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Psyche

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Энтомология, колеоптерология

4 раза в год

Английский

Cambridge Entomological Club 26 Oxford St. Cambridge, MA 02138 США

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

США

1874

Psyche — старейший американский научный журнал, посвящённый проблемам энтомологии и всестороннему исследованию насекомых, а также некоторых групп членистоногих. Основан в 1874 году.

Журнал был основан Кэмбриджским энтомологическим клубом (Cambridge Entomological Club) в 1874 году

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. Энтомолог Сэмюэл Хаборд Скудер (Samuel Hubbard Scudder), позже ставший первым редактором журнала «Science», предложил издавать «Organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club» на его 4-м заседании. Первым редактором журнала стал Benjamin Pickman Mann. Первые статьи в основном освещали вопросы общей анатомии и биологии насекомых, а также давали библиографическое описание всех публикации в области энтомологии Северной Америки.

Среди первых авторов журнала были крупнейшие энтомологи, такие как Nathan Banks, Владимир Набоков, Уильям Мортон Уилер, Эдвард Осборн Уилсон, Ralph Vary Chamberlin, Arthur M. Chickering, Horace Donisthorpe, Bert Hölldobler, Robert R. Jackson, Norman I. Platnick waterproof case 4s, Embrik Strand, Herbert Walter Levi.

В 1995—2000 годах журнал временно не выходил. В 2007 году издательство Hindawi Publishing Corporation возобновило публикацию журнала..

Почти все ранее изданные выпуски журнала (более 5000 статей) доступны в интернете в виде PDF-файлов.

Divisione per due

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In matematica, la divisione per due o a metà è stata considerata un’operazione diversa dalla moltiplicazione o divisione per altri numeri fino dai tempi degli antichi egizi, che utilizzavano una tecnica di moltiplicazione che adottava la divisione per due come uno degli elementi fondamentali. Alcuni matematici del tardo sedicesimo secolo continuarono a considerarla come un’operazione distinta dalle altre, e spesso viene ancora trattata così nella programmazione moderna. La divisione per due è un’operazione semplice da effettuare nell’aritmetica decimale, nel sistema numerico binario usato nella programmazione informatica e in altri sistemi di numerazione basati sui numeri pari.

Nel sistema numerico binario la divisione per due può essere eseguita come un’operazione che sposta il numero (bit shift) di un posto verso destra. Si tratta di un caso di ottimizzazione per riduzione di forza. Per esempio, spostando verso destra di un posto il numero binario 1101001 (che rappresenta il numero decimale 105) eco friendly stainless steel water bottles, si ottiene 110100 (il numero decimale 52): il bit di ordine minore, 1, viene rimosso. Analogamente la divisione per ogni potenza di due 2k può essere eseguita attraverso lo spostamento verso destra di k posizioni. Poiché gli spostamenti di numero sono operazioni molto più veloci delle divisioni Lint Remover, la sostituzione di una divisione con una spostamento può costituire un aspetto importante dell’ottimizzazione. Nell’interesse della portabilità e della leggibilità, tuttavia, è generalmente più opportuno scrivere i programmi usando l’operazione della divisione best hydration belt for running, confidando nella capacità del compilatore di eseguire le opportune sostituzioni.

Questo, tuttavia, non è sempre vero nel caso della divisione dei numeri relativi secondo la rappresentazione binaria. In questo caso lo spostamento verso destra di 1 bit divide sempre per due con un arrotondamento per difetto. In alcuni linguaggi, comunque, la divisione di numeri relativi binari arrotonda verso lo 0 (il che significa un arrotondamento per eccesso se il risultato è negativo). in linguaggio Java, per esempio, -3 / 2 ha come risultato -1, mentre -3 >> 1 ha come risultato -2. In questi casi, dunque, il compilatore non può ottimizzare la divisione per due sostituendola con un bit shift, dal momento che il dividendo potrebbe essere negativo.

Nell’aritmetica binaria in virgola mobile Fashion Jewelry Necklaces, la divisione per due può essere eseguita diminuendo il valore dell’esponente di uno – a condizione che il risultato non rientri nei numeri denormalizzati. Molti linguaggi di programmazione hanno funzioni che possono essere usate per dividere per due un numero a virgola mobile. Per esempio il Java impiega la funzione java.lang.Math.scalb, mentre il C impiega la funzione ldexp per il medesimo scopo.

Il seguente algoritmo vale per i numeri decimali, tuttavia può essere utilizzato come modello per la costruzione di un algoritmo che divida per due qualunque numero N con valore di base pari.

Esempio: 1738 / 2 = ?

Scrivere 01738 e calcolare il risultato:

Risultato: 0869.

Dall’esempio si ricava che 0 è un numero pari.

Se l’ultima cifra di un numero N è dispari occorre aggiungere 0,5 al risultato.

Raymond Moody

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Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (, comment ajouter mes sources ?).

Raymond Moody (né le 30 juin 1944 à Porterdale (en) (Géorgie) est un docteur en philosophie et médecin américain surtout connu pour ses travaux sur les expériences de mort imminente (EMI, en anglais : Near Death Experience, terme repris du philosophe français Victor Egger) et de mort partagée.

Il a recueilli pendant plus de vingt ans des témoignages de personnes affirmant avoir vécu une expérience de mort imminente. Il a publié trois ouvrages populaires sur le sujet : La Vie après la vie (Life After Life, 1975), Lumières nouvelles sur la vie après la vie (Reflections on Life After life, 1977) et La Lumière de l’au-delà (The Light Beyond, 1988). Comme l’indiquent leurs titres, Moody a donné assez rapidement une interprétation spiritualiste des EMI. Interprétation qu’il réfutera en 1999 en publiant The Last Laugh.

Raymond Moody est PhD en philosophie (University of Virginia, 1969) et en psychologie (West Georgia College, plus tard West Georgia University), ainsi que MD (Doctor of Medicine) (Medical College of Georgia, 1976). Il a été Assistant Professor de philosophie (East Carolina University, 1969-1972), Visiting Associate Professor de philosophie (University of Virginia, 1977-1978), psychiatre au Central State Hospital de Milledgeville (Georgia, 1984-1986), Associate Professor de psychologie (West Georgia University, 1987-1992), professeur en chaire de psychologie (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1998-2002).

Raymond Moody est un précurseur de l’étude des EMI. Son premier livre La vie après la vie est le premier ouvrage publié sur le sujet.

En 2011, dans son article intitulé « A Search for the Truth of Near Death Experiences », le Dr James Paul Pandarakalam cite Raymond Moody disant que « (ses travaux de recherche antérieurs) ont créé une importante controverse en thanatologie par le fait que les conclusions ont été mises en avant par ses éditeurs de façon à créer la sensation&nbsp cuisinart meat tenderizer. Selon Pandarakalam, dans son livre de 1999, The Last Laugh, Moody a déclaré nuls et non avenus ses travaux antérieurs sur les EMI et vouloir tenter de récupérer sa crédibilité scientifique.

Selon Raymond Moody, il existe des caractéristiques communes à toutes les expériences de mort imminente qui définissent une expérience type :

« Il se sent emporté avec une grande rapidité à travers un obscur et long tunnel. Après quoi il se retrouve soudain hors de son corps physique, sans quitter toutefois son environnement immédiat; il aperçoit son propre corps à distance, comme en spectateur (…) d’autres êtres s’avancent à sa rencontre, paraissant vouloir lui venir en aide; il entrevoit les esprits de parents et d’amis décédés avant lui buy england football shirt. Et soudain, une entité spirituelle, d’une espèce inconnue, un esprit de chaude tendresse, tout vibrant d’amour – un être de lumière – se montre à lui. Cet être fait surgir en lui une interrogation, qui n’est pas verbalement prononcée, et qui le porte à effectuer le bilan de sa vie passée. L’entité le seconde dans cette tâche en lui procurant une vision panoramique, instantanée, de tous les évènements qui ont marqué son destin. Le moment vient ensuite où le défunt semble rencontrer une sorte de barrière, ou de frontière, symbolisant l’ultime limite entre sa vie terrestre et la vie à venir (…) Par la suite, lorsqu’il tente d’expliquer à son entourage ce qu’il a éprouvé entre temps, il se heurte à différents obstacles. En premier lieu

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, il ne parvient pas à trouver des paroles humaines capables de décrire de façon adéquate cet épisode supraterrestre. De plus, il voit bien que ceux qui l’écoutent ne le prennent pas au sérieux, si bien qu’il renonce à se confier à d’autres. »

— Raymond Moody, Lumières nouvelles sur la vie après la vie, 1977, J’ai lu, pp. 36-37.

Moody énumère „la quinzaine de traits communs“ de l’Expérience de Mort Imminente selon le point de vue du patient

Outre l’Expérience de Mort Imminente, Raymond Moody a, le premier, étudié l’Expérience de Mort Partagée (Shared Death Experience). Dans Glimpses of eternity (2010) il fait part de témoignages : certaines personnes qui assistent au décès d’un parent ou autre éprouvent, au moment de la mort de ce proche, des vécus communs avec le mourant, de nature paranormale ou mystique. En particulier, par empathie, ces personnes vivantes font l’expérience d’une sortie hors du corps (out-of-body-experience), ou elles perçoivent un flot de lumière claire, ou elles voient elles aussi se dérouler le film de vie du mourant (mémoire panoramique).

Dans son livre « Glimpses of Eternity, an investigation into shared death experiences  »coécrit avec Paul Perry et publié en 2010, Moody propose que les neurones miroirs pourraient expliquer le mécanisme de transmission de l’expérience de mort partagée, car ils joueraient un rôle dans la cognition sociale, notamment dans les processus affectifs tels que l’empathie.

En 1999, Raymond Moody a publié « The Last Laugh », un complément à son best seller « Life after Life » estimant qu’il ne reconnaît plus son travail tellement il a été altéré par ses éditeurs au cours des 20 dernières années. Bien que Moody ait contesté de diverses manières les affirmations extravagantes sur son travail à l’époque, il a estimé qu’il était néanmoins important d’avoir une trace écrite, en particulier parce que les éditeurs n’étaient pas intéressés par le travail sans l’ajout d’exagérations telle que la mention « les preuves scientifiques de la vie après la mort » ajoutée sur la couverture. Ces tactiques éditoriales procuraient un mal de tête constant pour Moody et une source permanente d’embarras. En fait, l’auteur affirme souvent dans « La Vie après la Vie », et ailleurs, que l’idée de prouver en faisant appel à des phénomènes paranormaux, scientifique ou autre, toute forme de vie après la mort est une perte de temps car il ne peut pas, à son avis, se faire . Il insiste cependant sur le fait, qu’il ne peut pas être réfuté en soi.

Selon Robert Almeder : « Le scepticisme de Moody embrasse le point de vue qu’on ne peut ni prouver ni réfuter l’existence d’une vie après la mort en faisant appel au paranormal, et c’est cet aspect de sa pensée qu’il n’a pas été en mesure jusqu’à présent de défendre par écrit ». Dans l’ouvrage, il s’attaque à trois groupes, les fondamentalistes chrétiens, les parapsychologues mais également les membres du Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal qui ont tous donné leur point de vue sur le sujet.

Hr. Ms. De Zeven Provinciën (C 802)

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Missili: 1 sistema binato Terrier

[senza fonte]

Il Hr. Ms. De Zeven Provinciën è stato un incrociatore che ha prestato servizio prima nella Regia Marina Olandese e successivamente nella Marina peruviana, assumendo nel corso della sua vita diversi nomi.

La sua costruzione iniziò nel cantiere Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij di Rotterdam il 19 maggio 1939 e all’unità venne dato in un primo il nome Kijkduin e successivamente in nome Eendracht il nome De Zeven Provinciën era stato dato al gemello in costruzione nel cantiere Wilton-Fijenoord di Schiedam.

La costruzione delle due unità per la Marina Olandese venne interrotta dall’occupazione tedesca dell’Olanda avvenuta il 10 maggio 1940 e venne proseguita dai tedeschi ma proseguì a rilento a causa di continui sabotaggi della resistenza olandese, tanto che l’unità, rinominata KH2 non giunse neppure al varo.

La sua costruzione venne ripresa dopo la seconda guerra mondiale e l’unità varata il 22 agosto 1950, entrò in servizio il 17 dicembre 1953, con il nome De Zeven Provinciën, mentre il gemello cui era stato dato inizialmente questo nome venne ribattezzato De Ruyter. Il progetto originario venne modificato, con un sistema di propulsione che da 78000CV veniva potenziato a 85000hp, un secondo fumaiolo, un diverso armamento e nuove apparecchiature elettroniche. L’armamento, che nel progetto originale era di 3 torri trinate e 2 binate da 152/53mm, 2 impianti binati da 40mm e 2 lanciasiluri tripli da 533mm, venne modificato in 4 torri binate Bofors da 152/53mm, di cui due a prora e due a poppa, 3 torrette binate Bofors da 57/60mm e 8 cannoni Bofors 40L/60 singoli.

Nel corso del servizio nella Regia Marina Olandese ha preso parte a diverse esercitazioni NATO lint remover, spesso come unità portabandiera di diverse Task force navali drinking glasses from bottles.

Tra il 1962 e il 1964 venne sottoposto a lavori di ammodernamento nel corso dei quali venne rivonvertito in incrociatore lanciamissili con la sostituzione delle due torri poppiere da 152/53mm di con il sistema missilistico terra-aria Terrier.

Il De Zeven Provinciën dopo la riconversione in unità lanciamissili

Il De Zeven Provinciën nel 1967 in una esercitazione

Nel 1976 con l’entrata in servizio delle due fregate della Classe Tromp il De Zeven Provinciën venne posto in disarmo e ceduto al Perù affiancando il De Ruyter che non avendo ricevuto, per mancanza di fondi, gli stessi ammodernamenti del De Zeven Provinciën nel 1973 era stato ceduto al Perù e ribattezzato Almirante Grau.

Dopo essere stato venduto al Perù il De Zeven Provinciën venne ribattezzato Aguirre e riconvertito nei cantieri olandesi in unità elicotteristica.

I lavori di riconversione terminarono alla fine di ottobre del 1977.

La consegna dell’unità alla nuova marina di appartenenza avvenne il 24 febbraio 1978 e la nave raggiunse la sua nuova base operativa di Callao il 17 maggio successivo.

Tra il 1986 e il 1988 incrociò ancora una volta il suo destino con quello del gemello assumendo provvisoriamente il nome Almirante Grau mentre l’Almirante Grau era nei cantieri olandesi per lavori di ammodernamento, al termine dei quali le due unità ripresero i propri nomi.

Nel 1999 l‘Aguirre venne posto in disarmo e venduto per demolizione.

Altri progetti

Jhoon Goo Rhee

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Jhoon Goo Rhee (born January 7, 1932), commonly known as Jhoon Rhee, is a South Korean master of taekwondo who is widely recognized as the ‚Father of American Taekwondo‘ for introducing this martial art to the United States of America since arriving in the 1950s. Rhee is ranked 9th dan meat tenderizer solution.

Rhee was born on January 7, 1932, in Korea, during the period of Japanese occupation

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. He began training in the martial arts at the age of 13, without his father’s knowledge. Rhee received martial art training under Nam Tae Hi and graduated from the Chung Do Kwan. During the 1960s, Rhee befriended Bruce Lee—a relationship from which they both benefited as martial artists.

In 1973, Rhee made his only martial arts movie, titled When Taekwondo Strikes.

Rhee is well known in the Washington, D.C wholesale kids soccer jerseys. area for a television commercial that has a jingle by Nils Lofgren and features the catch phrase, „Nobody bothers me,“ followed by „Nobody bothers me, either.“ In 2000, Rhee was the only Korean-American named amongst the 203 most recognized immigrants to the country by the National Immigrant Forum and the Immigration and Naturalization Services.

Rhee was inducted into the Taekwondo Hall of Fame in 2007, and he is listed as both the ‚Pioneer of American Taekwondo‘ and the ‚Pioneer of Taekwon-Do in Russia‘ there. Rhee is listed as a pioneer in the USA (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in Chang Keun Choi’s list of taekwondo pioneers.

He created ‚Martial Ballet‘ which is a martial art form that is conducted to music. Martial Ballet has been performed by different people in different ways and was incorporated in Rhee’s school curriculum.

Jhoon Rhee also starred in a feature film in 1980 best water bottle.[citation needed] It was entitled Return of Rhee in Korea and for the Asian and international markets. It was renamed Rampage for U.S. distribution, but never got released in America. Rhee’s protégé Jeff Smith and student Randy Anderson co-starred in the picture which was filmed on location in Seoul and Busan, South Korea.

Midprice Top 50

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De Midprice Top 50 is een wekelijkse hitlijst van de vijftig bestverkochte albums in het zogenoemde midprice-segment. De lijst is in 2012 gelanceerd als opvolger van de Back Catalogue Top 50. Het gaat in de Midprice Top 50 om albums met een inkoopprijs van €8,00 of lager die niet worden toegelaten tot de algemene Album Top 100. De lijst wordt samengesteld door GfK Dutch Charts.

De Midprice Top 50 werd geïntroduceerd op 7 juli 2012. Vóór die datum publiceerde GfK Dutch Charts wekelijks de Back Catalogue Top 50, een lijst met albums die minimaal twee jaar oud waren, ongeacht de inkoopprijs. Deze lijst bestond sinds 4 januari 2003. De lijst was destijds ook bekend als de Standaardalbum Top 50, omdat het Radio 2-programma Schiffers.FM elke week aandacht aan de lijst besteedde. De naam ’standaardalbum‘ kwam van Radio 2 omdat die zender wekelijkse een standaardalbum koos, een klassiek album waarvan de hele week nummers werden gedraaid.

De albums in de Back Catalogue Top 50 werden tussen 2003 en 2010 uitgesloten van de algemene Album Top 100. In de praktijk kwam het regelmatig voor dat actuele albums die nog in de Album Top 100 genoteerd stonden, na 104 weken (= 2 jaar) radicaal uit de lijst werden gehaald en naar de Back Catalogue Top 50 werden overbracht – terwijl hun verkoopcijfers een hoge plek in de Album Top 100 rechtvaardigden. Dit trof destijds bekende titels als Deleted Scenes from the Cutting Room Floor van Caro Emerald en 19 van Adele.

Vanaf 17 april 2010 werden deze albums opgenomen in de zogenoemde Combi Album Top 100, een lijst waarin alle albums die op dat moment goed verkocht werden, waren opgenomen, ongeacht de leeftijd of prijs. De Back Catalogue Top 50 en de algemene Album Top 100 bleven gewoon bestaan

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, beide met hun eigen regels.

Op 7 juli 2012 werd de Back Catalogue Top 50 opgeheven omdat vanaf dat moment alle albums, oud of nieuw, weer werden opgenomen in de algemene Album Top 100 stainless steel water bottles safe. Daarmee was een aparte lijst voor oudere albums niet meer gerechtvaardigd. De hitlijst werd opgevolgd door de Midprice Top 50, waarin alleen albums (oud en nieuw) stonden met een inkoopprijs van minder dan €8,00. GfK Dutch Charts beschouwde de Midprice Top 50 als een ’natuurlijke opvolger‘ van de Back Catalogue Top 50, omdat het aantal weken van de titels die overbleven gewoon werden doorgeteld. Ook de posities van de week daarvoor werden vermeld. Van de 50 titels in de laatste Back Catalogue Top 50 bleven er iets meer dan 20 over in de eerste Midprice Top 50. In de praktijk komt het erop neer dat de meeste titels in de Midprice Top 50 al minimaal een paar jaar oud zijn best football uniforms, omdat het juist oudere albums zijn die in dit prijssegment worden verkocht.

De situatie sinds 2012 is dat de Album Top 100 alle titels bevat, ongeacht leeftijd, met een minimum inkoopprijs van €8,01. De albums met een lagere inkoopprijs staan in de Midprice Top 50, niet in de Album Top 100. De Midprice Top 50 is een mix van oude en nieuwe titels. De toenemende populariteit van goedkope, (digitale) EP’s is ook merkbaar in de Midprice Top 50, met nummer 1-noteringen voor dergelijke albums voor SFB

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, Troye Sivan en Mainstreet.

Tussen 2003 en 2016 stonden 126 albums op 1 in de Backcatalogue/Midprice Top 50. Twaalf daarvan stonden langer dan 15 weken op nummer 1:

Albums met een # stonden op nummer 1 in de Midprice Top 50 (vanaf juli 2012). Veel albums stonden meer dan één keer op nummer 1. De langste aaneengesloten notering op nummer 1 was 54 weken voor 19, gevolgd door 39 weken voor Frank.

De nummer 1-albums hieronder staan in alfabetische volgorde. Veel albums stonden meerdere keren op 1; zij worden één keer vermeld. Het aantal weken is het totaal aantal weken van alle nummer 1-noteringen bij elkaar opgeteld. De gegeven datum is de eerste week waarin het album op nummer 1 stond.

Rössjöholms gods

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Rössjöholm är ett gods i Tåssjö socken, Ängelholms kommun.

Rössjöholm ligger vid Rössjön en mil väster om Örkelljunga. Den nuvarande huvudbyggnaden är ett enkelt envåningshus med två flyglar, uppfört 1731.

Förste kände ägaren till Rydtzeholm var den danske riddaren Olof Geed, omkring 1500. Hans sondotter Karen Geed förde genom gifte med Mogens Krabbe gården till Krabbesläkten. Den har senare tillhört medlemmar av släkterna Leijonsköld, Silfverskiöld, Sjöcrona med flera. Ruiner efter den medeltida borgen finns kvar.

En äldre borg uppfördes 1553 av Karin Geed vid Rössjön på sydsluttningen av Hallandsåsen. Den var väl befäst och försedd med inte mindre än sju torn. När skånska kriget bröt ut låg borgen på en holme i Rössjön. Sedan snapphanarna 1676 intagit den, kunde den under lång tid motstå den svenska belägringskåren som sänts ut från Helsingborg. Borgen raserades för att inte ge ytterligare skydd åt friskyttarna. En ny huvudbyggnad uppfördes på fastlandet år 1696 polyester socks wholesale. Denna köptes av landshövding Nils Silfverschiöld år 1705. Byggnaden brann ner 1730, återuppbyggdes 1731, men brann igen vid invigningen holder for phone while running, då förladdningen från en kanonsalut satte eld på taket Lint Remover. Därefter uppfördes så det hus i karolinerstil som finns kvar än i dag. Sedan 1857 tillhör godset den ursprungligen danska familjen Rosenörn-Lehn.

Den kände författaren Frans G. Bengtsson föddes och växte upp på Rössjöholm, där hans far var förvaltare. Han har skildrat sina minnen i boken „Den lustgård som jag minns“ (1953).

Sara Paretsky

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Sara Paretsky (Ames, 8 giugno 1947) è una scrittrice statunitense.

Nata in Iowa e cresciuta in Kansas, si è laureata in scienze politiche alla University of Kansas. Ha preso poi un Ph.D Lint Remover. in storia alla University of Chicago e un MBA alla Booth School of Business.

Sposata con Courtenay Wright, professore di fisica dell’Università di Chicago, vive a Chicago dal 1968 running accessories phone holder. Hanno tre figli football tops.

La protagonista di quasi tutti i romanzi della Paretsky è V.I. Warshawski, un’investigatrice privata, apparsa anche in un film del 1991 e interpretata da Kathleen Turner. Le viene attribuito il merito di aver trasformato il ruolo e l’immagine della donna nel romanzo poliziesco. Viene inoltre considerata la madre fondatrice di Sisters in Crime, un’organizzazione che sostiene e promuove le donne che scrivono romanzi mystery.

Nel 2011 ha vinto il Grand Master Award assegnato dal Mystery Writers of America. Ha vinto anche molti altri premi, tra cui il Cartier Diamond Dagger Award alla carriera dalla British Crime Writers‘ Association e il CWA Gold Dagger per Blacklist.

Ruby (Supernatural)

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Ruby is a fictional character on The CW Television Network’s Supernatural portrayed mainly by actresses Katie Cassidy and Genevieve Cortese. Created by the writers to expand on the characterization of demons within the series, she first appears in the third season, wherein she assists series protagonists Sam and Dean Winchester in fighting her fellow demons. By the fourth season, she has won Sam’s trust and begins training him to kill demons with his psychic powers, though Dean remains fearful of ulterior motives. The character departs the series at the end of the fourth season. Though the fans at first reacted negatively towards Cortese replacing Cassidy after the third season, Cortese and creator Eric Kripke felt that they became more accepting as the fourth season progressed. While fan response to the character was mixed overall, critical reception was generally negative. A common criticism was underwhelming performances by Cassidy and Cortese.

Debuting in the third season premiere „The Magnificent Seven“, Ruby (Katie Cassidy) trails Sam Winchester—a hunter of supernatural creatures—and eventually rescues him from a group of demons, whom she kills with her unique demon-killing knife. She reveals her identity to Sam in „The Kids Are Alright“, but claims to be different from other demons and wants to help Sam fight them. In return for his cooperation, she promises to save his brother Dean from the Faustian deal he had made to resurrect Sam in the second season finale „All Hell Breaks Loose: Part 2“. However, she refuses to tell Sam her motives. Though he distrusts her and Dean wants to kill her before she can harm them, Sam decides to let her continue to help him with both saving Dean and fighting the hundreds of other demons who—like Ruby—escaped Hell in the second season finale.

Ruby’s credibility builds throughout Season 3. In „Sin City“, she restores power to the Colt for the Winchesters to use in their war against demons. The episode „Malleus Maleficarum“ provides her backstory, revealing that she had been a witch during the Plague who sold her soul to a demon. She confides in Dean that, unlike other demons, she still remembers what it is like to be human, citing this trait as the reason she is helping the brothers against other demons. She returns in „Jus in Bello“ to save the brothers from an attacking horde of demons. Upon learning that they have lost the Colt, she decides to perform a spell that will destroy all the demons in the area, including herself. However, because the spell requires a human virgin’s heart, Dean does not allow her to perform it. Although the plan he comes up with instead saves himself and his brother, the people they leave behind get killed by demons pursuing Sam and Dean, which Ruby uses to rebuke the brothers for not listening to her.

Contrary to her promise to Sam, Ruby tells Dean that she cannot actually save him from Hell and that she had lied to Sam to get him to listen to her. However, in the season finale „No Rest for the Wicked“, she tells Sam that she had lied to Dean and that she truly can help Sam save him. Her plan is to train Sam to harness his latent demonic abilities so that he can use them to kill Lilith, the demon who holds the contract for Dean’s soul. Believing that Ruby is trying to manipulate Sam into giving in to his dark side, Dean tricks her into a devil’s trap—a mystical symbol capable of rendering demons powerless—and leaves with Sam to face Lilith. Ruby frees herself and tracks the brothers down during their campaign, but gets expelled from her host body by Lilith and thus is not present at the confrontation between Lilith and the brothers, with her whereabouts at the time unclear buy water bottles online. The fourth season episode „I Know What You Did Last Summer“ states that she had been sent back to Hell. Eventually, Ruby returns and offers Sam her help in taking revenge on Lilith for Dean’s death in „No Rest for the Wicked“ as well as in stopping Lilith’s apocalyptic plans. To appease Sam, who dislikes her using a living host against the host’s will, Ruby takes possession of a body recently declared to be dead (Genevieve Cortese). They have sex together at least once, and she brings him out of his downward spiral towards self-destruction. Consequently, Sam now trusts Ruby implicitly.

Ruby begins training Sam in using his demonic abilities to exorcise (and later, kill) demons, and continues to do so in secret following Dean’s resurrection by the angel Castiel in the fourth season premiere. The episode „On the Head of a Pin“ reveals that she is feeding Sam her demonic blood to boost his powers, and by „The Rapture“, he has become addicted to drinking her blood. In the following episode „When the Levee Breaks“, Sam and Dean have a heated confrontation over Sam’s trust in her and the negative influence she has on him, leading to a vicious fight which ends in Sam strangling Dean and Dean severing ties with Sam. In the season finale „Lucifer Rising“, Ruby insists that she and Sam must murder a demonically-possessed woman despite the woman being alive and pleading for them to let her go, as Ruby argues that Sam needs to also drink the woman’s blood in order to be able to kill Lilith; Sam eventually agrees. In the episode’s climax, Ruby keeps Dean from interfering while Sam succeeds in killing Lilith. Afterward, Ruby reveals that she is a double-agent working for Lilith who has just tricked Sam into setting the demons‘ revered god Lucifer free with Lilith’s death. With Sam’s help, she is killed by Dean with her own knife.

Prior to Ruby’s introduction in the third season, series creator Eric Kripke summarized the character as „ruthless and a little crazy and rough around the edges“, calling her „[a] little unhinged“ because she lacks the „moral conscience“ that Sam and Dean have. Katie Cassidy, the actress who portrayed Ruby in the third season, described her as a „kick-ass, bad-ass“ ally of Sam and Dean’s who „also likes to stir up a little trouble.“ According to Cassidy, Ruby is „mysterious“, „manipulative“, and in control of her situation, being „always 10 steps ahead of everybody else“. On this, Cassidy proclaimed that Ruby „knows what she wants, and she’s out to get it“. Actress Genevieve Cortese, who played the character in the fourth season, deemed Cassidy’s incarnation „very tough“ and „hard to get close to“.

In taking over the role, Cortese felt „conflicted over where Ruby is now versus where she’s come from“ and explained that her own portrayal of the character was a „total 180 from [how she was] last season“, being calmer and „more fear-driven“; after a discussion with Kripke on the character’s mindset, Cortese saw Ruby as being in a „lonely, desperate“ situation. She tried to make Ruby seem „as innocent as possible“ to make viewers question her true allegiance, and to „bring more of a humanity“ to Ruby than Cassidy had. For example, taking from the third season finale in which Dean is sent to Hell, Cortese portrayed the character as having some guilt over his death, even though Ruby was not responsible for it. The actress also acknowledged that Ruby was likely manipulating Sam when she claimed to remember how it felt to be human, but suggested that there was also an element of truth to her character’s words.

Cortese believed that Ruby fell in love with Sam over the course of the season, though she questioned whether this was „true love“ or her being „in love with what he can do“. As Cortese noted, „He has something she can nurture. It’s almost like a mother bear and her cub [in terms of] how protective she is… Sam’s all [Ruby has], so it’s almost like giving birth, in a weird, messed-up way.“ She stated that the sex scene between her character and Sam was „about two people who are so broken and sad“ and compared it to similar sex scenes from the film Monster’s Ball. Although Ruby eventually reveals herself as a traitor, Kripke wrote her final scene with the intention of depicting Ruby as „the opposite of evil“ and to show that Ruby does care about Sam, despite her manipulation of him to free Lucifer; Kripke explained that, in Ruby’s mind, she had to lead Sam down that path because „it was for his own good“.

Ruby was described as a „demon hunter“ in press releases prior to her debut so that her true demonic nature would surprise the audience. The writers created Ruby to change the perception of demons into more of a grey area, rather than the „black and white“, „They’re evil, we’re good“ approach previously used in the series. However, the writers also planned for Ruby to impact the brothers negatively by facilitating the story arc of Sam falling into evil—which had been set up in the second season, but without follow-through—and causing a fracture in their relationship. Knowing this, the writers were amused by fans questioning why they were „trying to make [Ruby] likable“. Despite Ruby’s overall betrayal of the brothers, writer Sera Gamble commented, „[Ruby] brought the idea that you can’t just dismiss demons as things that need to be killed right away. They could be useful, and while fundamentally untrustworthy, there might be cause to trust them in a given situation.“

Fearing that introducing the character as an „[accessory] to the boys“ would hinder their chances of successfully integrating her into the series, the writers intended that Ruby should be „a character in [her] own right“ and deemed her an antagonist „with [her] own interests and [her] own motives“ rather than a love interest to Sam or Dean, which they felt had been their mistake in their introduction of the widely disliked Jo Harvelle in the second season. While they were not planning on a romance between Ruby and either of the Winchesters in the third season, however, they were open to the possibility in the future, with Kripke saying, „If the chemistry is there, and we see the sparks, and we want it to happen, and the fans want it to happen, it’ll happen.“ Due to „protective and occasionally nervous“ fans, Kripke meant to introduce Ruby in „small doses“. Wanting fans to know the show would always be about Sam and Dean, and nothing else, he stated, „[Ruby and Bela are] there for important plot elements, but it’s not the Ruby and Bela show, nor is it about the four of them cruising around in the Impala together. It’s about the guys.“

Cassidy originally auditioned for the role of Bela Talbot, but ultimately received the part of Ruby. As opposed to using traditional demonic abilities such as telekinesis, Ruby instead relies on conventional martial arts and her demon-killing knife. Cassidy trained in kickboxing alongside Bela’s actress Lauren Cohan to be able to perform Ruby’s martial arts skills, prompting her to attempt as many of the fight scenes as she could rather than rely on her stunt double. Before filming for the third season began, she and Cohan decided to watch previous seasons together to catch up on the show. Cassidy also prepared by looking to Sharon Stone’s performance in the film Basic Instinct for inspiration due to Ruby’s manipulative ways. As Cassidy explained, „[Stone’s character] always has the power, and there’s this mystery about her.“ Costume designer Diane Widas had Ruby dressed in dark colors so that she would blend into shadows, also giving her pleather jackets and narrow jeans to allow Cassidy to be more active. Because of Cassidy’s height difference with the lead actors—she is 5’7″ while Sam’s actor, Jared Padalecki, is 6’4″—she had to wear tall, spiky high heels that at times made her lose balance.

Kripke cited budgetary reasons for Cassidy’s departure after the third season. According to Cassidy, however, Warner Bros.’s uncertainty about what direction to take Ruby in prompted her to leave when the opportunity to star in the series Harper’s Island arose. To „make the best out of a bad situation“, Kripke and the writers planned for Ruby to take on a new host every few episodes for the fourth season. They believed this would „keep [viewers] guessing“, and provide a „cool character that most shows don’t have the ability to do“. Auditions for an unnamed „love interest“ were held to recast Ruby with a new actress, and Cortese was hired for the part. She was then informed that she would actually be playing Ruby. Before the first episode she was in aired, however, she was said to be playing „a small-town waitress“ named Kristy who had become „romantically involved“ with Sam after Dean’s death. Cortese played the first of what was expected to be many incarnations of Ruby, but an impressed Kripke ultimately chose to keep her in the role because she „brought a lot of the different colors and vulnerabilities to Ruby that [he] was really looking for“. Although Cortese viewed DVDs of Cassidy’s portrayal, she tried to make the character her own at the producers‘ request rather than emulate Cassidy. She was not as concerned with how Ruby was received by the audience—stating „if people don’t like her, they don’t like her“—as much as she was with using her performance to „answer questions“ about Ruby and her relationship with the Winchester brothers, such as why Sam and Dean were continuing to work with Ruby in the fourth season.

BuddyTV staff columnist Don Williams felt the addition of Ruby was a „cheap ploy“ to attract teen male viewers, that the character distracted viewers from the „brotherly bond that made the show so special in the first place“, and that Cassidy „was cast more for her looks than her acting prowess“. However, he later admitted Ruby „remains one of the more interesting and ambiguous evildoers on the series“. Although IGN’s Diana Steenbergen had looked forward to Ruby’s introduction, she ultimately found the third-season incarnation a „wasted“ character who did little to improve the series. Her main concerns consisted of Ruby’s „unlikable and manipulative“ qualities and her tendency to make the Winchesters „look stupid“. Cassidy „never quite [pulled off]“ the „tough chick“ persona of Buffy the Vampire Slayers Faith or Battlestar Galacticas Six. TV Guide‘s Tina Charles, however, liked Ruby’s action-packed introduction in „The Magnificent Seven“. She was „intrigued“ by the character in „The Kids Are Alright“, and felt Cassidy was „doing a good job“. Ruby made a „plausible addition“ to „Malleus Maleficarum“, with Charles finding it „cool“ to learn Ruby’s backstory due to its implications for Dean’s storyline. Karla Peterson of The San Diego Union-Tribune thought Cassidy „wasn’t awful“ in „The Magnificent Seven“. Though „not great enough for Ackles to really play off of“ in „Malleus Maleficarum“, the actress was „good enough to make her weaker acting chops kind of work for her“. While under the impression that Ruby had been killed off in „No Rest for the Wicked“, Peterson wrote that the character „got gone just as [she was] getting interesting“ and deemed her a „decent traveling [companion]“.

In her debut, Cortese impressed Peterson „even less than the old Ruby“. While Peterson was accepting of the sexual relationship between Ruby and Sam, she felt the „seduction came out of nowhere“ in „I Know What You Did Last Summer“. Contributing to this problem was Cortese’s inability to „pull it off“, making the „whole thing [feel] gratuitous and clumsy“. Conversely, Peterson enjoyed the performances of actresses Anna Williams and Michelle Hewitt-Williams as Ruby’s temporary hosts in the episode; the former was „great“, while she found the latter „sassy“ and „[missed] her already“. She „loved“ Ruby’s death in the finale Lint Remover, describing it as „a beautiful thing“. Similar to Peterson, BuddyTV‘s Williams considered Cortese’s acting „a bit distracting“, but noted she improved over time. Steenbergen considered Cortese an „acceptable Ruby“, but wrote that the actress‘ portrayal was often „too girlish to connect with the previous incarnations of the character“. In contrast to Williams, Steenbergen felt that Cortese „seemed out of her depth in the acting department“ towards the end of the season. Ruby’s seeming betrayal of Anna Milton in „Heaven and Hell“ would „have added some welcome layers to her character“ in Steenbergen’s opinion, but the character’s true intentions made the character development „less exciting“. However, Steenbergen deemed Ruby’s overall deceit of Sam a „great revelation“.

Like BuddyTV‘s Don Williams, fans were very wary at first of bringing in female characters to the male-dominated show. To make matters worse, Kripke wrote a lackluster scene intended solely for the audition process. Fans quickly came across it on casting sites, and developed the feeling that the character „really [looks like she sucks]“. However, Kripke believed that fans would change their minds about Ruby after learning that she was a demon. By the middle of the third season, Kripke felt enough fans were „responding positively to vindicate the character“, and that most were „finally embracing her“ by the third season finale, with Cassidy’s version of Ruby even being dubbed a „fan favorite“ later on. When the character returns in the fourth season, she is much different than her third season counterpart. Cortese felt that while the drastic change made fans angry, the flashbacks provided in „I Know What You Did Last Summer“ shed some light on Ruby’s new mindset and made fans more accepting of the character. However, the overall criticisms towards Cortese’s performance made her reluctant to return for an episode in the sixth season, although she eventually accepted when she learned she would be portraying herself.

Despite the generally negative reception to Cortese in the role, fans voted her version of Ruby the 32nd sexiest female character in fantasy and science fiction film and television in a 2012 poll by SFX for the Top 200 Sexiest Characters In Sci-Fi, making her the highest-placing female Supernatural character in the list, beating out Jo Harvelle at number 53 and Ellen Harvelle at number 77.

Comisiones del Senado de México

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Las comisiones del Senado de México, son grupos de trabajo que se dedican a dictaminar, investigar, consultar, analizar, debatir y resolver sobre las materias de sus competencias.

Las comisiones son conformadas por integrantes de la Legislatura en turno y están representados todas las fuerzas políticas a fin de contar con pluralidad política.

Existen cuatro tipos de comisiones: Ordinarias, Bicamerales, Especiales y Comités

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La integración de las Comisiones se realiza durante los primeros 2 meses de funciones de la Legislatura en turno Lint Remover; la Junta de Coordinación Política es quien asigna presidencias, secretarías e integrantes.

Hay una comisión por cada tema de la agenda nacional o legislable, entre las más importantes están las de Gobernación, Puntos Constitucionales, Hacienda y Crédito Público, Desarrollo Social y Defensa Nacional; sin embargo, también la agenda legislativa del Ejecutivo da relevancia a algunas otras Comisiones.

Las Comisiones cuentan con una Junta Directiva que consiste en un Presidente y dos Secretarios todos de diferente Grupo Parlamentario, además de los integrantes ordinarios.

Las Comisiones tienen sus oficinas en la Torre de Comisiones de la Nueva Sede del Senado de la República.

Sus atribuciones son:

Sin importar el sentido del Dictamen de las Comisiones, todos ellos deben pasar a Primera y Segunda Lectura en el Pleno de la Cámara para ser aprobadas.

En la actual legislatura la LXII Legislatura, de las 64 comisiones las presidencias están repartidas de la siguiente manera:

El Congreso de la Unión forma comisiones las cuales tienen como miembros a Senadores y Diputados para asuntos específicos que concierne a las dos cámaras del Congreso de la Unión.

Para asuntos no reglamentados, sobre todo de investigación o sobre las funciones del Senado, el mismo crea comisiones con facultades investigadoras, estas son temporales, pero resultan provechosas en casos de corrupción.

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