DIE MACHEN LANGE BEINE

Tun Sie es den internationalen Modeprofis gleich und verlängern Sie Ihre Beine optisch auf Model-Länge – mit 15 klugen Styling-Tricks

Марти, Мануэль Гонсалес

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Мануэль Гонсалес Марти (1 января 1877, Валенсия – 4 января 1972, там же) – испанский художник, историк и коллекционер, основатель валенсийского музея керамики, директором которого он был с 1954 по 1972 год.

Родился в буржуазной семье. Изучал право в университете Валенсии и изобразительное искусство в королевской академии Сан-Карлос (там же). С 20 лет публиковал рисунки в юмористических и художественных журналах, был удостоен золотой медали на региональной выставке в Валенсии в 1909 году, и серебряной – на международной выставке в Барселоне (1911).

В 1907 году, участвуя в археологических раскопках в Патерне, под Валенсией, Гонсалес Марти обнаружил образцы старинной керамики. С этого началось его увлечение. Уже к 1909 году он собрал довольно большую коллекцию, с которой участвовал в региональной выставке в Валенсии, а в 1909 году – в Национальной выставке. В 1911 году, вместе с художником Бенльюре-и-Хилем, он посещает Рим.

В 1914 году Гонсалес Марти присоединяется к преподавательскому составу недавно созданной школы керамики, два года спустя становиться директором и возглавляет её вплоть до выхода на пенсию в 1947 году.

Гонсалес Марти с 1904 года был женат на Амелии Куньят-и-Монлеон, также происходившей из буржуазной валенсийской семьи, с которой они обвенчались в старинной базилике в центре Валенсии. Супруга полностью разделяла увлечение мужа рисунком, а позднее и керамикой. После её смерти в 1946 году Гонсалес Марти решил пожертвовать свою коллекцию керамики государству, что и сделал уже в следующем году. Для размещения коллекции был создан валенсийский музей керамики, который в 1954 году открылся для публики в старинном, уникальном по архитектуре здании дворца маркизов Дос Агуас. Гонсалес Марти был назначен директором музея, и оставался им до самой смерти, которая последовала непосредственно в музейном здании, когда ему было 95 лет.

Гонсалес Марти является автором исследования по испанской керамики (1933), и трёхтомного исследования керамики испанского Леванта (1944-1952).

Гонсалес Марти являлся почётным гражданином Валенсии (1967), Патерны, Бурхасота, Морельи и Манисеса. Испанское правительство наградило его большим крестом ордена Альфонсо X Мудрого в 1954 году. Музей, основанный Гонсалесом Марти, носит его имя, бюст основателя установлен в фойе.

Дворец маркизов Дос Агуас – здание музея Керамики, Валенсия.

Реконструкция традиционной валенсийской кухни в экспозиции музея керамики.

Бюст Гонсалеса Марти в музее Керамики.

Портрет Гонсалеса Марти в пожилом возрасте.

Портрет супруги Гонсалеса Марти, Амелии Куньят-и-Монлеон.

Reuzenvuurbuikpad

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

De reuzenvuurbuikpad (Bombina maxima) is een kikker uit de familie Bombinatoridae. De soort, die voor het eerst wetenschappelijk werd beschreven door Boulenger in 1905, behoort tot het geslacht van de vuurbuikpadden (Bombina).

Een reuzenvuurbuikpad kan een lengte bereiken van 55 tot 80 millimeter. Het kikkervisje van de reuzenvuurbuikpad heeft een lengte van rond de 27 millimeter. De soort heeft een bruine lichaamskleur, vergrote klierknobbels aan de bovenzijde en gele vlekken aan de buikzijde. De reuzenvuurbuikpad is giftig, waarvan gebruik gemaakt wordt in de Chinese geneeskunde. Ze zijn actief tijdens de schemering en voeden zich met insecten.

De reuzenvuurbuikpad komt voor in twee verschillende gebieden:

De reuzenvuurbuikpad kan zich ook in Myanmar laten zien, maar zijn verschijning in dat land is zeer schaars. Reuzenvuurbuikpadden leven voornamelijk in moerassen, sloten en op landbouwgrond, op een hoogte van 1800 tot 3000 meter boven zeeniveau.

Deze laatste –Bombina microdeladigitora– wordt tegenwoordig als een aparte soort gezien.

Referenties

Bronnen

Giovanna Marturano

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Giovanna Marturano (Roma, 27 marzo 1912 – Roma, 22 agosto 2013) è stata una partigiana, antifascista e comunista italiana, nonché esponente di rilievo del movimento femminista.

Nata a Roma da famiglia sarda, studiò al Liceo classico Ennio Quirino Visconti nel rione Pigna e poi alla facoltà di architettura de La Sapienza, ma poi si ritirò poco dopo perché la sua famiglia nel 1936 si trasferì a Milano.

Dopo il trasferimento a Milano divenne operaia e aderì al Partito Comunista Italiano che operava in clandestinità.

Con l’arresto di uno dei suoi fratelli nel 1938 venne schedata dalla polizia come „sovversiva“ e scontò un mese di carcere per propaganda antifascista, nel 1941 a Ventotene sposò Pietro Grifone durante il suo confino durante il fascismo.

Nel 1943 operò come staffetta partigiana all’interno delle Brigate Garibaldi, anche al fianco di suo marito Pietro Grifone che, dopo lunghi anni di detenzione per antifascismo, era stato liberato e rischiava la fucilazione.

A guerra finita continuò la militanza politica, conciliandola con una vita familiare impegnata dal figlio Carlo e dalla figlia Anna, e continuando ad aiutare il marito, che aveva assunto incarichi politici di grande responsabilità, divenendo parlamentare del PCI ed uno tra i fondatori e dirigenti del movimento dei contadini nel Sud d’Italia, nel quale si distinse per moderazione e lungimiranza.

Dopo la Liberazione è stata insignita della medaglia di bronzo al valor militare per il suo contributo alla Resistenza, avendo operato come staffetta all’interno delle Brigate Garibaldi. Successivamente fu nominata responsabile dell’archivio del PCI.
È presidente onoraria dell’ANPI (Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d’Italia) della provincia di Roma ed è costante negli ultimi anni la sua attività politica come memoria della resistenza.
Ha affermato, durante la celebrazione per la Festa della Liberazione del 2011 a Porta San Paolo a Roma, „ho 99 anni non voglio morire sotto Berlusconi“.
Nel 2012, a 100 anni, si iscrive al Partito Democratico, nel Circolo Nuovo Salario, che viene intitolato alla sua memoria nel 2013; nello stesso anno il consiglio d’istituto del Liceo scientifico statale Augusto Righi ha votato contro il suo intervento all’interno del liceo per l’incontro su „Resistenza a Roma“: la decisione ha suscitato polemiche e la dura reazione dell’ANPI.

È morta a Roma all’età di 101 anni: è stata ricordata dal sindaco di Roma Ignazio Marino nella persona del suo vice Paolo Masini presente alla commemorazione funebre] come una delle figure più importanti della resistenza romana.

Altri progetti

Military history of Romania

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

The military history of Romania deals with conflicts spreading over a period of about 2500 years across the territory of modern Romania, the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Europe and the role of the Romanian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide.

During antiquity, the territory of modern Romania was the scene of sporadic wars between the native Dacian tribes and various invaders (Persians, Macedonians, Celts or Romans). Ultimately, the Kingdom of Dacia was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106 and large parts of its territory became a Roman province. As the Roman Empire declined, Dacia was abandoned because of pressure from the Free Dacians and Goths.

For 1000 years, numerous migrating peoples including the Goths, Huns, Gepids, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, Magyars, Cumans and Mongols overran the territory of modern Romania. In the 13th century, a number of small Romanian states emerged and evolved into the medieval principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania.

During the Late Middle Ages, all three provinces had to deal with the danger posed by the growing power of the Ottoman Turks. John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania and regent of Hungary managed to halt the Turkish advance into Central Europe and secured a major victory at the Battle of Belgrade in 1456. Stephen the Great of Moldavia, Mircea the Elder and Vlad the Impaler of Wallachia also successfully fought off the Turks and distracted them from the strategically more important objectives in the Mediterranean and the Balkans. However, by the middle of the 16th century, the three principalities had become Ottoman vassals. Michael the Brave of Wallachia managed to unite his realm with Transylvania and Moldavia and gain independence for a short time in 1600.

The early modern period was characterised by continuous warfare between the Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, Poland (until the 18th century) and Russia for the control of the Danubian principalities and Transylvania. The defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683 marked the beginning of their decline in the region.

The 19th century saw the formation of the modern Romanian state through the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia. Independence from the Ottoman Empire was secured after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 and Romania became a kingdom in 1881. The participation on the Allied (Entente) side during World War I triggered the unification of the remaining Romanian inhabited territories with the kingdom, thus forming Greater Romania.

Romania reached its zenith during the inter-war period. After World War II, it was reduced to its modern borders and fell in the Soviet sphere of influence. The revolution of 1989 ended Communism and the geopolitical mutations in the region after the collapse of the Soviet Union paved the way for European integration, economically, politically, and militarily. Today, the Romanian army participates in peacekeeping missions with its NATO allies in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo and elsewhere.

The primary objective of the Romanian leadership in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century was to join all the territories inhabited by Romanians in a single state and to maintain its unity. The Romanian strategic thinking was driven by this need especially during the two World Wars. Today, Romania and the Republic of Moldova are comprising most of the regions where Romanians formed the majority of the population before World War II.

Important military rivalries resulted from the clash of Romania’s national interests with the interests of neighbouring countries in the past.

In the modern period, Romania has sought to neutralise the growing power of its neighbours in order to prevent any of them from overshadowing its influence. During the Second Balkan War, Romania allied itself with Serbia, Greece and Turkey in order to check Bulgaria, which the allies saw as too powerful after the complete victory over Turkey in the First Balkan War. In 1919, the Hungarian Soviet Republic allied with Soviet Russia posed a major threat to the conservative regimes in the region. Romania started an offensive that ended with the conquest of Budapest and the overthrow of the Communist government. In the inter-war period, the Little Entente was envisioned as an alliance between Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to counter Bulgarian and Hungarian irredentism.

The Dacians (Lat. Daci, Gr. Dákai), and the probably closely related tribes of the Getae, were part of the greater Thracian family of peoples. Ancient authors describe the two tribes as inhabiting the territories of present-day Romania, eastern Hungary, south-western Ukraine and northern Bulgaria.

In (335 BC), Alexander the Great engaged the Thracians in order to secure the northern boundary of the Macedonian kingdom. He crossed the Danube and made a short incursion on the Getae living north of the river.

Lysimachus, one of the successors of Alexander, who ruled over Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia tried to conquer territories north of the Danube, but was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae king Dromichaetes. However, Dromichaetes set him free on amicable terms.

Burebista, one of the greatest kings of Dacia ruled between 82 BC and 44 BC and unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (today’s Moravia) in the west, to the Southern Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis. Burebista sided with the inhabitants of the Greek cities on the Western coast of the Black Sea when they were occupied by Varro Lucullus, the proconsul of the province of Macedonia during the Second Mithridatic War (74 BC–72 BC). The Getae defeated the Roman army of Gaius Antonius Hybrida near Histria and continued their incursions in the region, taking the Celtic settlement of Aliobrix (Cartal, Ukraine), Tyras and Odessos and destroying Olbia. In 48 BC, the Dacian king sided with Pompey during his struggle against Julius Caesar in the Roman civil war but failed to supply him with troops in time for the Battle of Pharsalus.

Faced with the growing military presence of the Roman Empire in the region, Decebalus (reigned 87-106), son of king Duras, reorganized the army and in 85 AD the Dacians began minor raiding in the heavily fortified Roman province of Moesia, located south of the Danube. In 86, a more vigorous attack south into Moesia, prompted emperor Domitian to intervene with fresh legions and supplies. Domitian planned an attack into Dacia the next year to stop Dacian marauding.

A strong offensive was carried in 87 when five or six legions commanded by general Cornelius Fuscus crossed the Danube and continued northwards to the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa. They encountered the Dacian army at Tapae, where the Romans were ambushed, suffering a major defeat. Almost all of the soldiers from Legio V Alaudae were killed and the Dacians captured their flags and war machines. Cornelius Fuscus himself was killed in battle. After this victory, Decebalus replaced Duras as king of Dacia.

The Roman offensive continued the following year, with general Tettius Iulianus now in command. The Roman army entered Dacia following the same route as Cornelius Fuscus the previous year. The battle took place mainly in the same area, at Tapae, this time the outcome being a Roman victory. Because of the difficult road to Sarmizegetusa and the defeats suffered by Domitian in Pannonia, the Roman offensive was halted and Decebalus sued for peace.

According to the peace of 89, Decebalus became a client king of Rome receiving money, craftsmen and war machines from the Roman Empire, to defend the empire’s borders. Instead of using the money as Rome intended, Decebalus decided to build new citadels in the mountains and to reinforce the already existing ones. This was the main reason for the following Roman attack under emperor Trajan.

In 101 Trajan (reigned 98–117), after gaining the approval of the Roman Senate, began advancing on Dacia. A stone bridge later known as Trajan’s bridge was constructed over the Danube to assist the legionaries‘ advance. The Roman offensive was spearheaded by two legionary columns, marching right to the heart of Dacia, burning towns and villages in the process. In the winter of 101–102, the Dacians led massive assaults on the legions stantioned in Moesia, but were defeated by Trajan in the Battle of Adamclisi. In 102 the Roman armies converged for a final assault and defeated the Dacian army at the third Battle of Tapae. After the battle, Decebalus chose to surrender. The war concluded with a Roman victory but the Dacians planned to organize further resistance.

Trajan invaded again in 105, this time with the intention of transforming Dacia into a Roman province. After several skirmishes, an assault against the capital Sarmisegetusa took place in 106 with the participation of the legions II Adiutrix, IV Flavia Felix and a cavalry detachment (vexillatio) from Legio VI Ferrata. The Romans destroyed the water pipes to the capital and the city fell. Decebalus fled, but committed suicide rather than face capture. Nevertheless, the war went on and the last battle with the Dacian army took place at Porolissum. At the end of the war the Romans organized the province of Dacia on large parts of the former Dacian kingdom. The Roman rule would last from 106 until 271 (or 275 according to some sources).

The province of Dacia was administered by a Roman governor of praetorian rank. Legio XIII Gemina (stationed at Apulum, modern Alba Iulia), Legio V Macedonica (stationed at Potaissa, modern Turda) and numerous auxiliaries had their fixed quarters in the province. For protection against the attacks of the „free Dacians“ (Dacians that lived outside Roman rule), Carpians and other neighbouring tribes, the Romans built forts and delimited the Roman held territory with a limes. Three great military roads were constructed, linking the chief towns of the province.

Dacians were recruited into the Roman Army, and were employed in the construction and guarding of Hadrian’s Wall in Britannia, or elsewhere in the Roman Empire. Several Cohors Primae Dacorum („First cohort of Dacians“) and Alae Dacorum fighting in the ranks of legions were stationed in Britannia at Deva (Chester), Vindolanda (on the Stanegate) and Banna (Birdoswald).

In the third century, the attacks on Roman Dacia conducted by the Free Dacians and Goths intensified. Emperor Aurelian (270–275), confronted with the secession of Gaul and Hispania from the empire, the advance of the Sassanids in Asia and the devastations that the Carpians and the Goths had done to Moesia and Illyria, abandoned the province and withdrew the troops and administration, fixing the Roman frontier on the Danube. A new Dacia Aureliana was reorganised south of the Danube, with its capital at Serdica (modern Sofia).

At the beginning of the next century, Romans had tried to retake control of the north of the Danube: in Constantine the Great’s campaign from 332, 100,000 Goths were killed in battles on north of the Danube. For a very short time, near 328, there were plans regain administration of the north of the Danube; a stone bridge was erected between Sucidava and Oescus. After 334 AD, in Constantine the Great’s campaign, 300,000 Sarmatians were evacuated from the north of the Danube, and the Roman limes were once again reestablished on Danube.

During the Early Middle Ages, the Northern Balkan Peninsula became a conduit for invading tribes who targeted richer lands further west and south. Information about the military operations conducted in this period is very scarce.

The territory of modern Romania was part of the Hun Empire, but after its disintegration different parts were under successive control of the Gepids, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars and Pechenegs. Most of these invaders did not permanently occupy the territory, as their organization was of typical nomadic confederacies. From them, only the Slavs settled in large numbers beginning with the 7th century.

The Byzantine Empire held the region between the Danube and the Black Sea (modern Dobruja) from time to time (such as during Justinian’s reign in the 6th century) or again under some emperors of the Macedonian and Komnenian dynasties, being part of the Byzantine Paristrion thema (province) between in the period 971-976 and between 1001 and 1185, although it was a border that was hard to maintain due to the constant invasions from the north. Dobrudja was part of the Bulgarian Empire during its whole period of existence. The area around the Danube Delta was the site of battle of Ongal in 680 which led to the formation of Bulgaria in 681. Since the formation of the country the Bulgarians controlled the Wallachian Plain and Bessarabia to the north of the Danube, bordering the Avars to the north-west. The Bulgarians under Khan Krum destroyed the crumbling Avar Khanate in 803 and moved the border along the river Tisza, thus including Transylvania and parts of Pannonia in the Bulgarian state. In a military conflict with the Franks between 827-829 the Bulgarians secured their border with the Frankish Empire.

At the end of the 10th century, Dobruja was the theatre of operations between the Kievan Rus army led by Prince Sviatoslav I, the Bulgarian army and the Byzantine army led by emperor John Tzimiskes. Sviatoslav controlled large parts of the First Bulgarian Empire and established his capital at Pereyaslavets (near modern Nufăru) on the Danube. The Byzantines, led by John Tzimiskes were on the offensive after they defeated the united Russo-Bulgarian forces in the Battle of Arcadiopolis. Pereyaslavets was captured and Sviatoslav was forced to flee westwards to the fortress of Dorostolon (Durostorum). Emperor John proceeded to lay siege to Dorostolon, which resisted for sixty five days until Sviatoslav agreed to sign a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire, whereby he renounced his claims on Bulgaria and the city of Chersonesos in Crimea. Sviatoslav was allowed to evacuate his army to Kiev.

The Magyars settled the Pannonian Plain and subdued Transylvania from Bulgaria in the 10th and 11th centuries, while the Cumans occupied the Lower Danube region in the 11th century.

From the 11th century until 1541 Transylvania was an autonomous part of Hungary and was ruled by a Voivode. As it formed the eastern border of Hungary, great emphasis was put on its defenses. By the 12th century the Székelys were established in eastern Transylvania as border guards, while the Saxons were colonised to guard the southern and northeastern frontier. Early in the 13th century, king Andrew II of Hungary called on the Teutonic Knights to protect the Burzenland from the Cumans. After the Order began expanding their territory outside Transylvania and acted independently, Andrew expelled it in 1225.

In 1241 Transylvania suffered greatly during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The overall invasion was planned and carried out by Subutai, under the nominal command of Batu Khan. The attack on Transylvania was commanded by Güyük Khan, the future great khan of the Mongols.

Güyük invaded Transylvania in three columns through the Tihuţa and Oituz Passes and the Timiş-Cerna Gap, while Subutai attacked through the fortified Verecke Pass towards central Hungary. Güyük sacked Sibiu, Cisnadie, Alba Iulia, Bistriţa, Cluj-Napoca, Oradea as well as the Hungarian king’s silver mine at Rodna. This prevented the Transylvanian nobility from aiding King Béla IV in the crucial Battle of Mohi. A separate Mongol force destroyed the Cumans near the Siret River and annihilated the Cuman Catholic Bishopric of Milcov. Estimates of population decline in Transylvania owing to the Mongol invasion range from 15-20% to 50%.

The lands east and south of the Carpathians fell under Mongol occupation after 1241, until the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia emerged in the 14th century as Hungarian vassals.

In 1330 Basarab I, the voivode of Wallachia, managed to ambush and defeat a 30,000-strong Hungarian army led by King Charles I Robert in the Battle of Posada, eliminating Hungarian interference in Wallachia.

In the same period, Moldavia freed itself from Hungarian control, although the Hungarians made some attempts to regain the principality. During the later 14th century and the first half of the 15th century, Moldavia was under Polish suzerainty and the Moldavians supplied Poland with troops during the campaigns against the Teutonic Order in Prussia. Moldavian light cavalry detachments participated in the Battle of Grunwald and the Siege of Marienburg on the Polish-Lithuanian side.

The Ottoman Empire became a major military power in the later 14th century, when they conquered Anatolia, most of the Balkans and were threatening Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Conflict firstly erupted between the Ottomans led by Beyazid I and the Wallachians led by Mircea the Elder after the voivode openly supported the Christian peoples south of the Danube who were fighting the Turks. There was also a contest for the control of Dobruja, which had been independent for most of the 14th century, but fell under Ottoman rule in 1388. In 1389 Mircea took control of the province and held it with some interruptions until 1418.

In 1394 Beyazid I crossed the Danube, leading a strong army with the purpose of overthrowing Mircea and replacing him with an Ottoman vassal. The Wallachians adopted scorched earth and guerrilla tactics by starving the Ottomans and mounting small scale attacks. The two armies finally clashed in the indecisive Battle of Rovine. Beyazid failed to put Vlad the Usurper on the Wallachian throne and in 1396 Mircea was again commanding his army during the Battle of Nicopolis. At Nicopolis, the Wallachian force of 10.000 men formed the left wing of the crusader army and, having witnessed the disastrous attacks made by the western knights and the surrender of Sigismund, escaped the massacre that followed.

The defeat and capture of sultan Beyazid I by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) in the Battle of Ankara in 1402 started a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire and Mircea took part in the struggles for the Ottoman throne supporting various pretenders. Towards the end of his reign, Mircea signed a treaty with the Ottomans whereby he accepted paying tribute and gave up his claims on Dobruja.

Wallachia fell into anarchy following Mircea’s death in 1418. After 1420 control of the principality changed hands until Alexander I Aldea, an Ottoman vassal was instaled. King Sigismund of Hungary arranged for Aldea’s overthrow and replacement with his own vassal, Vlad II Dracul.

A series of anti-Ottoman offensives were carried by the Voivode of Transylvania, John Hunyadi. Hunyadi’s forces soundly defeated the Turks in 1441 and 1442. A smaller crusading force commanded by Hunyadi, consisting of Hungarians, Wallachians under Vlad Dracul, Serbs, and a large contingent of German and French knights crossed the Danube into Serbia, defeated two Ottoman armies, captured Niš, crossed the Balkan Mountains in winter, and advanced as far as Sofia. The Turkish sultan Murad II, faced with revolts in Albania and the Peloponnese, negotiated with the crusaders, signing a ten-year truce at Edirne in 1444 that recognized Serbian independence and formally released Wallachia from Ottoman vassalage.

In 1444 Pope Eugenius urged the crusade’s renewal, and Hunyadi marched eastward along the southern bank of the Danube, through northern Bulgaria, toward the Black Sea. The crusaders arrived at Varna in November 1444 only to discover that Murad II had assembled a powerful army to meet them. In the ensuing Battle of Varna, king Wladislaw of Poland and Hungary was killed and the crusader army was completely destroyed. Hunyadi escaped with a small portion of his troops, and was elected regent of Hungary in 1446.

In 1447 the Turks campaigned in Albania against Skanderbeg’s rebels, but operations were cut short by news of a new crusader invasion led by Hunyadi. The crusaders, joined by troops sent by Skanderbeg and Voivode Vladislav II (1447–56), Hunyadi’s Wallachian vassal met the Ottoman army in October 1448 at Kosovo Polje but were defeated.

Hunyadi secured victory at the Battle of Belgrade in 1456, where his much smaller army defeated Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II, securing Hungary’s southern border. However, Hunyadi died of the plague in his camp shortly after the battle. His son, Matthias Corvinus would become king of Hungary in 1458.

Wallachia, led by Vlad III the Impaler (1456–1462, born in Sighişoara, three-time voivode) stopped paying tribute to the Ottomans in 1459 and in the winter of 1461 to 1462 Vlad crossed the Danube and devastated Northern Bulgaria and Dobruja, leaving over 20,000 dead. In response, Sultan Mehmed II raised an army of around 60,000 troops and 30,000 irregulars and headed towards Wallachia in the spring of 1462. With his army of 20,000–30,000 men Vlad was unable to stop the Turks from entering Wallachia and occupying the capital Târgovişte (June 4, 1462), so he resorted to organizing small attacks and ambushes on the Turks. The most important of these attacks took place on the night of June 16–17, when Vlad and some of his men allegedly entered the main Turkish camp (wearing Ottoman disguises) and attempted to assassinate Mehmed. The Turks eventually installed Vlad’s brother, Radu the Handsome, as the new voivode; he gathered support from the nobility and chased Vlad to Transylvania, and by August 1462 he had struck a deal with the Hungarian Crown.

Moldavia located in the extreme northeast, beyond Wallachia, was spared from problems with the Ottomans until 1420, when Mehmed I first raided Moldavia after suppressing a rebellion. During the 1450s and 1440s the principality was wracked by civil wars, of which Sultan Murad II took advantage. As the state weakened, voivode Peter Aron (1455–57) accepted Ottoman suzerainty and agreed to pay tribute, but, given Moldavia’s distance from Ottoman borders, his acts were merely symbolic.

Stephen the Great initially used the Ottoman vassalage inherited from his father as a tool against Hungary, Moldavia’s traditional enemy. He participated in Mehmed II’s invasion of Wallachia against his cousin Vlad the Impaler in 1462 because, at the time, Vlad was a Hungarian ally. An exceptional military commander and organizer, Stephen captured the Danube commercial city of Chilia from Wallachia in 1465 and defeated a Hungarian invasion of his state in 1467 at the Battle of Baia. As his successes both on the battlefield and in imposing his authority within Moldavia grew, Stephen ceased paying the annual tribute to the Ottomans, and his relationship with Mehmed II deteriorated. He invaded Wallachia in 1474 and ousted its prince, who was Mehmed’s vassal. In response, Mehmed demanded that Stefan resume his tribute payments and turn over the city of Chilia as well. Stefan refused and soundly repulsed Mehmed’s subsequent punitive invasion of Moldavia in early 1475 near Vaslui.

Stephen realized that Mehmed would seek to avenge the defeat, so he sought Hungarian aid by becoming the vassal of Matthias Corvinus. Mehmed personally led an invasion of Moldavia in 1476, and his forces plundered the country up to Suceava, Stephen’s capital, winning the Battle of Valea Alba on the way. However, all of Stephen’s fortresses held fast, and a lack of provisions and an outbreak of cholera among the Ottoman troops forced Mehmed to retire, and Stefan went on the counteroffensive. With Hungarian help, he pushed forth into Wallachia in 1476, reinstalled Vlad the Impaler on the Wallachian throne, and spent the next nine years fighting a heroic border war with the Ottomans. Stefan’s efforts were the primary reason that the two Romanian Principalities maintained their independence and did not suffer the fate of the other Ottoman vassal states south of the Danube. During the last years of his rule, Stephen defeated a Polish invasion at Codrii Cosminului in 1497 and, by the time of his death, Moldavia was de facto independent.

Rainer Willmann

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Rainer Willmann (* 1950) ist ein deutscher Zoologe.

Nach dem Studium der Paläontologie, Geologie, Zoologie und Limnologie an der Universität Kiel ab 1969 und einer Diplomprüfung im Fach Geologie 1974 wurde Willmann im Jahr 1979 zum Dr. rer. nat. promoviert, 1985 habilitierte er sich.

Von 1985 bis 1990 war er Heisenberg-Stipendiat der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft. Von 1988 bis 1990 arbeitete er überwiegend am British Museum (Natural History), London. Als außerplanmäßiger Professor arbeitete er ab 1990 an der Universität Kiel, im Jahr 1993 erfolgte die Berufung auf den Lehrstuhl für Zoologie an der Universität Göttingen. Dort ist Willmann Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Morphologie, Systematik und Evolutionsbiologie am Institut für Zoologie und Anthropologie Göttingen und Direktor des dortigen Zoologischen Museums.

1999/2000 war er Dekan der Biologischen Fakultät der Universität Göttingen und Initiator und Mitbegründer des Göttinger Zentrums für Biodioversitätsforschung und Ökologie.

Willmann ist Herausgeber der Zeitschrift Species, Phylogeny and Evolution.

Rinteln

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Rinteln – miasto w Niemczech położone w kraju związkowym Dolna Saksonia, w powiecie Schaumburg, w dolinie rzeki Wezery, w Górach Wezerskich. Miasto leży przy autostradzie A2 (E30).

Pierwsze wzmianki o osadnictwie na tym terenie pochodzą z XI wieku. Miasto zostało założone około 1150 na północnym wzgórzu Wezery. Następnie około 1235 przeniesiono je na południowe wzgórze – powstało wówczas Neu-Rinteln (pol. Nowe Rinteln). Stare Rinteln zostało opuszczone przez mieszkańców po pladze dżumy w 1350. Od tej chwili nowe Rinteln nabrało znaczenia, zostało ufortyfikowane i służyło jako południowa forteca hrabstwa Schaumburg. Po podziale Schaumburga w 1640 Rinteln stało się stolicą jego wschodniej części, zachowując nazwę jednostki nadrzędnej – Schaumburg (obecnie dzielnica miasta). Eulenburg w Rinteln stało się wówczas siedzibą urzędów skarbowych. Rinteln pozostawało ośrodkiem okręgu również później, dopiero w 1977 połączono je z sąsiednim Schaumburg-Lippe. Od 1609 do 1809 Rinteln było miastem uniwersyteckim, mieściła się tu Alma Ernestina (Academia Ernestina).

SS Chanute Victory

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

The SS Chanute Victory was a Victory ship built during World War II under the Emergency Shipbuilding program. She was launched by the California Shipbuilding Company on January 19, 1945 and completed on February 20, 1945. The ship’s United States Maritime Commission designation was VC2- S- AP3, hull number 79 (V44). SS Chanute Victory served as Troop ship in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during World War II. She was operated by the American-Hawaiian SS Company. Just before the end of the war, the Chanute Victory‘s Captain Larz Neilson steamed out of New York City to take new troops to Europe. But, three day out she was told to turn around and go home, back up the East River, as the war was nearing an end in Europe. She served as a troop ship again, but as part of Operation Magic Carpet to bring troops home. SS Chanute Victory and 96 other Victory ships were converted to troop ships to bring the US soldiers home at the end of World War II. Some of her noted trips: Chanute Victory returned 1,403 Army veterans to San Francisco from Yokohama, Japan on Jan. 24, 1946. On May 17, 1946 she arrived in New York City returning Army veterans to the States. December 1946 she sailed from Piraeus, Greece to Genoa, Italy, then to Lisbon, Portugal picking up troops and returning them to New York. Chanute Victory, returned 1061 troops from Bremen, Germany on June 25, 1946 . In December 1945 she returned troop home from Le Havre, France.

After the war in 1947 she was sold to N.V.Van Nievelt, Goudriaan & Co, of Rotterdam, Netherlands and renamed SS Alphacca. In 1964 she was sold to China Merchants S.N.Co, in Port of Keelung, Taiwan and renamed SS Hai-Fu . In 1973 she was sold to Yang Ming Marine Transport Company in Taipei, Taiwan and renamed SS Kai Ming. In 1977 Yang Ming Marine Transport Company renamed her the SS Ming Cathay. In 1978 she was scrapped at Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

See also, similar role:- Empire ship, Fort ship, Park ship, Ocean ship.

Mercy (canción de Madame Monsieur)

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

«Mercy» es una canción escrita e interpretada por el dúo francés Madame Monsieur. La canción representó a Francia en el Festival de la Canción de Eurovisión 2018, tras ganar Destination Eurovision 2018.​. Pese a ser una de las canciones favoritas en las casas de apuestas, la canción terminó en 13 posición.

Destination Eurovision fue la final nacional organizada por France 2 para escoger al representante francés para el Festival de la Canción de Eurovisión 2018. El formato del concurso consistió en tres shows: dos semifinales y una final. El 1 de enero de 2018 Madame Monsieur fueron confirmados como participantes de la selección con la canción «Mercy». Tras quedar primeros en la segunda semifinal, que se retransmitió en diferido el 20 de enero, interpretaron de nuevo su canción en la final emitida en directo el 27 de enero. A pesar de obtener el tercer puesto en las votaciones de los jurados internacionales, ganaron la final gracias al primer puesto que les otorgó el público francés, al obtener una gran cantidad de puntos combinados. Por consiguiente, ganaron el derecho a representar a Francia en el Festival de la Canción de Eurovisión 2018, que se celebraró en Lisboa el 12 de mayo de 2018, terminando en un 13 lugar.

La canción „Mercy“ surge después de que el dúo leyera una noticia del nacimiento de una bebé llamada Mercy, de origen nigeriano en el barco de rescate de refugiados Aquarius​.


Factory outlet center

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Een Factory Outlet Center (FOC) is een concentratie fabriekswinkels waar fabrikanten en handelaren partijen goederen (meestal merkkleding, maar ook bv. schoenen of sieraden) tegen hoge korting verkopen aan consumenten. De suggestie wordt gewekt dat het gaat om voorraden artikelen die uit de winkels worden teruggehaald omdat er een nieuwe collectie wordt geïntroduceerd, maar dat is meestal maar voor een klein deel van de producten het geval. In werkelijkheid wordt een groot gedeelte van het aanbod van de meeste outlets speciaal gemaakt of gekocht voor die goedkopere winkels. Doorgaans zijn deze centra gevestigd op een perifere locatie (goedkope grond buiten de stad) met een goede bereikbaarheid en voldoende parkeergelegenheid.

Omdat klanten van grote afstand worden aangetrokken (tot maximaal 2 uur autorijden), is een dergelijk centrum erop gericht om de klant het gevoel te geven ‚een dagje uit‘ te zijn. Daarom wordt extra aandacht besteed aan een gezellige inrichting, kinderspeelgelegenheid en aan horeca-faciliteiten. Ook wordt er aandacht besteed aan het bieden van vermaak aan de partner die mee komt en die minder interesse heeft in een hele dag ’shoppen‘.

In 2015 zijn er diverse plannen bestaande FOC’s uit te breiden dan wel nieuwe FOC’s te ontwikkelen. Zowel de outletcentra in Roermond, Roosendaal als Lelystad hebben stevige groeiambities. Daarnaast wordt hard gewerkt aan een outlet in Halfweg en lopen er haalbaarheidsstudies in Assen, Winschoten en Zevenaar. Tevens zijn er binnensteden zoals Groningen waar gewerkt wordt aan een soort mini outlets. Experts zijn het erover eens dat de markt voor outlets beperkt is. Belangrijk criterium is of er ook ontwikkeld wordt voor leegstand. Een veelgehoorde kritiek is dat Factory Outlet Centers een negatief effect op de binnensteden hebben omdat ze consumenten, investeerders en ondernemers wegtrekken. In ieder geval is duidelijk dat FOC’s de binnensteden niet versterken. Anno 2015 verkeert de retailsector in zwaar weer en kampen we met een fors overaanbod aan retailmeters. De vraag is wat het duurzame effect van een FOC is in een krimpende markt met veel overaanbod zeker buiten de regio’s Amsterdam en Utrecht. Uit zeer ruwe en oppervlakkige metingen blijken deze effecten op het eerste gezicht te overzien, maar er zijn geen langjarige data beschikbaar over deze effecten van vooral het wegtrekken van fashion. Fashion is namelijk een voorname trekker van binnensteden en binnensteden worden juist steeds belangrijker voor het binden en boeien van bezoekers, ondernemers en investeerders. Er zijn voorbeelden waarbij de branches mode en sport het in de binnenstad moeilijker hebben gekregen na de komst van een FOC. Alleen bij Designer Outlet Roermond is het omgekeerde het geval: daar profiteert Roermond juist van de bezoekersstroom die de FOC’s genereren. Belangrijke kanttekening hierbij is wel dat het succes van Roermond voornamelijk wordt bepaald door Duitse consumenten. De FOC-bezoeker is een type consument dat normaliter de stad mijdt en steeds duidelijker wordt dat hij of zij na een FOC-bezoek niet de dichtstbijzijnde binnenstad bezoekt. Op 18-11-2015 heeft Minister Kamp van Economische Zaken in totaal 31 retaildeals met gemeenten gesloten om juist het overaanbod van winkelmeters aan te pakken en meer te doen aan de beleving van binnensteden. Deze retaildeals sluiten de komst van een outlet of andersoortige perifere grootschalige ontwikkeling uit. Voorts maken steeds meer provincies zich zorgen over de gebrekkige voortgang bij regionale samenwerking om m2 te schrappen. Onder meer Limburg, Zuid-Holland en Noord-Brabant willen hier stevige afspraken over maken. Andere provincies denken aan soortgelijke afspraken. Opmerkelijk is dat juist de provincies Zeeland, Friesland, Groningen en Drenthe die te maken hebben met krimp nogal passief zijn.

Kjøkkelvik skole

admin, · Kategorien: Allgemein

Koordinater:

Kjøkkelvik skole er en kommunal barne- og ungdomsskole i Loddefjord i Laksevåg bydel i Bergen kommune. Skolen er et resultat av sammenslåingen av Nybø barneskole og Lyderhorn ungdomsskole. Den har plass til 650 elever. Ungdomstrinnet tar også imot en del av elevene med bakgrunn fra Alvøen barneskole.

Garnes skole · Garnes ungdomsskole · Haugland · Lone · Trengereid · Ytre Arna · Ådnamarka ·

Christi Krybbe · Haukeland · Hellen · Krohnengen · Møhlenpris · Nordnes · Rothaugen ·

Apeltun · Hop oppveksttun · Kaland · Kirkevoll · Kringlebotn · Krokeide · Midtun · Nattland · Nordvik · Paradis · Rådalslien · Skjold · Slåtthaug · Smørås · Storetveit · Sædalen · Ulsmåg ·

Bønes · Fjellsdalen · Lynghaug · Lyshovden · Løvås · Ortun · Seljedalen · Sælen · Varden ·

Alvøen · Bjørndalsskogen · Damsgård · Holen · Kjøkkelvik · Loddefjord · Mathopen · Nygårdslien · Olsvik · Sandgotna · Vadmyra ·

Aurdalslia · Hjellestad · Liland · Rå · Skeie · Skranevatnet · Søreide · Søråshøgda · Ytrebygda ·

Fridalen · Gimle · Kronstad · Landås · Minde · Ny-Krohnborg · Slettebakken ·

Blokkhaugen · Breimyra · Eidsvåg · Flaktveit · Haukedalen · Haukås · Hordvik · Kalvatræet · Kyrkjekrinsen · Li · Mjølkeråen · Rolland · Salhus · Tertnes · Ulsetskogen · Åstveit

Bergenhus: Danielsen · St. Paul · Fana: Steinerskolen · Fyllingsdalen: Bergen kristne grunnskole · Montessoriskolen i Bergen · Årstad: Bjørgvin Montessoriskole · daVinci Montessoriskole · International School of Bergen · Møllebakken ·

Bergenhus: Alrekstad · Nygård · Fana: Steinerskolen på Skjold (privat) · Tveiterås · Øvsttunsenteret · Laksevåg: Godvik · Årstad: Hunstad (statlig) ·

Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose | Kelme Outlet

MCM Rucksack | Kelme | maje dresses outlet| maje dresses for sale

kelme paul frank outlet new balance outlet bogner outlet le coq sportif outlet schlanke straffe Beine Overknee-Stiefeln