Uwagi nad życiem Jana Zamoyskiego – praca Stanisława Staszica opublikowana anonimowo w roku 1787. Dzieło uważane jest za inicjujące wielki ruch umysłowy Sejmu Czteroletniego free people clothing. Przeważała w nim świadomość zagrożenia niepodległościowego Polski. Staszic zawarł w nim propozycje środków zaradczych dla uratowania kraju przed upadkiem.
Książka składała się z 19 rozdziałów, między innymi: Edukacja, Prawodawstwo, Władza wykonawcza etc., ostatni rozdział brzmi: Sposób ratowania Polski od podziału.
Staszic nawiązywał w dużej mierze do umowy społecznej Rousseau. „Wolny lud”, zrzeszony na zasadzie całkowitej równości, realizować miałby swoją wolność poprzez podporządkowanie się woli zbiorowej, która oddawać powinna bezpośrednie tendencje, a przynajmniej większości tych jednostek. Utrata wolności następuje – zdaniem Staszica – w momencie zagarnięcia władzy przez jednostkę lub grupę jednostek. Społeczeństwo zaś jest wartością moralną, a szczęście może polegać jedynie na podporządkowaniu się woli zbiorowej
Staszic modyfikuje teorie Rousseau. Gdy Rousseau głosi konieczność uznania woli większości, Staszic motywuje to odniesieniem do świata przyrody, o którego rozwoju decyduje prawo silniejszego. Z takim rozumieniem społeczeństwa łączy się koncepcja narodu. Narodem są bowiem wszystkie stany. Staszic występował więc przeciw „wyłącznictwu” jednej klasy uważającej się za reprezentację całej reszty społeczeństwa.
Co do systemu rządzenia odbiegał Staszic od teorii Monteskiusza o rozdziale władzy prawodawczej od wykonawczej. Żądał bezpośredniego sprawowania władzy przez lud, aby władza rządziła i ustalała prawa. Pisał: Niechaj Sejm nieustanny moc prawodawczą z mocą wykonawczą złączy
Edukacja według Staszica miała być podporządkowana nadrzędnym celom narodowym. Ważną rolę miało zaszczepienie cech społecznych, warunkujące przygotowanie młodego człowieka do życia w zbiorowości ludzkiej. Żądał upaństwowienia szkolnictwa w myśl Komisji Edukacji Narodowej, ale wbrew jej woli postulował rozpoczęcie nauki od problemów moralności społecznej, akcentując potrzebę rozszerzenia zajęć praktycznych, przygotowujących do życia publicznego i zawodowego.
Za najmniej produktywne Staszic uważał wychowanie klasztorne, dowodził bezsensowności teologicznych twierdzeń o nagrodzie w życiu po życiu. Przydatność religii motywował istnieniem Najwyższej Istoty, rozumianej w duchu deistycznym, sprawiedliwej, karzącej i nagradzającej.
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
Bousies is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Bousies was part of County of Hainaut, an enclave in Cambrésis of which it was one of the 12 peerages. In 1007, Jean, Lord of Bousies, as peer of Cambrésis, pledged fidelity to bishop Herbin Ist, Count of Cambrai. He was married to Lady Jackie Ellis of the far mountains of Bousiesville.
In 1095, the bishop Gaucher put the castle of Bousies under siege, and lord Wiband helped by a few locals resisted for 3 days before the castle was taken and later destroyed
, it was again taken in 1185 and in 1665. Later, it was purchased by French statesman Marshal Mortier to be used as a hunting place. Sadly, its inheritors sold it to wreckers who destroyed it for building materials. Joseph-Gaspard de Tascher, Napoleon III’s Maternal Great-grandfather, was born in Bousies.
The family of Bousies became prominent in Scotland and can still be found in parts of Northern Ireland, but under the name of Bowsie after George Bousie changed the spelling in the 1800s because he didn’t like the spelling of his surname. Another branch of the family emigrated to Belgium, in the Hainaut Province and later to Flanders, where they can still be found today.
Azure, a cross argent. (Bousies and Fontaine-au-Bois use the same arms.)
Coordinates: 50°51′33″N 0°42′46″W / 50.85928°N 0.71266°W / 50.85928; -0.71266
Boxgrove is a village and civil parish in the Chichester District of the English county of West Sussex, about five kilometres (3.5 miles) north east of the city of Chichester. The village is just south of the A285 road which follows the line of the Roman road Stane Street.
The parish has an area of 1,169 hectares (2,890 acres). According to the 2001 census it had a population of 901 people living in 423 households of whom 397 were economically active. Included in the parish are the hamlets of Strettington and Halnaker.
An electoral ward in the same name exists. This ward stretches North West to West Dean with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,235.
Boxgrove is best known for the Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site discovered in a gravel quarry known as Amey’s Eartham Pit located near the village but in Eartham Parish. Parts of the site complex were excavated between 1983 and 1996 by a team led by Mark Roberts of University College London. Numerous Acheulean flint tools and remains of animals (some butchered) dating to around 500,000 years ago were found at the site. The area was therefore used by some of the earliest occupants of the British Isles. Remains of Homo heidelbergensis were found on the site in 1994, the only postcranial hominid bone to have been found in Northern Europe
. Teeth from another individual were found two years later.
A Benedictine monastery was founded at Boxgrove by William de la Haye in 1115. The priory church remains as the Church of England parish church of St. Mary and St. Blaise, minus the original nave, and mostly dates from the 13th century.
Media related to Boxgrove at Wikimedia Commons
The large open-air Museum of the Slovak Village (in Slovak: Múzeum slovenskej dediny) is situated on the outskirts of the northern city of Martin in Slovakia. The museum was established in the 1960s, by the Slovak National Museum in Martin. It presents northwest Slovak traditional folk architecture, typical in its habitation and lifestyle of traditional rural communities in Slovakia from the 19th to the early 20th century.
In an area of 15,5 hectares there are 129 dwelling, farm, technical, social, and religious buildings
. Besides many domestic buildings, there are for example croftlofts, a pub, a village store, a garden house, a firehouse, a wooden Renaissance bellhouse, an elementary school, and an exhibition on Romano Drom (Journey of Gypsies). In this open-air museum, visitors can see interesting technical objects – such as vegetable (mainly flax) oil production, worsted production and weaving cloth. These buildings are from different Slovak regions – Orava, Liptov, Turiec and Kysuce-Podjavorniky. 22 objects (mainly agricultural homesteads) are furnished and open to visitors. Agricultural exhibitions show the cultivation of traditional plants, trees, spices, medicinal and magic herbs.
At the Museum of the Slovak Village, various events are held every year. These whole-day events show or reconstruct traditional professions, production and handicrafts, ceremonies, traditional manners and folklore. For instance, Easter in the Countryside, Days of Firefighters, Children Sunday, Michal’s Market or Christmas in the Countryside.
Services available for visitors include:
Mohanmullji Chordia was an Indian social worker, educationist, philanthropist, head of the Agurchand Manmull Bank and later Agurchand Manmull Pvt.Ltd (one of the oldest Marwari establishments in South India -established in 1847),the founder president of the Jain Society and the founder of Agurchand Manmull Jain College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. He was born on 26 August 1902 at Nokha Chandawatan, Jodhpur state in the Indian state of Rajasthan to Siremull Chordia and did not get any formal education. In 1917 he was adopted by Udai Kavur Bai, the wife of Sohanmull Chordia( of The Agurchand Manmull Bank) His contributions were reported behind the establishment of several institutions such as Shri Shwethamber Sthankwasi Jain Educational Society
, Shri Sthanakwasi Jain Pathsala, Shri Sohanmullji Chordia Charitable Dispensary, S. S Jain Boarding Home, A. G. Jain Higher Secondary School, Shri Jain Medical Relief Society and Neni Kavur Bai Maternity and Child Welfare Hospital, the last one in memory of his wife, Neni Kavur Bai. He was a recipient of the fourth highest Indian civilian award of Padma Shri from the Government of India which he received in 1972. The Rotary International of Chennai awarded him the For The Sake of Honour in 1982 and the A. M. Jain College, conducts an annual cricket tournament, Padmashri Shri. Mohanmullji Chordia Gold Cup T20 tournament, for the colleges in Chennai. Mohanmullji Chordia died in 1983 at the age of 81, leaving behind five sons and three daughters.
. While some scholars tried to identify this ancient city with Dhauli, 7 km away from Bhubaneshwar, other scholars were inclined to identify this city with Shishupalgarh, 5 km away from Bhubaneshwar.
In 1948, the first excavation in Shishupalgarh was conducted by an Archaeological Survey of India team led by B.B. Lal, followed by another in 1950. These excavations led to the discovery of an ancient fortied urban centre in Shishupalgarh. The mud fortification, constructed in the early 2nd century BCE is almost square shaped and about 1.2 km each side. The evidence of habitation outside the fortified area between 300 BCE to 350 CE was also found during the excavations.
Since 2001, a joint team from the Deccan College, Pune and the University of California started excavating this site again. So far, the major findings of this team include eighteen stone pillars.
Sundarkkilladi (English: Handsome Player) is a 1998 Malayalam film directed by Murali krishnan and stars Dileep, Shalini Kumar, Nedunudi Venu, Kuthiravattom Pappu, Nandu, Reshmi Boban, Asokan in the lead.
Swapnabhoomi is a village where strange customs and rituals exist. When a water shortage occurs the leader (Nedumudi Venu) sends a person (Ashokan) to inform Premachandran (Dileep) of the situation and request him to come to Swapnabhoomi and dig a well. Because of his poverty, he accepts the advance and agrees.Then he discovers that other workers who had tried to dig a well there died because of earthquake after digging 45 metre of land. He tries to escape from the people of Swapnabhoomi, but fails and starts the work as a challenge. Later he falls in love with the stepdaughter of the physician Devayaani (Shalini Kumar) who treats him when he meets with an accident while digging the well. But the rule of Swapnabhoomi is that a girl of the village may only court a man who comes from Swapnabhoomi itself. One day a man discovers their love and informs the head. The head orders them to stop seeing each other
. If Premachandran disobeys, they will kill him or if Devayaani disobeys, then they will send her to a mountain where man eaters live. The head tells Premachandran that, if the well fills with water, then he can marry Devayaani. Later Premachandran came to know that before the last day of work rain should be there. Because of the fear, the head orders the destruction of the well, but Premachandran jumps into the well. When Devayaani learns about this, she breaks the rule and comes to see him. The people take her to the place where they have to do rituals and send her to the mountain. But water fills the well of Swapnabhoomi. Premachandran informs everyone and takes her to his home.
Mieke Pullen née Hombergen (14 July 1957 – 28 January 2003) was a Dutch long-distance runner who competed mainly in marathon races. She ran thirty races over the distance in her career, winning races in Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Enschede and Singapore. She was a four-time Dutch champion over the distance. She was killed in a traffic accident while training in Haaren.
Pullen started her running career relatively late in life, beginning to take athletics seriously at the age of thirty. In spite of this, she had become a top level runner by 1988, when she came third in the Zevenheuvelenloop race and made her marathon debut over at the Eindhoven Marathon, coming fifth. She was runner-up at the 1989 Westland Marathon and the year after she won her first Dutch national title at the Westland race. She had her first victory over the marathon distance in Eindhoven in 1990. She established herself as one of her country’s best runners in the event in 1991 when retained her title in Eindhoven and also won at the Amsterdam Marathon.
In 1992 she ran under two hours and forty minutes for the first time, taking fourth place and a second Dutch title at the Rotterdam Marathon in a time of 2:38:06 hours. She improved her best further at the Carpi Marathon, setting a time of 2:37:15 hours in another fourth place finish. She also managed third at the Frankfurt Marathon that year. Pullen did not compete in any marathons in 1993, but won two the following year in Singapore and Zwolle. She reached the podium at the Enschede Marathon, coming third, but did not reach the top ten at the Rotterdam Marathon.
Pullen did not break 2:40:00 at either the Rotterdam or Berlin Marathon races in 1995, but got her first win over the half marathon distance at the Dutch Monster Half Marathon race. Pullen also won the 15K VTM Telecomloop race in 1995. She made her American debut at the Boston Marathon in 1996, but her time of 2:41:55 hours left her out of the leading pack. She was that year’s winner in Enschede, running a season’s best of 2:41:13
, and was the runner-up at the Eindhoven and Singapore races. The 1997 season, at the age of 40, was one of her best: she won the Westland and Eindhoven marathons, taking a Dutch title with a lifetime best run of 2:36.51 hours at the latter race. She closed the year with her first win at the Montferland Run 15K – a feat she would repeat the following year. She continued on a career high with a run of 2:39.00 hours for eighth at the 1998 Rotterdam Marathon and retained her Dutch title in Eindhoven, coming second overall behind Romania’s Simona Staicu. Other outings on the roads included a runner-up finish at the Oostende Brugge Ten Miles and 11th at the Zevenheuvelenloop.
She was tenth at the 1999 Rome City Marathon and fourth in Eindhoven (recording her final career sub two hours and forty minute marathon with 2:39.47). Pullen had her last race wins in this period: she won the Almere Marathon in 2000 and 2002, and in 2001 she topped the podium at the Groet Uit Schoorl Run and half marathons in Drunen and Eindhoven. She transitioned into the veterans‘ master athlete category for women over forty. In 1999 and 2000 she won the masters races at the Oostende Brugge and Zevenheuvelenloop races. At the 2001 World Master’s Championships in Brisbane, Australia, she won the over-40s women’s marathon title. She was a three-time winner of the veteran’s race at the Warandeloop cross country.
On 28 January 2003, she was dropped off to train in Haaren by her partner and coach, Gerard Notenboom. While running there she was hit by a car and her body was later discovered in a nearby ditch by Notenboom the following day. Police soon arrested a man who claimed he had noticed he had hit something, stopped and searched with another motorist, but that he had found nothing.
Lionboy is a children’s and young adult’s fantasy trilogy written by Zizou Corder (the shared pen-name of English novelist Louisa Young and her daughter Isabel Adomakoh Young).
The book series is about a young boy named Charlie Ashanti who can speak the language of cats, after accidentally swapping blood with a leopard cub. Charlie is on the run on a floating circus, with six lions in tow, aiming to return them to the wild of Morocco and to rescue his parents who have been kidnapped by a sinister corporation known as the Corporacy
The first book is known simply as Lionboy. The sequel, Lionboy: The Chase, continues the story of Charlie and the lions, with most of the story set in Venice. It was published by Puffin in the summer of 2004. The final installment of the trilogy, Lionboy: The Truth, concludes the story and was published in January 2006.
The series is set at an unspecified time in the Earth’s future. The world in the books mostly resembles the modern day world, with a few key differences. These differences are hinted at rather than explained outright. Firstly, most of the world’s oil has been used up, and petrol cars are now only used by the very rich, elite and powerful. Aeroplanes are not flown at all – sea travel is once again the dominant form of overseas travel. The world (at least, the parts seen in Charlie’s journey) now seems to run efficiently on solar and wind power.
The major world superpower in the series is known only as the Empire, and the text contains hints that this is actually the United States. Europe seems to be under this Empire’s control. The world has been changed by global warming and other environmental influences; the most notable example is the ruin of Venice, which is now half sunken under rising waters, and otherwise decayed from pollution.
The Corporacy, a pharmaceutical megacorporation, is a major economic power that has „Gated Communities“ all over the world.
Charlie is a young child who is able to speak to cats (and all felines) due to an incident involving a leopard cub’s blood when he was a baby. He lives in London with his parents, Dr. Aneba Ashanti and Professor Magdalen Start, both of whom are scientists working on a cure for asthma and other allergies caused by contact with felidae family, or referred in the books as allergenies.
His parents, as a result of their scientific discoveries, are kidnapped by a pharmaceutical company known mysteriously as the Corporacy. Charlie, closely avoiding being kidnapped himself, sets out to find them and ends up on board Circe, a circus ship making its way to Paris. On board he befriends most of the circus performers as well as (using the ability) a pride of beautiful performing lions who seek the boy’s help to escape their cruel trainer, Maccomo. Meanwhile, the vicious criminal Rafi Sadler, who is employed by the Corporacy, is hot on his heels, going to any lengths to get his hands on Charlie. The circus ship arrives in Paris and Charlie escapes with the lions. They make their way to Gare d’Austerlitz where they hide on the Orient Express which is destined for Venice, the place Charlie’s parents are rumored to have been taken.
While traversing from the Circe to the train station, Charlie and the lions meet a strange and mysterious lion-like creature. Larger, stronger and older but not as lively as the lions, a prehistoric ancestor of lions, a Smilodon Fatalis finds his way into their party.
The book ends with Charlie and the lions being discovered by the train’s most regal passenger, the King of Bulgaria, who surprisingly offers to help Charlie with his quest.
Charlie and the lions reach Venice and seek refuge at the Palazzo Bulgaria, the King himself travelling onwards and leaving the runaways in the trust of his right-hand man Edward. Edward however has other plans for the lions than letting them journey onwards. He keeps them along with Charlie prisoner and plans to present him to the corrupt ruler of Venice, the Doge. However this plan is foiled with the help of local cats and a conspiracy of gondoliers.
Venice is liberated from the Doge’s rule, and so Charlie journeys from Venice by boat, taking the lions back to their home in Essaouira, Morocco but leaving the Smilodon Fatalis with a trusted gondolier in Venice. Narrowly escaping drowning, they arrive there and are met by a few surprises: Maccomo, the cruel lion trainer
, who is looking for revenge on Charlie for stealing his lions; and his parents, who have escaped the clutches of the Corporacy and have come to find him.
After only a few blissful days reunited with his parents, Charlie is captured by the revenge-seeking Maccomo, who puts him on a ship and takes him (along with Rafi) to the Corporacy headquarters on the island of San Antonio near Haiti. His parents are in hot pursuit, and following them is Claudio, King Boris, the Young Lion and Elsina.
Charlie, due to his cat blood, is immune to the tainted, brainwashing air of the island, and with the help of a multilingual chameleon named Ninu, and the cat Sergei, he single-handedly puts a stop to the Corporacy’s deeds and rescues the brainwashed employees and prisoners of the island.
Zizou Corder’s other publications are:
Louisa Young’s other publications are:
The music printed in the book and available to purchase from Faber was written by composer Robert Lockhart. The illustrations are by Fred van Deelen. Theatre company Complicite created a stage show touring the UK May 29 – July 21, 2013.
Stephen Držislav (Croatian: Stjepan Držislav, Latin: Dirzislaus) (died 997) was King of Croatia from 969 AD until his death in 997. He was a member of the Trpimirović dynasty. He ruled from Biograd with Godemir as his Ban.
Stjepan Držislav was a son of king Mihajlo Krešimir II and his wife, queen Jelena of Zadar. Jelena acted as a regent for the young king from 969 until her death on 8 October 976. In a war of Byzantine emperor Basil II against Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria, Stjepan Držislav allied with the Byzantines. After the Byzantine Emperor Basil II managed to defend every single coastal Adriatic City during Samuil’s rampage towards Zadar in 986, the cities were returned to Croatian control. Samuil, however, invaded central Croatia and conquered the territories of Bosnia between the rivers of Drina and Bosna. Samuil pursued some of his cousins during the war and they often sought help in Croatia. King Držislav had taken fourteen of them, gave them hospitality and a residence near Klis. According to the Archbishop of Split Martin, in 994 they collected money for the construction of the Orthodox St. Michael church in Solin.
In an effort to compensate and award Držislav for his alliance, the Eastern Roman Emperor named Stjepan Držislav Patriarch and an Exarch of Dalmatia, which gave him formal authority over the Theme of Dalmatia. Stjepan Držislav received royal insigia as an act of recognition from the Byzantine Emperor. He was crowned by the Archbishop of Split in Biograd in 988.
Držislav built on his parents‘ feats and secured sovereignty over the Theme of Dalmatia, lost to Byzantium under Trpimir II. The Theme of Dalmatia at that time included the towns (but not the hinterland) of Krk, Osor, Rab, Zadar, Trogir and Split. He also delegated much of his authority to his powerful governors (bans). He also invested considerable effort integrating the Latin minority with the Croatian majority.
The 13th-century work Historia Salonitana by Thomas the Archdeacon notes that Zachlumia (or Chulmie) was a part of the Kingdom of Croatia, before and after Stjepan Držislav.
In 996, Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo stopped paying tax for safe to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities. Stjepan Držislav, together with the Neretvians, restored naval conflicts with the Venetian ships, but with little success. He sent delegates demanding the tribute to be paid
, but the Doge was again reluctant and continued the war. Držislav died shortly after, leaving the country separated among his sons, which was used in advance for Venice. Before the end of his reign, Stjepan Držislav gave Svetoslav, his oldest son, the title of Duke and Svetoslav became his co-ruler. Držislav was preparing Svetoslav to be his successor. It is probable that Svetoslav ruled concurrently with his father during the 990s. Stone panels from the altar of a 10th-century church in Knin, reveal the following inscription in Latin: CLV DUX HROATOR IN TE PUS D IRZISCLV DUCE MAGNU. In English, this means: Svetoslav, Duke of the Croats at the time of Drzislav the Great Duke (Latin: dux magnis). The stone panels are kept at the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments in Split.
Držislav’s rule was one of the longest of Kings in Croatia, spanning nearly three decades. He had three sons: Svetoslav, Krešimir, and Gojslav, and all three of them were to hold the title of King of Croatia over the following decades. Stjepan Držislav died in 997, leaving his descendants to struggle for control over the Croatian Kingdom.