotivato di gara in gara, alla vigilia del Gran Premio del Sudafrica, annunciò il suo ritiro a fine anno, salvo poi anticiparla al termine della corsa di Monaco. L’addio che diede al mondo delle corse fu al vetriolo: „Lascio ora e definitivamente perché – nel mondo della F1 – l’uomo non conta più!“, ebbe a dire durante un’intervista.

In seguito al ritiro dalle corse si occupò delle telecronache dei Gran Premi, innescando anche violente polemiche con i colleghi, da lui spesso aspramente criticati.

Hunt fu trovato morto nella sua casa di Londra il 15 giugno 1993. Alla morte, giunta a soli 45 anni di età e attribuita ufficialmente a infarto, forse non furono estranei l’abuso di fumo e alcool specialmente negli ultimi anni di vita. Il corpo di Hunt venne cremato e le ceneri vennero inumate nel Cimitero di Putney Vale, a Londra.

Hunt era noto per un comportamento particolarmente spavaldo sia in pista che fuori, tanto che gli valse la reputazione di cavaliere in alcol e sesso. Facendosi un’immagine popolare proprio grazie alla Formula 1, Hunt divenne un vero e proprio playboy dell’epoca.

Il suo stile di vita fu così controverso come alcuni eventi che lo videro protagonista nelle corse: spesso accompagnato da belle donne, camminando in jeans ed a piedi nudi prima dell’inizio di ogni evento, ampie frequenze in discoteche e locali notturni; inoltre, gli piaceva bere alcolici di ogni tipo e talvolta lo si è visto fare uso anche di cocaina e marijuana. Oltre alle corse, Hunt era anche appassionato e praticante di altri sport come: squash, tennis, cricket e calcio.

Fin dagli inizi della sua carriera in Formula 1, si creò una forte rivalità fra Hunt e l’austriaco Niki Lauda; in pista non vi era indulgenza fra i due, ma fuori erano molto amici. Lauda ha sempre descritto Hunt „un amico onesto ed aperto“, Hunt invece ammirava molto le capacità di Lauda al volante. Hunt divenne presto amico anche del sudafricano Jody Scheckter, quando si trasferì nella primavera del 1974 in Spagna. Un altro amico fu Ronnie Peterson, che piacque molto ad Hunt in quanto molto tranquillo e timido. Hunt è anche ricordato per aver scoperto l’allora nuovo talento Gilles Villeneuve, in quanto il canadese riuscì a batterlo in una gara di Formula Atlantic del 1976; e fu lo stesso Hunt che organizzò il debutto di Villeneuve in un Gran Premio di Formula 1 con la McLaren, nel 1977.

Hunt iniziò la relazione con Taormina Rieck, quando aveva appena 15 anni; la loro relazione terminò però nel maggio 1971, in quanto la Rieck pretendeva che Hunt non vedesse più i suoi familiari ed amici.

Hunt conobbe la sua prima moglie, la modella Suzy Miller, nel 1974 in Spagna, sposandosi il 18 ottobre di quell’anno, solo dopo poche settimane dal loro primo incontro. Entro la fine del 1975, la Miller lasciò Hunt per unirsi con l’attore Richard Burton, il quale pagò il divorzio di Hunt per un milione di dollari, divorzio avvenuto nel 1976.

Nel 1982, Hunt si trasferì a Wimbledon e nel settembre dello stesso anno conobbe la sua seconda moglie, Sarah Lomax, mentre era in vacanza in Spagna con gli amici. Hunt e la Lomax si sposarono il 17 dicembre 1983 a Marlborough, nel Wiltshire. Dal matrimonio nacquero due figli: Tom e Freddie.

Durante una visita a Doncaster, Hunt venne arrestato per aver aggredito due agenti di polizia, venendo rilasciato su cauzione dopo due ore. Hunt divorziò dalla seconda moglie nell’ottobre 1988, ma continuò a vivere con i figli; il divorzio, voluto dalla Lomax per motivi di adulterio da parte di Hunt, venne riconosciuto nel novembre 1989.

Poco tempo dopo, Hunt incontrò la diciottenne Helen Dyson in un ristorante di Wimbledon; la relazione dei due venne vista di cattivo occhio da parte dei genitori di lei ed Hunt mantenne segreta tale relazione agli amici ed ai media per un po‘ di tempo. Il rapporto, comunque, aveva portato nuovamente la felicità nella vita di Hunt, tanto che il giorno prima di morire propose alla Dyson, via telefono, di sposarlo. Alla sua morte fu scoperto il suo dissesto finanziario, la vendita dei pochi beni rimasti non riusci a coprire il suo debito verso i creditori e lo stato.

Il film Rush del 2013, diretto da Ron Howard, tratta della rivalità sportiva maturata in pista, nel corso degli anni settanta, fra Hunt e l’austriaco Niki Lauda; la pellicola racconta principalmente del duello tra i due piloti per la conquista del titolo iridato, durante il campionato mondiale di Formula 1 1976. James Hunt è interpretato dall’attore australiano Chris Hemsworth.

Enzo Ferrari, nel suo libro Piloti, che gente! prese la vita agonistica di Hunt come perfetto esempio per spiegare la sua teoria sulla cosiddetta „parabola del pilota“: all’inizio egli è affamato di vittoria, spende ogni grammo della sua energia per raggiungere l’ambito obiettivo, spesso supera i limiti a volte evidenti del mezzo meccanico e in una specie di trance agonistica raggiunge la vittoria Mondiale ma poi, distratto e logorato dalla fama, dagli agi e dagli impegni sempre più pressanti e numerosi dovuti alle incessanti richieste di tutti, perde quel tocco magico e si avvia prima o dopo a un lento ma inesorabile declino, fin quando decide di dire basta e ritirarsi. Per alcuni piloti ciò avviene più repentinamente, altri raggiungono ancora una, due o più volte la consacrazione, ma per tutti arriva poi il momento fatale di lasciare un mondo che non riconoscono più come proprio.

Altri progetti

Farina (1950) · Fangio (1951) · Ascari (1952, 1953) · Fangio (1954, 1955, 1956, 1957) · Hawthorn (1958) · Brabham (1959, 1960) · P. Hill (1961) · G. Hill (1962) · Clark (1963) · Surtees (1964) · Brabham (1966) · Hulme (1967) · G. Hill (1968) · Stewart (1969) · Rindt (1970) · Stewart (1971) · Fittipaldi (1972) · Stewart (1973) · Fittipaldi (1974) · Lauda (1975) · Hunt (1976) · Lauda (1977) · Andretti (1978) · Scheckter (1979) · Jones (1980) · Piquet (1981) · K. Rosberg (1982) · Piquet (1983) · Lauda (1984) · Prost (1985, 1986) · Piquet (1987) · Senna (1988) · Prost (1989) · Senna (1990, 1991) · Mansell (1992) · Prost (1993) · Schumacher (1994, 1995) · D. Hill (1996) · J. Villeneuve (1997) · Häkkinen (1998, 1999) · Schumacher (2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004) · Alonso (2005, 2006) · Räikkönen (2007) · Hamilton (2008) · Vettel (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013) · Hamilton (2014, 2015) · N. Rosberg (2016)

Jhoon Goo Rhee

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Jhoon Goo Rhee (born January 7, 1932), commonly known as Jhoon Rhee, is a South Korean master of taekwondo who is widely recognized as the ‚Father of American Taekwondo‘ for introducing this martial art to the United States of America since arriving in the 1950s. Rhee is ranked 9th dan meat tenderizer solution.

Rhee was born on January 7, 1932, in Korea, during the period of Japanese occupation

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. He began training in the martial arts at the age of 13, without his father’s knowledge. Rhee received martial art training under Nam Tae Hi and graduated from the Chung Do Kwan. During the 1960s, Rhee befriended Bruce Lee—a relationship from which they both benefited as martial artists.

In 1973, Rhee made his only martial arts movie, titled When Taekwondo Strikes.

Rhee is well known in the Washington, D.C wholesale kids soccer jerseys. area for a television commercial that has a jingle by Nils Lofgren and features the catch phrase, „Nobody bothers me,“ followed by „Nobody bothers me, either.“ In 2000, Rhee was the only Korean-American named amongst the 203 most recognized immigrants to the country by the National Immigrant Forum and the Immigration and Naturalization Services.

Rhee was inducted into the Taekwondo Hall of Fame in 2007, and he is listed as both the ‚Pioneer of American Taekwondo‘ and the ‚Pioneer of Taekwon-Do in Russia‘ there. Rhee is listed as a pioneer in the USA (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in Chang Keun Choi’s list of taekwondo pioneers.

He created ‚Martial Ballet‘ which is a martial art form that is conducted to music. Martial Ballet has been performed by different people in different ways and was incorporated in Rhee’s school curriculum.

Jhoon Rhee also starred in a feature film in 1980 best water bottle.[citation needed] It was entitled Return of Rhee in Korea and for the Asian and international markets. It was renamed Rampage for U.S. distribution, but never got released in America. Rhee’s protégé Jeff Smith and student Randy Anderson co-starred in the picture which was filmed on location in Seoul and Busan, South Korea.

Cedar Grove, Washington County, Maryland

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Cedar Grove is an unincorporated community in Washington County, Maryland, United States and can be found on the National Register of Historic Places meat tenderizer solution. The community lies about two miles south of MD Route 63 when traveling between Williamsport and Downsville, Maryland; it is located along the northern bank of the Potomac River just opposite the Whiting’s Neck (West Virginia) promontory.

The C&O Canal National Historic Park, which runs parallel to the river, is a destination for locals and tourists alike. McMahon’s Mill (also known as Charles‘ Mill) affordable football jerseys, located just off the towpath was constructed in [ref date]; a campground and museum of the same name can be found just up the road papain tenderizer, showcasing Civil Ware era weapons and artifacts, as well as providing accommodations for RVs and traveling groups. Due to flooding in past years, a segment of the canal just east of Cedar Grove remains closed, and those traveling along the canal have been forced to use the Avis Mill Road (which passes by the museum and mill) as a detour.


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