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Horë-Vranisht

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Horë-Vranisht is a village and a former municipality in the Vlorë County, southwestern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became a subdivision of the municipality Himarë. The population at the 2011 census was 2,080. The municipal unit consists of the villages Vranisht, Kuç, Bolenë, Kallarat and Tërbaç.

The village was documented for the first time as Vranisht in 1274, as one of the dominions of the Princedom of Albania. It is mentioned in the Ottoman documents of 1431-32 as Ivraniste, and with the actual form Vranisht in 1759. It was later known as „Korvaleş“ and was a nahiya centre in Korvaleş kaza (Its centre was Koç) in Ergiri sanjak of Yanya Vilayet before 1912.
During World War II Vranisht was part of the battlefield of the battle of Gjorm, where Albanian resistance units defeated and routed the troops of the Kingdom of Italy.
According to the Ottoman defter of the 1430s there were sixteen houses at Vranisht at that time. In the 19th century the population had grown to 350 houses and 1600 people living in Vranisht

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. During the 1990s the population of Vranisht was lowered due to emigration.
During the late middle ages local names of the Albanians of Vranisht have been documented. The most common names documented are: Dedëgjoni, Dedëgjini, Nikhila, Lëmpali, Gjinkolli, Gjelkuca, Gjinstrati, Gjondreu, Gjikëbitri, Gjonezhi and Gjingjoni.

Leung Chi Wo Warren

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Leung Chi Wo Warren (born 1968) is a Hong Kong visual artist and a current associate professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong His forms of works mainly range from photography, installation, paintings and videos

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. Leung was also one of the co-founders of Para/Site Art Space in Hong Kong—which was established in early 1996 and was the first exhibition-making institution of contemporary art in local sense.

Leung Chi Wo Warren was born in 1968 in Hong Kong. Leung graduated with his Bachelor of Arts in Fine Arts, Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1990. He obtained a Post-Diploma (Culture of Photography) from Istituto per lo Sviluppo Socio-Economico dello Spilimberghese, Italy and later as the Center for Research and Archiving of Photography there in 1991. Leung also participated in a museum Internship in Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst, Ghent, Belgium, 1992. In 1997, he graduated with his Master of Fine Arts from Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Leung is interested in exploring city and the underlying history—to look deep into the complex relation between reality and perceptions. He used photographs to capture and archive the moments in history in order to restoring individual’s identity.
Depot of Disappearance, AiR base, MuseumsQuartier, Vienna, 2009
In the Name of Victoria, IndexG, Toronto, 2009
Asia’s World City, Goethe Institut, Hong Kong, 2009
In the Name of Victoria, Korkos Gallery, Hong Kong, 2008
LKS_Select: Leung Chi Wo, Lee Ka-sing Gallery, Toronto, 2008
Text Format, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 2007
Open Home, an sound installation in domestic space, Hong Kong, 2007
Domestica Invisibile, Goethe Institut, Hong Kong, 2006
Open Home, an sound installation in domestic space, presented by S-AIR, Sapporo, 2005
Where is Hong Kong?, Grotto Fine Art, Hong Kong, 2003
Color Series, Zetterquist Galleries, New York, 2003
City Mapping: Rough Cuts, Lee Ka-sing Gallery, Toronto, 2003
City Cookie (in collaboration with Sara Wong), Gallery 44, Toronto, 2003
Always Gentian Blue Sky, Site-specific work in public space, Sierre, Switzerland, 2003
City Cookie (in collaboration with Sara Wong), Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre, 2001
Something about city sky, Queens Museum of Art, New York, 2000
Victoria Tunnel, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 1998
Mapping the Invisible, Fringe Club, Hong Kong, 1998
China 8, NRW-Forum, Düsseldorf, 2015
La Fotografia e la Contemporaneità, Palazat, Cavasso Nuovo, Pordenone (Italy), 2015
South by Southeast, Osage Gallery, Hong Kong, 2015
Discordant Harmony, Art Sonje Center, Seoul, 2015
From Longing to Belonging, Laznia Centre for Contemporary Art, Gdansk (Poland), 2014
Harmonious Society, Asia Triennial Manchester, 2014
The Part In The Story Where A Part Becomes A Part Of Something Else, Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art, Rotterdam, 2014
Hanart 100: Idiosyncrasies, Hanart Square, Hong Kong, 2014
On Hong Kong, Krasnoyarsk Museum Centre (Russia), 2012
The Unseen, Guangzhou Triennial (China), 2012
Men Amongst the Ruins, TEOR/éTica, San José (Costa Rica), 2012
Higher Atlas, Marrakech Biennale (Morocco), 2012
Different Dimension, International Festival of Contemporary Photography, Novosibirsk State Museum of Art (Russia), 2012
Do a Book, White Space, Beijing, 2012
The Burning Edge: Making Space, Activating Form, RRS Creative Media Centre, Hong Kong, 2012
Forgotten Places, OV Gallery, Shanghai, 2011
The Border Show, site-specific project in Ma On Shan, Hong Kong, 2011
Double Happiness, Meet Factory, Prague, 2011
Refracted Realities, OV Gallery, Shanghai, 2011
Other Possible Worlds, NGBK, Berlin, 2011
Pingyao International Photo Festival, Pingyao (China), 2011
White Walls Have Ears, RRS Creative Media Centre, Hong Kong, 2011
The Dig, Centre A, Vancouver, 2010
Culture(s) of Copy, Goethe Institut, Hong Kong; Edith Russ Site for Media Art, Oldenburg, 2010
You Are Here, I Am Not. Osage Gallery, Hong Kong, 2010
City Flâneur, Heritage Museum, Hong Kong, 2010
Shifting Topography, Hanart Square, Hong Kong, 2010
No Soul For Sale, Tate Modern, London, 2010
The Problem of Asia, Chalk Horse, Sydney, 2010
Tamagawa Art Line Project, Tokyo, 2010
New Vision: New Colours, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 2010
This is Hong Kong, Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei; Kunsthalle Vienna, 2010
Regreen Arts, Regreen Base, Yamanashi, Japan, 2009
Beginning, Middle and End, School of Art Gallery, Australian National University, Canberra, 2009
PAWNSHOP, The Shop, Beijing, 2009
From 2D to 3D, Sin Sin Fine Art, Hong Kong, 2009
Dwelling, Osage Kwun Tong, Hong Kong, 2009
This is Hong Kong, Loop09, Casa Àsia, Barcelona; Alternative Space Loop, Seoul; Subvision Festival, Hamburg; EastSide Projects, Birmingham; ifa Gallery, Berlin; Map Office, Hong Kong, 2009
Louis Vuitton: a Passion for Creation, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 2009
Paradise is elsewhere, ifa Galleries, Stuttgart/ Berlin, 2009
In Other Words, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 2009
Living Colours, Grotto Fine Art, Hong Kong, 2009
HK Sound Station, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 2009
Excuse me, are you famous? Invaliden1, Berlin, 2009
Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 2008
Guangzhou Triennial, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, China, 2008
Lights Out, Museu da Imagem e do Som, São Paulo, 2008
3500 cm2 – Art poster exhibition, uqbar, Berlin, 2008
Asia Art Knots, Open Space, Art Cologne; Para/Site, Hong Kong, 2008
Hong Kong Anarchitecture Bananas, Artist Commune, Hong Kong, 2008
Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture, Old Central Police Station, Hong Kong, 2008
South China: Special Arts Region, Kubas, Munich, 2007
Third Lianzhou International Photo Festival, Lianzhou, China, 2007
TimeLine; human speed & technology speed, Korean Cultural Center, Beijing, 2007
(Im)personal Space, H Gallery Cheap New Balance Shoes, Bangkok, 2007
Time After Time, Hollywood Centre, Hong Kong, 2007
Pearl River City, Kunstverein, Hamburg, 2007
Reversing Horizons, Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, 2007
Talkover/Handover: Dialogues on Hong Kong Art 10 Years After 1997, 1a Space, Hong Kong, 2007
The Reading Records of City, M Art Space, 798 Art District, Beijing, 2007
The Pearl River Delta, Contemporary Art Centre, Vilnius, 2007
Para/Site Portfolio – 1/xx: Hong Kong flat, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 2007
Read Différance, Fo Tan, Hong Kong, 2006
3500 cm2: art poster project, Blueroom, Rome, 2006
Publicly Private, Spazio Paraggi, Treviso (Italy), 2006
Busan Biennale, Busan (Korea), 2006
A Yellow Box in Qingpu: Contemporary Art and Architecture in a Chinese Space, Xiao Ximen, Shanghai, 2006
The Pearl River Delta (touring), Nassauischer Kunstverein, Wiesbaden(Germany); Zacheta Gallery, Warsaw, 2006
A Realm with No Coordinates, 1a Space, Hong Kong; Nanhai Gallery, Taipei, 2006
Close Distance, Plymouth Art Centre (UK), 2006
The Contemporary Hong Kong Art Biennial, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 2005
S-AIR_ASIA: Ah-Bin Shim + Leung Chi Wo, Moerenuma Park, Sapporo, Japan, 2005
Guangzhou Triennial, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, China, 2005
In the Deep of Reality: A Case of Chinese Contemporary Art, Basement of Tianyu Apartment, Hangzhou, China, 2005
A Strange Heaven: Contemporary Chinese Photography, Helsinki City Art Museum, Finland, 2005
Island Art Film & Video Festival, UGC Cinema, London, 2005
Contemporary Asian Art, Zetterquist Galleries, New York, 2005
Scan, MAAP in Singapore, The Substation, Singapore, 2004
Neither East nor West: Hong Kong Contemporary Art, East-West Center Gallery, Honolulu, 2004
In Touch with Visual Arts, Exhibition Gallery, Hong Kong Cultural Centre, 2004
East West RetroArtive, Art Statements, Hong Kong, 2004
Wake up! Photography is art, Art Statements, Hong Kong, 2004
Intimate Re-collection, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 2004
Fridge, Hong Kong Arts Centre, 2004
Id-map, Real-scape: Leung Chi Wo & Sara Chi Hang Wong, Gallery TEZZ, Tokyo, 2004
Para/Site: Open Work, Centre A, Vancouver, 2004
Behold! God…., John Batten Gallery, Hong Kong, 2004
Local Accent: 12 artists from Hong Kong, Pickled Art Centre, Beijing, 2003
SHINXUS«multiple, Gallery TEZZ, Tokyo, 2003
Mapping Asia, Heritage Museum, Hong Kong, 2003
A Strange Heaven: Contemporary Chinese Photography, Rudolfinum, Prague, 2003
Interrupt, Singapore Art Museum, 2003
4th Festival des Cinéma Différents de Paris, cultural centre La Clef, Paris, 2002
Motorik, COURTisane Kortfilmfestival, Ghent, 2002
Zheng/Fan, Pottery Workshop, Shanghai, 2002
Paris-Pekin: contemporary Chinese art collection of Myriam and Guy Ullens, Espace Cardin, Paris, 2002
Four Focuses: Four Hong Kong Photographers, Grotto Fine Art, Hong Kong, 2002
Moving Violations, Red Dog International, Hong Kong, 2002
World Cup Through Art, Chosun Ilbo Art Center & Gallery Hyundai, Seoul, 2002
Gwangju Biennale, Gwangju (Korea), 2002
Social Club, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 2002
If I had a dream……: Chinese / German Art Exhibition, Hong Kong Central Library, 2001
Re-Considered crossings: representation beyond hybridity, Fotogalerie Wien, Vienna, 2001
Hyphenation: Contemporary Hong Kong Art, Grotto Fine Art, Hong Kong, 2001
Microwave International Media Art Festival 2001, City Hall, Hong Kong, 2001
Pinhole Vision, Temporary Exhibition Gallery of Provisional Municipal Council of Macau, 2001
Hong Kong Exhibition—Magic at Street Level, Venice Biennale, 2001
Hot Pot: Contemporary Chinese Art, Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, 2001
Polypolis: Contemporary Art from Asia Pacific Megacities, Kunsthaus Hamburg, 2001
Landscape Project, Goethe Institut, Hong Kong, 2001
Contemporary Hong Kong Art 2000, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 2000
Shanghai Biennale, Shanghai Art Museum, 2000
Clockwork 2000, Clocktower Gallery of PS1 Contemporary Art Center, New York, 2000
City Detour, OP Fotogallery, Toronto, 2000
ARTscope Hong Kong, Morphes2000, Tokyo; City University of Hong Kong, 2000
Happy 00, Video in Public Space Project, Graz, Austria, 1999
Open Studio Exhibition, International Studio Program, New York, 1999
Three Photographers: Leung Chi Wo, Laurence Aberhart & So Hing Keung, John Batten Gallery The Kooples Dresses Online Store 2016-17 Style, Hong Kong, 1999
On Hong Kong: An Exhibition of Contemporary Photography, City Hall, Hong Kong, 1998
Transaction (part of the Next Wave Festival), West Space, Melbourne, 1998
Coffee Shop, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 1998
Exhibition 6.30, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 1998
The Contemporary Hong Kong Art Biennial, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 1998
Fast Forward to 2000, Cultural Center of the Philippines, Manila, 1998
Urban Council Fine Arts Award Winners Exhibition, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 1997
Perfect Tense, Fringe Club, Hong Kong, 1997
European Media Art Festival, Osnabrück, Germany, 1997
Hong Kong Now, (touring exhibition), Anderson Gallery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA, 1997
Exhibition 6.30, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 1997
Perspectives: Contemporary Hong Kong Photographers, Space Untitled Gallery, New York, 1997
Hong Kong Art 1997, National Museum of Fine Arts, Beijing/ Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou, 1997
Relic/Image, Para/Site, Hong Kong, 1996
Friulimmagina96, Villa Florio, Buttrio (UD), Italy, 1996
Exhibition 6.30, Hanart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, 1996
Love is a Many-Splendored Thing, Fringe Club, Hong Kong, 1996
Contemporary Hong Kong Art Biennial, Hong Kong Museum of Art, 1996

Bob Atha

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Robert Atha (born September 22, 1960 in Marietta

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, Ohio) was an American football placekicker, punter, and backup quarterback who played college football for the Ohio State Buckeyes and NFL football For the Miami Dolphins and played for the Arizona Cardinals.
From 1978 through 1980, Atha played for the Buckeyes as a backup to quarterback Art Schlichter and a backup to placekicker Vlade Janakievski. In 1981 Atha earned the starting position as placekicker. He continued as a backup quarterback behind Mike Tomczak. Atha led the team in scoring that year with 88 points: 13 field goals, 43 PATs, and one touchdown. He earnd the key of worthington for his achievements. After his years of Ohio football he got drafted to the Miami Dolphins.
During an October 24, 1981 game in Ohio Stadium, Atha made five field goals to set an Ohio State school and stadium record. The record has never been surpassed but it has been tied by Mike Nugent (at North Carolina State, September 19, 2004) and Josh Huston (vs. 2005 Texas Longhorn football team, September 17, 2005 in Ohio Stadium). It was most recently tied on September 11th, 2010 by Devin Barclay versus the University Of Miami.
He is married to wife Carol Atha and has a daughter Lauren Atha Skinner, and two sons Hunter and Tanner Atha. Bob is owner of Houghton Investments an oilfield production company in Ohio

Mail.Ru

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Mail.Ru Group (London Stock Exchange listed since November 5, 2010) is a Russian Internet company. It was started in 1998 as an e-mail service and went on to become a major corporate figure in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet. As of 2013, according to comScore, websites owned by Mail.ru collectively had the largest audience in Russia and captured the most screen time. Mail.Ru’s sites reach approximately 86% of Russian Internet users on a monthly basis and the company is in the top 5 of largest Internet companies, based on the number of total pages viewed. Mail.ru controls the 3 largest Russian social networking sites. It operates the second and third most popular Russian social networking sites, Odnoklassniki and Moy Mir, respectively. Mail.ru holds 100% of shares of Russia’s most popular social network VKontakte and minority stakes in Qiwi, formerly OE Investments (15.04%). It also operates two instant messaging networks (Mail.Ru Agent and ICQ), an e-mail service and Internet portal Mail.ru, as well as a number of online games.

The business was originally owned by Port.ru, a company founded in 1998 by Eugene Goland, Michael Zaitsev and Alexey Krivenkov as spin-off from DataArt. It received an initial investment of USD 1 million from the well-known investor (and fencing champion) James Melcher.
The Mail.ru business expanded rapidly to reach the No. 1 market position in Russia by 2000. Attempts to fund the company’s expansion in 2000-2001 were thwarted by the collapse of the technology bubble and Mail.ru was forced to seek merger partners.
In 2001, Yuri Milner, who was managing NetBridge (the owner of less popular internet brands) persuaded the well-known entrepreneur Igor Linshits to back a merger of the Mail.ru business with NetBridge. Igor Linshits subsequently took an active role in the development of the Mail.ru business. In connection with the merger, Milner became Mail.ru CEO.
The company started to operate under its present name on 16 October 2001. Before that time its brand name was owned by Port.ru. It is headed by Dmitry Grishin. As of 2009, its global Alexa rating is 29.
In 2003, Milner resigned from Mail.ru and subsequently set up another internet venture, Digital Sky Technologies (DST). In 2006, Igor Linshits sold his stake in Mail.ru to Tiger Fund and Milner’s DST for more than $100 million. In September 2010, DST changed its name to Mail.ru Group. Dmitry Grishin became one of the Mail.ru Group co-founders.
In October 2010, Mail.ru announced plans for an IPO via the London stock market listing of a subsidiary – also called Mail.ru – worth more than $5bn. The IPO will offer a stake of about 17% of the subsidiary. The subsidiary will include about a quarter of the group’s shareholding in Facebook, stakes in Russia’s two biggest social networking sites and Mail.ru. The company has hired Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley and VTB Capital to run the listing.
In March 2012, Yuri Milner has stepped down from the role of Chairman of Mail.ru and from the Board of Directors. Dmitry Grishin was elected to the Board of Directors and appointed as Chairman of the Board while retaining his CEO position discount nike jerseys online 2016. There were no other changes to management or to the Board

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In November 2012, it was reported that Mail.Ru disclaims search services Google. Full migration into own engine has occurred in the summer of 2013.
In autumn 2012, it became known for buying two-letter domain My.com by Mail.ru Group. This was taken as a statement of the plans of conquering world markets and the upcoming re-branding of services under this name. In the end of 2012, Mail.ru Group bought Ukrainian email service mail.ua, and 23 April 2013 was opened registration email in this domain.
Mail.Ru Group offers a variety of online communication products and entertainment services for Russian speakers all over the world

Hörningsholm Castle

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Hörningsholm Castle (Swedish: Hörningsholms slott) is a castle in Sweden. It is located on a cliff by an inlet of the Baltic Sea some kilometres from Södertälje. The castle was most probably built by the Sture family during the late 15th and early 16th century, was burnt to the ground by Russian troops in 1719 and rebuilt in its present shape by architect Carl Hårleman. It was renovated in 1919-20 by architect Ivar Tengbom.

The foundations of the presently visible building, including the basements, date from a castle that was erected on the cliff most probably at the end of the 15th century, when the land was owned by Nils Bosson Sture. The history of the estate, however, goes even further back, although earlier there was no fortification on the site.
The preceding farmstead was by 1260 in the possession of a landowner called Karl Ulfsson, who joined the Teutonic Order in a crusade against non-Christians in the present-day Baltic states. He died in the Battle of Durbe and in his will left several of his farms to the Teutonic Order. It is therefore possible but not certain that the land for a while was in the possession of the crusader order. Little is known of the fate of the farmstead until the 15th century, when it is known to have been in possession of one Erengisle Nilsson (died 1469); his widow sold the land to Nils Bosson Sture who most probably began construction of the castle.
It stayed in the Sture family until 1616. The family built and expanded the castle into a late Medieval–Renaissance castle. In 1520, it was occupied by a garrison of 70 Danish troops who pillaged the castle

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, but they were driven out by troops loyal to Gustav Vasa during the Swedish War of Liberation. After 1616 the castle had several different owners, among them Johan Oxenstierna.
In 1719, during the Russian Pillage of 1719-1721, the castle was burnt to the ground by Russian troops. Reconstruction of the castle did not start until 1746, when the castle was sold to Nils Bonde af Björnö (who had himself been taken prisoner by the Russians at the Surrender at Perevolochna). The reconstruction was finished in 1752. The property has since then stayed in the Bonde family. It is today (2014) owned by Carl Bonde.
The medieval castle consisted of two stone buildings, connected with walls reinforced with at least two towers, in a way that created an enclosed space. It was an unusually large and elaborate private castle, and could be compared in size and importance to the castles belonging to the royalty. During the second half of the 17th century, the Swedish government considered buying the castle in order to strengthen the defence of the country. Of the original medieval castle, ramparts and cellars remain today. In 1824, a dungeon was discovered under the floor of one of the basement rooms; it had clearly been used as a prison and semi-decomposed remains of human bodies were identified within the room

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When Hårleman made the new designs for the reconstructed castle, he retained very little of the medieval superstructures. Instead Maje On Sale, he aimed to create a building inspired by the ideals of French Rococo. The presently visible castle is thus a relatively symmetrical edifice, with two square, one-storey wings. He also reconstructed some of the ramparts into a terrace.
The castle contains the art collection of the Bonde family, as well as highly accomplished interior details such as tiled stoves. The castle also contains a large private library.

Longthorpe Tower

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Longthorpe Tower is a 14th-century three-storey tower in the village of Longthorpe, famous for its well-preserved set of medieval murals.

Longthorpe tower is located in the village of Longthorpe, now a residential area of Peterborough in the United Kingdom, about two miles (3 km) to the west of the city centre

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. At the start of the 14th century, Robert Thorpe built the tower an extension to an existing fortified manor house; Thorpe had worked his way to relative wealth through the local Peterborough Abbey, and the tower may have been something of a status symbol. The tower has three stories, and the first floor was originally designed as living space for Thorpe.
The tower is best known for its English medieval wall paintings, carried out around 1330. The paintings show religious, secular and moral themes and the quality is comparatively good for a provincial work. The paintings were whitewashed over around the time of the Reformation and remained hidden until their rediscovery in the 1940s. Historian Clive Rouse considers that „no comparable scheme…of such completeness and of such early date exists in England“.
The property is now owned by English Heritage and is a Grade I listed building and a Scheduled Monument protected by law.
Media related to Longthorpe Tower at Wikimedia Commons
Coordinates: 52°34′15″N 0°17′13″W / 52.5708°N 0.2869°W / 52.5708; -0.2869

Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

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Japanese flag
(八紘一宇)
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history. Under German occupation, the Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, and less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo, the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Initially, most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese, as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters. The sentiment changed, as Indonesians were expected to endure more hardship for the war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops largely bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra. As such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of their surrender, in August 1945.
The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia and ended the Dutch colonial rule, and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. Particularly in Java and

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, to a lesser extent, Sumatra, the Japanese educated, trained and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus, through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for claiming Indonesian independence within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies, and a bitter five-year diplomatic, military and social struggle ensued, resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949.

Until 1942, Indonesia was colonised by the Netherlands and was known as the Dutch East Indies. In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta (later founding President and Vice-President), foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause.
The Japanese spread the word that they were the ‚Light of Asia‘. Japan was the only Asian nation that had successfully transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the 19th century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, and had beaten a European power, Russia, in war. Following its military campaign in China Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia advocating to other Asians a ‚Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere‘, which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership. The Japanese had gradually spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.
The Japanese population peaked in 1931, with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease, largely due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government. A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists, particularly with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan. Such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an ‚Asia for the Asians‘. While most Indonesians were hopeful for the Japanese promise of an end to the Dutch racially based system, Chinese Indonesians, who enjoyed a privileged position under Dutch rule, were less optimistic. Also concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Union’s popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services also monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organisation of religious, political and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilisation of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat. The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago.
On 8 December 1941, the Netherlands declared war on Japan. In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM) was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the commander of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile taking political prisoners, family, and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese- and Dutch-owned properties were ransacked and destroyed.
The invasion in early 1942 was swift and complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control. By February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 19 February, having already taken Ambon, the Japanese Eastern Task Force landed in Timor, dropping a special parachute unit into West Timor near Kupang, and landing in the Dili area of Portuguese Timor to drive out the Allied forces which had invaded in December. On 27 February, the Allied navy’s last effort to contain Japan was swept aside by their defeat in the Battle of the Java Sea. From 28 February to 1 March 1942, Japanese troops landed on four places along the northern coast of Java almost undisturbed. The fiercest fighting had been in invasion points in Ambon, Timor, Kalimantan, and on the Java Sea. In places where there were no Dutch troops, such as Bali, there was no fighting. On 9 March, the Dutch commander surrendered along with Governor General Jonkheer A.W.L. Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer.
The Japanese occupation was initially greeted with optimistic enthusiasm by Indonesians who came to meet the Japanese army waving flags and shouting support such as „Japan is our older brother“ and „banzai Dai Nippon“. As the Japanese advanced, rebellious Indonesians in virtually every part of the archipelago killed groups of Europeans (particularly the Dutch) and informed the Japanese reliably on the whereabouts of larger groups. As famed Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer noted: „With the arrival of the Japanese just about everyone was full of hope, except for those who had worked in the service of the Dutch.“
The colonial army was consigned to detention camps and Indonesian soldiers were released.[citation needed] Expecting that Dutch administrators would be kept by the Japanese to run the colony, most Dutch had refused to leave. Instead, they were sent to concentration camps and Japanese or Indonesian replacements could be found for senior and technical positions. Japanese troops took control of government infrastructure and services such as ports and postal services. In addition to the 100,000 European (and some Chinese) civilians interned, 80,000 Dutch, British, Australia, and US Allied troops went to prisoner-of-war camps where the death rates were between 13 and 30 per cent.
The Indonesian ruling classes and politicians cooperated with the Japanese who kept the local elites in power and used them to supply Japanese industries and armed forces. Indonesian co-operation allowed the Japanese to focus on securing the archipelago’s waterways and skies, and using its islands as defence posts against Allied attack. Japanese rulers divided Indonesia into three regions; Sumatra was placed under the 25th Army, Java and Madura were under the 16th Army, while Borneo and eastern Indonesia were controlled by the Navy 2nd South Fleet

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. The 16th and 25th Army were headquartered in Singapore and also controlled Malaya until April 1943, when its command was narrowed to just Sumatra and the headquarters moved to Bukittinggi. The 16th Army was headquartered in Jakarta, while the 2nd South Fleet was headquartered in Makassar.
Experience of the occupation varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one’s social position. Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Between four and 10 million romusha in Java were forced to work by the Japanese military. About 270,000 of these Javanese labourers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%.
Tens of thousands of Indonesians were to starve, work as slave labourers, or be forced from their homes. In the National Revolution that followed, tens, even hundreds, of thousands, would die in fighting against the Japanese, Allied forces, and other Indonesians, before Independence was achieved. A later United Nations report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths. A Dutch government study described how the Japanese military recruited women as prostitutes by force in Indonesia. It concluded that among the 200 to 300 European women working in the Japanese military brothels, „some sixty five were most certainly forced into prostitution.“ Others, faced with starvation in the refugee camps, agreed to offers of food and payment for work, the nature of which was not completely revealed to them.
Materially, whole railway lines, railway rolling stock, and industrial plants in Java were appropriated and shipped back to Japan and Manchuria. British intelligence reports during the occupation noted significant removals of any materials that could be used in the war effort.
Next to Sutan Sjahrir who led the student (Pemuda) underground, the only prominent opposition politician was leftist Amir Sjarifuddin who was given 25,000 guilders by the Dutch in early 1942 to organise an underground resistance through his Marxist and nationalist connections. The Japanese arrested Amir in 1943, and he only escaped execution following intervention from Sukarno, whose popularity in Indonesia and hence importance to the war effort was recognised by the Japanese. Apart from Amir’s Surabaya-based group, the most active pro-Allied activities were among the Chinese, Ambonese, and Manadonese.
In South Kalimantan, a scheme by Indonesian nationalists and Dutch against the Japanese was uncovered before the Pontianak incident occurred. According to some sources this happened in September 1943 at Amuntai in South Kalimantan and involved establishing up an Islamic State and expelling the Japanese but the plan was defeated.
In 1943 the Japanese beheaded Tengku Rachmadu’llah, a member of the royal family of the Sultanate of Serdang. In the 1943–1944 Pontianak incidents (also known as the Mandor Affair), the Japanese orchestrated a mass arrest of Malay elites and Arabs, Chinese, Javanese, Manadonese, Dayaks, Bugis, Bataks, Minangkabau, Dutch, Indians, and Eurasians in Kalimantan, including all of the Malay Sultans, accused them of plotting to overthrow Japanese rule, and then massacred them. The Japanese falsely claimed that all of those ethnic groups and organisations such as the Islamic Pemuda Muhammadijah were involved in a plot to overthrow the Japanese and create a „People’s Republic of West Borneo“ (Negara Rakyat Borneo Barat). The Japanese claimed that- „Sultans, Chinese, Indonesian government officials, Indians and Arabs, who had been antagonistic to each other, joined together to massacre Japanese.“, naming the Sultan of the Pontianak Sultanate as one of the „ringleaders“ in the planned rebellion. Up to 25 aristocrats, relatives of the Sultan of Pontianak, and many other prominent individuals were named as participants in the plot by the Japanese and then executed at Mandor. The Sultans of Pontianak, Sambas, Ketapang, Soekadana, Simbang, Koeboe, Ngabang, Sanggau, Sekadau, Tajan, Singtan, and Mempawa were all executed by the Japanese, respectively, their names were Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri, Mohamad Ibrahim Tsafidedin, Goesti Saoenan, Tengkoe Idris, Goesti Mesir, Sjarif Saleh, Goesti Abdoel Hamid, Ade Mohamad Arif, Goesti Mohamad Kelip, Goesti Djapar, Raden Abdul Bahri Danoe Perdana, and Mohammed Ahoufiek. They are known as the „12 Dokoh“. In Java, the Japanese jailed Syarif Abdul Hamid Alqadrie, the son of Sultan Syarif Mohamad Alkadrie (Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri). Since he was in Java during the executions Hamid II was the only male in his family not killed, while the Japanese beheaded all 28 other male relatives of Pontianak Sultan Mohammed Alkadri. Among the 29 people of the Sultan of Pontianak’s family who ere beheaded by the Japanese was the heir to the Pontianak throne. Later in 1944, the Dayaks assassinated a Japanese named Nakatani, who was involved in the incident and who was known for his cruelty. Sultan of Pontianak Mohamed Alkadri’s fourth son, Pengeran Agoen (Pangeran Agung), and another son, Pengeran Adipati (Pangeran Adipati), were both killed by the Japanese in the incident. The Japanese had beheaded both Pangeran Adipati and Pangeran Agung, in a public execution. The Japanese extermination of the Malay elite of Pontianak paved the way for a new Dayak elite to arise in its place. According to Mary F. Somers Heidhues, during May and June 1945, some Japanese were killed in a rebellion by the Dayaks in Sanggau. According to Jamie S. Davidson, this rebellion, during which many Dayaks and Japanese were killed, occurred from April through August 1945, and was called the „Majang Desa War“. The Pontianak Incidents, or Affairs, are divided into two Pontianak incidents by scholars, variously categorised according to mass killings and arrests, which occurred in several stages on different dates. The Pontianak incident negatively impacted the Chinese community in Kalimantan.
The Acehnese Ulama (Islamic clerics) fought against both the Dutch and the Japanese, revolting against the Dutch in February 1942 and against Japan in November 1942. The revolt was led by the All-Aceh Religious Scholars‘ Association ( PUSA). The Japanese suffered 18 dead in the uprising while they slaughtered up to 100 or over 120 Acehnese. The revolt happened in Bayu and was centred around Tjot Plieng village’s religious school. During the revolt, the Japanese troops armed with mortars and machine guns were charged by sword wielding Acehnese under Teungku Abduldjalil (Tengku Abdul Djalil) in Buloh Gampong Teungah and Tjot Plieng on 10 and 13 November. In May 1945 the Acehnese rebelled again.
In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese proved fundamental for coming Indonesian independence. During the occupation, the Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalistic sentiments, created new Indonesian institutions, and promoted nationalist leaders such as Sukarno. The openness now provided to Indonesian nationalism, combined with the Japanese destruction of much of the Dutch colonial state, were fundamental to the Indonesian National Revolution that followed World War 2.
Nonetheless within two months of the occupation the Japanese did not allow the political use of the word Indonesia as the name for a nation, neither did they allow the use of the nationalistic (red and white) Indonesian flag. In fact „any discussion, organisation, speculation or propaganda concerning the political organisation or government of the country“ (also in the media) was strictly forbidden. They split up the Dutch East Indies into three separate regions and referred to it as the ‚Southern Territories‘ (Indonesian: Daerah Selatan). While Tokyo prepared the Philippines for independence in 1943, they simultaneously decided to annexe the Indonesian islands into the greater Japanese Empire. Until late 1944 when the Pacific war was at a turning point the Japanese never seriously supported Indonesian independence.
The Japanese regime perceived Java as the most politically sophisticated but economically the least important area; its people were Japan’s main resource. As such—and in contrast to Dutch suppression—the Japanese encouraged Indonesian nationalism in Java and thus increased its political sophistication (similar encouragement of nationalism in strategic resource-rich Sumatra came later, but only after it was clear the Japanese would lose the war). The outer islands under naval control, however, were regarded as politically backward but economically vital for the Japanese war effort, and these regions were governed the most oppressively of all. These experiences and subsequent differences in nationalistic politicisation would have profound impacts on the course of the Indonesian Revolution in the years immediately following independence (1945–1950) Maje On Sale.
To gain support and mobilise Indonesian people in their war effort against the Western Allied force, Japanese occupation forces encouraged Indonesian nationalistic movements and recruiting Indonesian nationalist leaders; Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara and Kyai Haji Mas Mansyur to rally the people support for mobilisation centre Putera (Indonesian: Pusat Tenaga Rakyat) on 16 April 1943, replaced with Jawa Hokokai on 1 March 1944. Some of these mobilised populations were sent to forced labour as romusha.
Japanese military also provided Indonesian youth with military trainings and weapons, including the formation of volunteer army called PETA (Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Homeland). The Japanese military trainings for Indonesian youth originally was meant to rally the local’s support for the collapsing power of Japanese Empire, but later it has become the significant resource for Republic of Indonesia during Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949, and also has leads to the formation of Indonesian National Armed Forces in 1945

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On 29 April 1945, Japanese occupation force formed BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Effort Exploratory Committee) (Japanese: 独立準備調査会, Dokuritsu Junbi Chōsakai), a Japanese-organized committee for granting independence to Indonesia. The organisation was founded on 29 April 1945 by Lt. Gen. Kumakichi Harada, the commander of 16th Army in Java. Indonesian independence meeting and discussion were prepared through this organisation.
In addition to new-found Indonesian nationalism, equally important for the coming independence struggle and internal revolution was the Japanese orchestrated economic, political and social dismantling and destruction of the Dutch colonial state.
General MacArthur wanted to fight his way with Allied troops to liberate Java in 1944–45 but was ordered not to by the joint chiefs and President Roosevelt. The Japanese occupation thus officially ended with Japanese surrender in the Pacific and two days later Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence. However Indonesian forces would spend the next four years fighting the Dutch for independence. American restraint from fighting their way into Java certainly saved many Japanese, Javanese, Dutch and American lives. On the other hand, Indonesian independence would have likely been achieved more swiftly and smoothly had MacArthur had his way and American troops occupied Java. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation. About 2.4 million people died in Java from famine during 1944–45.
Liberation of the internment camps holding western prisoners was not swift. Conditions were better during post-war internment than under previous internment, for, this time, Red Cross supplies were made available and the Allies made the Japanese order the most heinous and cruel occupiers home. After four months of post-war internment, Western internees were released on the condition they left Indonesia.[citation needed]
Most of the Japanese military personnel and civilian colonial administrators were repatriated to Japan following the war, except for several hundred who were detained for investigations into war crimes, for which some were later put on trial. About 1,000 Japanese soldiers deserted from their units and assimilated themselves into local communities. Many of these soldiers provided assistance to rebel forces during the Indonesian National Revolution.
The final stages of warfare were initiated in October 1945 when, in accordance with the terms of their surrender, the Japanese tried to re-establish the authority they relinquished to Indonesians in the towns and cities. Japanese military police killed Republican pemuda in Pekalongan (Central Java) on 3 October, and Japanese troops drove Republican pemuda out of Bandung in West Java and handed the city to the British, but the fiercest fighting involving the Japanese was in Semarang. On 14 October, British forces began to occupy the city. Retreating Republican forces retaliated by killing between 130 and 300 Japanese prisoners they were holding. Five hundred Japanese and 2000 Indonesians had been killed and the Japanese had almost captured the city six days later when British forces arrived.
I, of course, knew that we had been forced to keep Japanese troops under arms to protect our lines of communication and vital areas … but it was nevertheless a great shock to me to find over a thousand Japanese troops guarding the nine miles of road from the airport to the town.
Until 1949, the returning Dutch authorities held 448 war crimes trials against 1038 suspects. 969 of those were condemned (93.4%) with 236 (24.4%) receiving a death sentence.

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