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Middle-earth in video games

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Several computer and video games were inspired by J

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. R. R. Tolkien’s works and the many other high fantasy settings based upon his work of Middle-earth gym fanny pack. From the early 1980s to the present, several video game series have been developed based upon Tolkien’s writings, including titles by Electronic Arts, Sierra, Melbourne House and recently Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment (which now owns the gaming rights in perpetualty).

In 1982, Melbourne House began a series of licensed Lord of the Rings graphical interactive fiction (text adventure) games with The Hobbit, based on the book with the same name. The game was considered quite advanced at the time, with interactive characters that moved between locations independent of the player, and Melbourne House’s ‚Inglish‘ text parser which accepted full-sentence commands where the norm was simple two-word verb/noun commands. They went on to release 1986’s The Fellowship of the Ring insulated water container, 1987’s Shadows of Mordor thermos vacuum insulated 24 ounce stainless steel hydration bottle, and 1990s The Crack of Doom. A BBC Micro text adventure released around the same time was unrelated to Melbourne’s titles except for the literary origin. In 1987, Melbourne House released War in Middle Earth, a real-time strategy game. Konami also released an action-strategy game titled J. R. R. Tolkien’s Riders of Rohan.

Other early efforts included Shadowfax (1982) by Postern, a simplistic side-scrolling action game for the Spectrum, C64, and VIC-20, in which Gandalf rides the titular steed while smiting endless Nazgûl. The Lord of Rings: Journey to Rivendell was announced in 1983 by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600, but was never released. The prototype ROM can be found at AtariAge.

In 1990, Interplay, in collaboration with Electronic Arts (who would later obtain the licenses to the film trilogy), released Lord of the Rings Vol. I (a special CD-ROM version of which featured cut-scenes from Ralph Bakshi’s animated adaptation) and the following year’s Lord of the Rings Vol. II: The Two Towers, a series of role-playing video games based on the events of the first two books. A third installment was planned, but never released. Interplay’s games mostly appeared on the PC and Amiga, but later they did a Lord of the Rings game for the SNES, which played nothing like their PC games and instead was more like The Legend of Zelda.

Thereafter, no official The Lord of the Rings titles were released until the making of Peter Jackson’s The Lord of the Rings film trilogy for New Line Cinema in 2001-2003, when mass-market awareness of the story appeared. Electronic Arts obtained the licenses for the three films, Sierra Entertainment obtained the license to produce games based on the books from Tolkien Enterprises – this gave rise to an unusual situation: Electronic Arts produced no adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring, but produced adaptations named The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, which covered events of both the first two films) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, whereas Sierra only produced a game covering the first book of the trilogy, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. While Sierra Entertainment’s access to the book rights prevented them from using material from the film, it permitted them to include elements of The Lord of the Rings which were not in the films. EA, on the other hand, were not permitted to do this, as they were only licensed to develop games based on the films, which left out elements of the original story or deviated in places.

In 2003, Sierra produced an adaptation of The Hobbit, aimed at a younger audience: The Hobbit, as well as a real-time strategy game The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring both based on Tolkien’s literature.

Further spinoffs from the film trilogy were produced: A real time strategy game The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth, and turn based role-playing game The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age were released in 2004, and a PSP-exclusive title, The Lord of the Rings: Tactics in 2005.

In 2005, EA secured the rights to both the films and the books, thus The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II incorporated elements of the film adaptions, and the original Tolkienesque lore. EA also began work on an open world role-playing video game called The Lord of the Rings: The White Council, development of the game was cancelled in 2007.

In May 2005 Turbine, Inc. announced that they had acquired exclusive rights to create massively multiplayer online role-playing games based on the novel by Tolkien Enterprises, and launched The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar on 24 April 2007. Initially, the game covered the region of Eriador, from the Grey Havens to the Misty Mountains, and about as far north and south, but subsequent updates and expansion packs have more than doubled the game world, including areas such as Moria, Lothlórien, Mirkwood, Isengard and Rohan. The game is based on the books and Turbine’s license explicitly prohibits them from including any story or design elements unique to the movie adaptations. On the other hand, this allowed game designers to include lesser-known areas and references to the events, which are absent from the movies. The first expansion to The Lord of the Rings Online was released on 18 November 2008, entitled Mines of Moria. The next expansion, Siege of Mirkwood, was released on 1 December 2009. The third expansion titled Rise of Isengard went live on 27 September 2011 and included the area’s of Dunland, the Gap of Rohan and Isengard where the tower of Orthanc is located. The fourth expansion, Riders of Rohan, was released on 15 October 2012, featuring The Eaves of Fangorn and eastern part of Rohan up to the East Wall. The fifth expansion, Helm’s Deep, launched in November 2013 and added the remaining of Rohan landscape.

The Lord of the Rings: Conquest produced by Pandemic Studios using the Game engine used in Star Wars: Battlefront was released in early 2009 on consoles, PC and Nintendo DS. The console and PC versions received generally negative reviews, the DS version received average reviews. The game also marked the end of Electronic Arts license, which had already been extended some months so that the game could be completed. Subsequently, the license, obtained via Tolkien Enterprises, passed to Warner Bros.

Lord of the Rings: War in the North is an action role-playing game that takes place in Northern Middle-earth. It was developed by Snowblind Studios and released on 1 November 2011.

Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor is an action role-playing game set within Tolkien’s legendarium, developed by Monolith Productions and published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, it was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One in September 2014 and released for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in November 2014. It was later released to macOS and Linux by Feral Interactive in July 2015.

Aside from officially licensed games, unofficial games have also been made. Some of the longest-lasting are Angband (1990), a roguelike based loosely on The Silmarillion, Elendor (1991), a MUSH based on Tolkien in general, and MUME (1992) and The Two Towers (1994), MUDs based on The Lord of the Rings.

A homebrew text adventure was created for the Atari 2600, based on The Fellowship of the Ring, by Adam Thornton. The game, which is separate and not related to the unreleased Parker Brothers game, was self-published in 2002.

Many Tolkien-inspired mods and custom maps have been made for many games, such as Heroes of Might and Magic, Warcraft III, Neverwinter Nights, Rome: Total War, Medieval 2: Total War, Warlords 3, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, Mount & Blade, Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings, Age of Wonders and Minecraft. Furthermore, the Middle-Earth DEM Project released a playable dataset compiled for the Outerra engine which attempts to model the terrain of the full Middle-earth in great detail and to feature notable landmarks within the world as 3D models.

Delta 4 released the two parody games The Boggit (1986) and Bored of the Rings (1985).

The Secret of Monkey Island

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The Secret of Monkey Island is a 1990 point-and-click graphic adventure game developed and published by Lucasfilm Games. It takes place in a fantastic version of the Caribbean during the age of piracy. The player assumes the role of Guybrush Threepwood, a young man who dreams of becoming a pirate and explores fictional islands while solving puzzles.

The game was conceived in 1988 by Lucasfilm employee Ron Gilbert, who designed it with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman. Gilbert’s frustrations with contemporary adventure titles led him to make the player character’s death almost impossible, which meant that gameplay focused the game on exploration. The atmosphere was based on that of the Pirates of the Caribbean theme park ride. The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth game built with the SCUMM engine, which was heavily modified to include a more user-friendly interface.

Critics praised The Secret of Monkey Island for its humor, audiovisuals, and gameplay. The game spawned a number of sequels, collectively known as the Monkey Island series. Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman also led the development of the sequel Monkey Island 2: LeChuck’s Revenge. LucasArts released a remake of the original in 2009, which was also well received by the gaming press.

The Secret of Monkey Island is a 2D adventure game played from a third-person perspective. Via a point-and-click interface, the player guides protagonist Guybrush Threepwood through the game’s world and interacts with the environment by selecting from twelve verb commands (nine in newer versions) such as „talk to“ for communicating with characters and „pick up“ for collecting items between commands and the world’s objects in order to successfully solve puzzles and thus progress in the game. While conversing with other characters, the player may choose between topics for discussion that are listed in a dialog tree; the game is one of the first to incorporate such a system. The in-game action is frequently interrupted by cutscenes. Like other LucasArts adventure games, The Secret of Monkey Island features a design philosophy that makes the player character’s death nearly impossible (Guybrush does drown if he stays underwater for more than ten minutes).

A youth named Guybrush Threepwood arrives on the fictional Mêlée IslandTM, with the desire to become a pirate. He seeks out the island’s pirate leaders, who set him three trials that must be completed to become a pirate: winning a sword duel against Carla, the island’s resident swordmaster, finding a buried treasure, and stealing a valuable idol from the governor’s mansion. These quests take Guybrush throughout the island, where he hears of stories of the Ghost Pirate LeChuck, who apparently died in an expedition to the mysterious Monkey IslandTM, an act that was meant to win the love of the governor Elaine Marley. Guybrush meets several characters of interest, including a local voodoo priestess, Stan the Used Boat Salesman, Carla the Sword Master, a prisoner named Otis, and Meathook, whose hands have been replaced by hooks.

Guybrush also encounters the governor and is instantly smitten, and she soon reciprocates. However, as he completes the tasks set for him, the island is raided by LeChuck and his undead crew, who abduct Elaine and then retreat to their secret hideout on Monkey IslandTM. Guybrush takes it upon himself to rescue her, buying a ship and hiring Carla, Otis, and Meathook as crew before setting sail for the fabled island. When Guybrush reaches Monkey Island, he discovers a village of cannibals in a dispute with Herman Toothrot, a ragged castaway marooned there. He settles their quarrel, and then recovers a magical „voodoo root“ from LeChuck’s ship for the cannibals, who provide him with a seltzer bottle of „voodoo root elixir“ that can destroy ghosts.

When Guybrush returns to LeChuck’s ship with the elixir, he learns that LeChuck has returned to Mêlée IslandTM to marry Elaine at the church. He promptly returns to Mêlée IslandTM and gatecrashes the wedding, only to ruin Elaine’s own plan for escape; in the process he loses the elixir. Now confronted with a furious LeChuck, Guybrush is savagely beaten by the ghost pirate in a fight ranging across the island. The fight eventually arrives at the island’s ship emporium, where Guybrush finds a bottle of root beer. Substituting the beverage for the lost elixir, he sprays LeChuck, destroying the ghost pirate. With LeChuck defeated, Guybrush and Elaine enjoy a romantic moment, watching fireworks caused by LeChuck exploding.

Ron Gilbert conceived the idea of a pirate adventure game in 1988 metal sports water bottles, after completing Zak McKracken and the Alien Mindbenders. He first wrote story ideas about pirates while spending the weekend at a friend’s house. Gilbert experimented with introductory paragraphs to find a satisfactory idea. His initial story featured unnamed villains that would eventually become LeChuck and Elaine; Guybrush was absent at this point. He pitched it to Lucasfilm Games’s staff as a series of short stories. Gilbert’s idea was warmly received, but production was postponed because Lucasfilm Games assigned its designers, including Gilbert, to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure. Development of The Last Crusade was finished in 1989, which allowed Gilbert to begin production of The Secret of Monkey Island, then known internally under the working title Mutiny on Monkey Island.

Gilbert soon realised that it would be difficult to design the game by himself; he decided to join forces with Tim Schafer and Dave Grossman, both of whom he hired for Lucasfilm. The game’s insult sword fighting mechanics were influenced by swashbuckling movies starring Errol Flynn, which Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman often watched for inspiration. They noticed that pirates in those films often taunted their opponents instead of attacking them, which gave the designers the idea to base the game’s duels on insults rather than combat. Writer Orson Scott Card helped them write the insults during a visit to Lucasfilm’s headquarters at Skywalker Ranch. Many of Gilbert’s original gameplay ideas were abandoned during the production process, although he stated that „most of that stuff was left out for a reason“.

The game’s plot, as described by Dave Grossman: „It’s a story about this young man who comes to an island in search of his life’s dream. He’s pursuing his career goals and he discovers love in the process and winds up thinking that was actually more important than what he was doing to begin with. You’re laughing, but there’s actually something deeper going on as well.“ When work on the plot began, Gilbert discovered that Schafer’s and Grossman’s writing styles were too different to form a cohesive whole: Grossman’s was „very kind of a dry, sarcastic humor“ and Schafer’s was „just a little more in your face“. In reaction, Gilbert assigned them to different characters and story moments depending on what type of comedy was required. Grossman believed that this benefited the game’s writing, as he and Schafer „were all funny in slightly different ways, and it worked well together“. Schafer and Grossman wrote most of the dialogue while they were programming the game; as a result, much of it was improvised. Some of the dialogue was based on the designers‘ personal experiences, such as Guybrush’s line „I had a feeling in hell there would be mushrooms“, which came from Schafer’s own hatred of fungi.

The game’s world and characters were designed primarily by Gilbert. After having read Tim Powers‘ historical fantasy novel On Stranger Tides, he decided to add paranormal themes to the game’s plot. He also cited Powers‘ book as an influence on the characters, particularly those of Guybrush and LeChuck. Inspiration for the game’s ambiance came from Gilbert’s favorite childhood amusement park ride, Pirates of the Caribbean. Grossman said that Gilbert always wanted „to step off the ride“ and „talk to the people who lived in that world“. Near the final stages of the design work, Gilbert introduced several characters who were not directly related to the game’s story. He considered this to be an important decision, as the player would need those seemingly minor characters in later parts of the game and would receive a chance to „really interact with them“.

Gilbert, Schafer and Grossman’s primary goal was to create a simpler and more accessible gameplay model than those presented in previous Lucasfilm titles. Gilbert had conceived the main designs and puzzles before production began, which resulted in the bulk of the designers‘ work to flesh out his ideas. He was frustrated by the adventure games that Sierra On-Line was releasing at the time, and later said that „you died any time you did anything wrong“. Gilbert considered such gameplay as „a cheap way out for the designer“. He had previously applied his design ideas to the 1987 graphic adventure title Maniac Mansion, but committed a number of mistakes during development, such as dead-end situations that prevented the player from completing the game and poorly implemented triggers for cutscenes. Gilbert aimed to avoid such errors in The Secret of Monkey Island. The team decided to make it impossible for the player character to die, which focused gameplay primarily on world exploration. The Sierra game-over screen was parodied, when Guybrush falls off a cliff only to be bounced back up by a „rubber tree“.

The Secret of Monkey Island was the fifth Lucasfilm Games project powered by the SCUMM engine, originally developed for Maniac Mansion. The company had gradually modified the engine since its creation. For Maniac Mansion, the developers hard coded verb commands in the SCUMM scripting language. These commands become more abstract in subsequent versions of the engine. The developers carried over the practice of referring to individual segments of the gameworld as „rooms“, even though the areas in Monkey Island were outdoors. The game uses the same version of the engine used in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, with minor changes. A dialog tree was added, which facilitated conversation options and the sword-fighting puzzles. The developers removed the „What is“ option (an input command that describes an on-screen object to the player) in favor of allowing the player to simply highlight the object with the mouse cursor. The game’s improved interface became the standard for the company’s later titles. The game also introduced logical verb shortcuts, which could be performed with the mouse; for example, clicking on a character defaults to the „talk“ action, the most obvious action in the situation. SCUMM’s visuals were updated for the game—the original EGA version had a 320×200 pixel resolution rendered in 16 colors. According to artist Steve Purcell, that became a major limitation for the art team; due to a low number of „ghastly“ colors, they often chose bizarre tones for backgrounds. They chose black and white for Guybrush’s outfit for the same reason. The VGA version of the game later corrected these issues by implementing 256 color support, which allowed for more advanced background and character art. The VGA (and other platform releases) removed the infamous „stump joke“ from the game, which was a joke in the EGA version in which the player would examine a tree stump in the forest. Guybrush would exclaim that there is an opening to a system of catacombs and attempt to enter, but this would result in a message stating the player needed to insert disc 22, then 36, then 114 in order to continue. The joke resulted in numerous calls to the LucasArts hotline asking about missing discs. As a result, the joke was removed from later editions and is a mentioned as a conversation option for the LucasArts Hint Hotline in the sequel.

The game’s „pirate reggae“ music was composed by Lucasfilm Games‘ in-house musician Michael Land in MIDI format. It was his first project at the company. The game was originally released for floppy disk in 1990, but a CD-ROM version with a high-quality CD soundtrack followed in 1992. The music has remained popular, and has been remixed by the musicians of OverClocked ReMix and by the game’s fans.

LucasArts released a remake with updated audiovisuals titled The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition in July 2009 for iPhone, Microsoft Windows, and Xbox 360 exclusively via digital distribution. PlayStation 3, macOS and iPad versions followed early in 2010 for download on their respective services. LucasArts confirmed the game’s development on June 1 insulated water container, 2009; rumors appeared several days earlier when the Xbox 360 version of the game received an USK rating. The game was first displayed to the public at the 2009 E3 in June. The remake features hand-drawn visuals with more detail, a remastered musical score, voice work for characters, and a hint system. The developers included the function to switch between 2009 and original audiovisuals at will. The voice actors included Dominic Armato as Guybrush Threepwood and Earl Boen as LeChuck; most had provided voice work in sequels to The Secret of Monkey Island.

LucasArts’s game producer Craig Derrick and his team conceived the idea of the remake in 2008. After researching the Monkey Island series‘ history, they decided to make „something fresh and new while staying true to the original“, which resulted in the idea of The Secret of Monkey Island’s remake. The developers tried to leave much of the original design unchanged. Any changes were intended to achieve the level of immersion desired for the original. To that end, they added details like a pirate ship or pirates talking in the background of scenes. While the team considered the SCUMM interface revolutionary at the time, LucasArts community manager Brooks Brown noted that it is incompatible with an analog stick, which most consoles use. The designers made the cursor contextual to the game objects as the primary interface. Brown had considered updating the reference to advertise Star Wars: The Force Unleashed because Loom was not on the market at the time, but concluded that the game would not be the same if such changes were implemented. Prior to the Special Edition release, however, LucasArts announced that Loom, along with other games from its back catalog, would be made available on Steam. Brown stated that the decision to distribute the game online was because „digital downloads have finally gotten going“.

The Secret of Monkey Island sold well and received positive reviews from critics. Hartley, Patricia, and Kirk Lesser of Dragon praised the designers‘ attention to detail, and cited the game’s humor as a high point. Although they believed that the game was too expensive, they summarized it as „a highly enjoyable graphic adventure replete with interesting puzzles, a fantastic Roland soundtrack, superb VGA graphics, smooth-scrolling animation, and some of the funniest lines ever seen on your computer screen.“ Duncan MacDonald of Zero praised the graphics and found the game „quite amusing“. His favorite aspect was the fine-tuned difficulty level, which he believed was „just right“. He ended his review, „At last an adventure game that’s enjoyable rather than frustrating.“ Paul Glancey of Computer and Video Games consider the game superior to Lucasfilm’s earlier adventure titles, and wrote that, „Usually the entertainment you get from an adventure is derived solely from solving puzzles, but the hilarious characters and situations, and the movie-like presentation … make playing this more like taking part in a comedy film, so it’s much more enjoyable.“ He considered the puzzles to be „brilliantly conceived“ and found the game’s controls accessible. He summarized it as „utterly enthralling“.

ACEs Steve Cooke also found the controls convenient, and he praised the game’s atmosphere. He wrote that, „in graphics and sound terms … Monkey Island, along with King’s Quest V, is currently at the head of the pack.“ However, he disliked the designers‘ running joke of placing „TM“ after character and place names, which he thought detracted from the atmosphere. He singled out the game’s writing, characters and plot structure as its best elements. Amiga Powers Mark Ramshaw wrote, „With The Secret of Monkey Island, the mouse-controlled, graphic-adventure comes of age.“ He lauded its comedic elements, which he believed were the highlight of the game. The reviewer also praised the control scheme, noting that it allows the player to „more or less forget about the specifics of what [they are] physically doing … and lose [themselves] in the adventure instead.“ He noted that the game’s plot and visual and aural presentation fit together to create a thick atmosphere, and finished, „Forget all those other milestone adventures (Zork, The Hobbit, Lord of the Rings et al) — for sheer enjoyment and general all-round perfection, The Secret of Monkey Island creams ‚em all in style.“ The game, along with its sequel, was ranked the 19th best game of all time by Amiga Power.

Writing for The One, Paul Presley stated that „Lucasfilm appears to have taken all of the elements that worked in its previous releases and, not only incorporated them into this tale of scurvy swashbuckling, but even improved on them in the process!“ Like the other reviewers, he praised its controls. He also lauded its „hilarious storyline, strong characters and … intriguing setting“, but complained about graphical slowdowns. Nick Clarkson of Amiga Computing cited the game’s graphics as „flawless“, noting that „the characters are superbly animated and the backdrops simply ooze atmosphere.“ He highly praised its sound effects and music, and believed that its controls „couldn’t be simpler“. The staff of Amiga Action wrote that the „attention to detail and the finely tuned gameplay cannot be faulted.“ They called the graphics „stunning throughout“, and believed that, when they were combined with the „excellent Caribbean tunes“, the result is a game filled with „character and atmosphere.“ They ended by stating that „there is absolutely no excuse for not owning this game.“

The Secret of Monkey Island has featured regularly in lists of „top“ games, such as Computer Gaming World’s Hall of Fame and IGN’s Video Game Hall of Fame. In 1996, Computer Gaming World ranked it as the 19th best game of all time, writing, „Who could ever forget the insult-driven duel system or the identity of the mysterious Swordmaster?“. In 2004, readers of Retro Gamer voted it as the 33rd top retro game. IGN named The Secret of Monkey Island one of the ten best LucasArts adventure games in 2009, and ranked the Xbox Live Arcade version as the 20th best title of all time for that platform in 2010. In 2017, The Secret of Monkey Island ranked 78th in the „Scientifically Proven Best Video Games of All Time,“ a statistical meta-analysis compiled by Warp Zoned of 44 „top games“ lists published between 1995 and 2016.

Like the original release, The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition received positive reviews from critics. Sean Ely of GamePro praised its updated audio, and said that the new graphics „blow the old clunker visuals … out of the water“. He cited its script, humor, plot, puzzles and balanced difficulty level as high points, and finished, „The Secret of Monkey Island: Special Edition is impressive, hilarious and downright worth your money.“ Daemon Hatfield of IGN wrote remington clothes shaver, „Almost 20 years after its release, [The Secret of Monkey Island] remains a blast to play.“ He called the new graphics „slick, if a little generic“, and noted that the „original graphics have a certain charm to them that the fancy pants new visuals just don’t.“ However, he enjoyed the redone music, the new hint function, and the added sound effects and voice acting. He summarized it as „one of the best times you’ll ever have pointing and clicking“, and noted that „few games are this funny.“ Justin Calvert of GameSpot noted that „the Special Edition looks much better and is the only way to play if you want to hear … what characters are saying, whereas the original game’s interface is less clunky.“ However, he wrote that „the voice work is such a great addition to the game that it’s difficult to go back to the original edition.“ He praised its humor, writing, puzzles and characters, and he believed that it had aged well. Eurogamer’s Dan Whitehead wrote, „Purists like me will almost certainly find something to grumble about over the span of the game, but the overall impact of the redesign is undeniably for the better.“ However, he preferred the original game’s Guybrush design, and believed that the new control system was „rather less intuitive“ than the old one. He finished by stating that „few games can stand the test of time with such confidence“.

The Secret of Monkey Island spawned four sequels. The first, Monkey Island 2: LeChuck’s Revenge, was released in 1991 and focuses on LeChuck’s return. Six years later, LucasArts released The Curse of Monkey Island, which features a new visual design. In 2000, the company released Escape from Monkey Island, which uses the GrimE engine of Grim Fandango to produce 3D graphics. The next title, Tales of Monkey Island released in 2009, is a series of five episodic chapters.

Elements of the game have appeared elsewhere in popular culture. The original version was selected as one of five for the exhibition The Art of Video Games in the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2011. A fictive drink recipe in the game for grog was mistakenly reported as real in 2009 by Argentinian news channel C5N, which urged adolescents against consuming the dangerous „Grog XD“ drink. In Tales of Monkey Island english football shirts, Guybrush refers to this news story while pushing the Grog XD button on a Grog machine.

Jarl Magnus Riiber

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Jarl Magnus Riiber (* 15. Oktober 1997 in Oslo) ist ein norwegischer Nordischer Kombinierer.

Bei den Nordischen Junioren-Skiweltmeisterschaften 2014 in Val di Fiemme gewann Riiber mit der norwegischen Mannschaft die Bronzemedaille im Teamwettbewerb und belegte in den Einzelwettkämpfen die Plätze 6 und 11. Am 6. Dezember 2014 gab er in Lillehammer sein Debüt im Weltcup basketball uniforms youth, bei dem er mit Rang 28 im Gundersen-Wettbewerb gleich Weltcuppunkte erzielen konnte. Bei seinem dritten Weltcupstart am 16. Januar 2015 in Seefeld gelang ihm auf der ersten Etappe des Nordic Combined Triple mit Rang drei seine erste Podiumsplatzierung im Weltcup. Im Februar 2015 gewann er bei den Nordischen Junioren-Skiweltmeisterschaften in Almaty sowohl im Gundersen- als auch im Sprint-Wettbewerb die Goldmedaille und belegte im Teamwettbewerb mit der norwegischen Mannschaft Rang drei insulated water container. Riiber nimmt vereinzelt auch an Wettkämpfen im Spezialspringen teil und konnte am 21. August 2016 im finnischen Kuopio erstmals ein Springen im Rahmen des Skisprung-Continentalcups gewinnen how much meat tenderizer to use.

School of Diplomacy

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The School of Diplomacy (simplified Chinese: 纵横家; traditional Chinese: 縱横家; pinyin: Zōng héng Jiā), or the School of Vertical and Horizontal Alliances was a political and diplomatic clique during the Warring States period of Chinese history (476-220 BCE). According to the Book of Han, the school was one of the Nine Schools of Thought (Chinese: 九流; pinyin: Jiŭ Liú).

According to the Han Fei Zi, a contemporary work on Legalist Philosophy, supporters of „Vertical Alliance“ encourage the weak multitude to attack the one strong side whilst the Horizontal Alliance promote the one strong side attacking the weak multitude. They are all fickle and capricious, change sides frequently and are unable to decide who their master is. Both Su Qin of the Vertical Alliance clique and Zhang Yi of the Horizontal Alliance clique issue many plans and schemes that are politically subjective.‘

The origins of the terms „Vertical“ and „Horizontal“ are geographic and are based on either a North-South axis (i.e. vertical) or an East-West axis (i.e. horizontal). Thus the six states allied on the North-South axis were known as the „Vertical Alliance“ whilst those on the East-West axis aligned with the State of Qin were termed the „Horizontal Alliance“.

„Zong“ indicates the „He Zong“, or Vertical Alliance, the „weak multitude against the one strong side“, made up of the six states of Qi

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, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao and Wei united against Qin. „Heng“ indicates the „Lian Heng“, or Horizontal Alliance, the „one strong side to smash the weak multitude“, thus illustrating the different diplomatic policies of the two sides.

The School of Diplomacy was one of the nine styles of the ten Schools of Thought of the Warring States period and starts with an objective point of view to reach the required goal insulated water container. The school’s adherents were always an active group on the political stage during the Warring States period. Moreover, they played a decisive role and were described as extremely powerful and capable, constantly struggling to manipulate the situation.

Originated by Guiguzi, the School of Diplomacy’s main adherents were Su Qin, Zhang Yi (Su’s disciple), Gan Mao, Sima Cuo, Yue Yi, Fan Sui, Cai Ze, Zou Ji, Mao Sui, Li Yiji and Kuai Tong as detailed in the Annals of the Warring States.

The few principal written records of the School of Diplomacy that exist today are the thirteenth chapter of the Book of Gui or Guiguzi, the thirty-third chapter of Annals of the Warring States (not about the School of Diplomacy’s followers but primarily the words and actions of its advisors as well as actual combat case studies), the thirty-first chapter of Su Zi and the tenth chapter of Zhang Zi. The seventh chapter of the „Benjing Yifu“ appendix to the Guiguzi describes the mental and moral cultivation methods used by the School of Diplomacy; the „Benjing“ covers the ideas behind the basic guiding principles whilst the „Yinfu“ consists of very mysterious concealed writings. The reader can comprehend these but is unable to discover their essential meaning. The Guiguzi is a book of theory that is complete in every detail and very subtly written, making its ideas hard to express. More importantly the work requires study and use in order to understand the nuances of its meaning. The Annals of the Warring States is a well-written rhetorical compendium the words and actions of the strategists of the School of Diplomacy who were all resourceful, intelligent, aware of the actual situation and gifted in the use of language.

See also: Hundred Schools of Thought

Chatham Maroons

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Die Chatham Maroons waren ein kanadisches Eishockeyfranchise der International Hockey League aus Chatham-Kent, Ontario. Die Spielstätte der Maroons war die Chatham Memorial Arena.

Die Chatham Maroons wurden 1949 als Franchise der International Hockey League gegründet. Gleich in ihrer ersten Spielzeit konnte die Mannschaft in der Saison 1949/50 den Turner Cup, gewinnen, nachdem sie sich im Finale in der Best-of-Seven-Serie mit 4:3 gegen die Sarnia Sailors durchsetzte. Trotz dieses Erfolges wechselten die Maroons nach drei Jahren in die Amateurliga OHA Sr. A, die sie 1956 und 1960 jeweils für sich entscheiden konnten, wobei sie in der Saison 1959/60 anschließend noch den Allan Cup gewannen, wodurch die Mannschaft kanadischer Amateurmeister wurde. Zudem erreichte Chatham in 1962 und 1963 jeweils das Playoff-Finale.

Erst in der Saison 1963/64 kehrten die Chatham Maroons in die International Hockey League und somit in das professionelle Eishockey zurück. Nach einer enttäuschenden Spielzeit mit nur 47 Punkten aus 70 Spielen stellte das Franchise anschließend den Spielbetrieb ein.

Abkürzungen: GP = Spiele, W = Siege, L = Niederlagen, T = Unentschieden, OTL = Niederlagen nach Overtime SOL = Niederlagen nach Shootout, Pts = Punkte, GF = Erzielte Tore, GA = Gegentore, PIM = Strafminuten

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