Aulus Avillius Flaccus († 39 n. Chr. auf Andros) war ein römischer Ritter und von 32 n. Chr. bis kurz vor dem 20. Oktober 38 Präfekt von Ägypten.
Der in Rom geborene Flaccus war ein Spielgefährte zweier Nachfolgekandidaten des Augustus, Gaius und Lucius Caesar, und ein Freund des späteren römischen Kaisers Tiberius. Flaccus war der Ankläger der älteren Agrippina, der Mutter des späteren Kaisers Caligula, die wegen ihrer problematischen Beziehung zu Tiberius in die Verbannung geschickt wurde manual orange juicer. Bei der Nachfolgeregelung des Tiberius stellte Flaccus sich auf die Seite des Tiberius Gemellus und damit gegen Caligula.
Von 32 n pure glass water bottle. Chr. bis 38 n. Chr electric sweater defuzzer. war Flaccus Präfekt von Ägypten. In der Diasporagemeinde Alexandria high school football uniforms, in der Griechen und Juden zusammenlebten, genehmigte er die Aufstellung von Kaiserstatuen in den Synagogen. Nachdem es deswegen zu Unruhen gekommen war, erklärte er die Juden per Edikt zu Fremden in der Stadt der Griechen. Als der neue jüdische König Herodes Agrippa I. auf dem Weg nach Palästina im August 38 in Alexandria Halt machte, wurde er von der griechischen Bevölkerung durch eine antijüdische Satire verspottet. Es blieb jedoch nicht bei verbalen und gewaltlosen Beleidigungen. Aufgehetzte Griechen stürmten die Synagogen und stellten dort Kaiserbilder auf, plünderten jüdische Häuser und Geschäfte und vertrieben, misshandelten und ermordeten Juden. Während dieser Ausschreitungen zwischen Griechen und Römern entzog Flaccus den Juden das Bürgerrecht. Außerdem ließ er 38 Mitglieder des Ältestenrates öffentlich auspeitschen. Die Ausschreitungen gegenüber Juden entwickelten sich zum größten Pogrom, das aus dem Altertum bekannt ist.
Einen Monat nach den Ausschreitungen wurde Flaccus, allerdings nicht wegen seiner Verfehlungen gegenüber den alexandrinischen Juden, von Caligula abgesetzt. Ihm wurde vielmehr der Prozess gemacht, weil er als Freund des Tiberius bei Caligula verhasst war. Flaccus wurde Verrat am römischen Reich vorgeworfen. Er wurde nach Andros verbannt und dort im Jahr 39 n. Chr. hingerichtet.
Die Hauptquelle zu Flaccus ist In Flaccum des jüdischen Denkers Philon von Alexandria.
Constantiolus (en grec : Κωνσταντίολος) est un général byzantin sous Justinien. Il succède à Justin comme gouverneur de la Mésie Seconde. Un passage de la chronique de Théophane le Confesseur l’appelle à tort Constantinus (Constantin).
Selon Jean Malalas et Théophane le Confesseur, Constantiolus est un fils de Florentius, dont rien n’est connu, bien qu’il puisse être identifié à Florentius, le consul romain en 515.
Constantiolus est mentionné pour la première fois comme stratélate de Mésie en 528, succédant à Justin qui est mort au combat plus tôt dans l’année. Justin et Baduaire, duc (dux) de Scythie Mineure, ont associé leurs forces pour affronter une invasion étrangère. Malalas parle des Huns tandis que Théophane mentionne les Bulgares. Constantiolus détient alors probablement le titre de dux de Mésie Seconde et le rang de magister militum (souvent traduit en grec par stratélate).
Constantiolus unit immédiatement ses forces avec Ascum et Godilas pour faire face aux envahisseurs, alors en Thrace. L’armée byzantine parvient à vaincre un de leurs groupes mais elle tombe dans une embuscade et est mise en déroute par un autre groupe. Constantiolus et Ascum sont alors faits prisonniers et Constantiolus n’est libéré qu’en échange d’un importante rançon. Malalas parle d’une somme de 10 000 solidus et Théophane de 1
KELME Summer Men Comfortable T-shirt Breathable Casual Polo
Constantiolus réapparaît en 531, à la suite de la défaite de Bélisaire à la bataille de Callinicum contre les Sassanides. Il doit alors enquêter sur les raisons de cette défaite. Pour cela, il se rend sur la frontière orientale de l’Empire, jusqu’à Antioche, pour interroger plusieurs généraux byzantins. Parmi eux figure Hermogène qui a servi aux côtés de Bélisaire au cours de la bataille funny football t shirts. Constantiolus rentre à Constantinople où il livre ses conclusions, participant sûrement au rappel de Bélisaire qui est remplacé par Mundus comme magister militum pour l’Orient.
Constantiolus est l’un des acteurs de la sédition Nika en 532. Aux côtés de Mundus et Basilidès, il sert d’émissaire de l’empereur auprès des émeutiers. Ils tentent d’opter pour la conciliation avec eux et essaient de comprendre les raisons de leurs protestations. Leur rapport à l’empereur met en avant la responsabilité des ministres peu populaires que sont Jean de Cappadoce, Tribonien et Eudemon, critiqués pour la pression fiscale croissante sur la population. Par conséquent, Justinien décide de les congédier.
Toutefois, l’empereur réagit trop tard et la sédition s’amplifie. Justinien pense probablement à fuir Constantinople, Constantiolus et Mundus recevant l’ordre de protéger le Palais impérial en son absence. Il semble que ce soit l’impératrice Théodora qui intervienne pour dissuader l’empereur de fuir. Finalement, Constantiolus intervient aux côtés de Bélisaire et de Mundus dans la répression sanglante des rebelles rassemblés dans l’hippodrome de Constantinople. C’est la dernière mention dans les sources de Constantiolus.
Леон Рассом (англ. Leon Russom; род all football shirts. 6 декабря 1941, Литл-Рок professional soccer goalies, Арканзас, США) — Американский телевизионный актёр, не единожды номинировавшийся на премию «Эмми». Наибольшую известность получил благодаря ролям в фильмах Большой Лебовски и Железная хватка, и сериалам Звёздный путь: Глубокий космос 9, Побег, Кости и Детектив Раш.
Леон Рассом родился 6 декабря 1941 года в городе Литл-Рок, Арканзас, США. Свою актерскую карьеру Рассом начал в 1960-е годы с ролей в ряде мыльных опер. Таких как Другой мир и «Миссия невыполнима». Также сыграл в фильме Серебряная пуля.,
В 1991 году, Рассом получил номинацию на премию Эмми в категории «лучший актёр второго плана» за роль в мини-сериале «Долгая дорога домой».
В 1990-е — начале 2000-х годов Рассом начал играть в более известных фильмах и сериалах с криминальной тематикой таких, как Закон Лос-Анджелеса, Детектив Раш, Кости, Побег, Закон и порядок, Военно-юридическая служба, Полиция Нью-Йорка и других.
В 2010 году снялся в рекламном ролике одного из казино Лас-Вегаса.
Éric Naulleau, né à Baden-Baden (Allemagne) , le , est un éditeur, essayiste, traducteur, critique littéraire, chroniqueur sportif, animateur de télévision et de radio français.
Né d’un père représentant dans la parfumerie qui occupera par la suite d’importantes fonctions chez Dior et Nina Ricci et d’une mère professeur, Éric Naulleau déclare appartenir à une «  steel thermos;classe moyenne issue d’une lignée de paysans et de militaires».
À quinze ans, il a pour ami le journaliste Yves Calvi (ils sont élèves dans le même collège à Saint-Cloud). Il poursuit ses études à la faculté de lettres à Nanterre où il obtient un DEA. Son mémoire s’intitule : Poétique des ruines chez quelques auteurs méconnus du XXe siècle.
Il fait par la suite un séjour en Bulgarie comme coopérant en tant que professeur de français, au milieu des années 1980. Il y rencontre une élève, Veronika Nentcheva, qu’il épouse. Le couple traduira, de concert, quatre livres bulgares. Éric Naulleau découvre ainsi la littérature balkanique.
De retour en France, après avoir été un temps l’assistant parlementaire de Louis Perrein, sénateur socialiste du Val-d’Oise stainless steel waterbottle, il crée en 1993 une association destinée à l’édition, L’Esprit des Péninsules. Alors qu’il cherchait un nom pour cette association, Naulleau se souviendra d’une réflexion du romancier Yordan Raditchkov qui lui avait dit : « Ce qui nous unit aux Scandinaves, nous, les Balkaniques, c’est peut-être l’esprit des péninsules. »
Premier livre publié : Le Cœur dans la boîte en carton, de Konstantin Konstantinov et Svetoslav Minkov. Éric Naulleau dirige alors, au sein de la maison, les collections « Balkaniques », créée en 1995 et « De l’Est », créée en 1999, ainsi que les revues Arapoética : de la poésie internationale et Seine et Danube, créées en 2000 et 2003.
Jusqu’à la mise en liquidation judiciaire de l’entreprise en 2007, la maison d’édition publiera près de deux cents titres, avec des auteurs comme Cardoso, Anton Dontchev ou Angel Wagenstein qui lui vaudra, en 2004, le prix de la traduction de l’Unesco, mais c’est un Auvergnat, Pierre Jourde, qui signera le titre emblématique de la maison avec La Littérature sans estomac qui sera lauréat du Prix de la critique de l’Académie française.
Entre temps, L’Esprit des Péninsules devient, en 1998, grâce au financement de l’écrivain et musicien espagnol Rodrigo de Zayas, une SARL dont Éric Naulleau assure la gestion. En 2003, il dépose la marque à son nom, sans en informer son associé, ce qui lui vaudra d’être condamné pour manœuvre frauduleuse, le jeudi 4 novembre 2010, par la cour d’appel de Paris.
Il est parallèlement critique pour le mensuel de littérature contemporaine Le Matricule des anges. Par la suite, il écrit des pamphlets sur la littérature et les auteurs contemporains (dont Michel Houellebecq). Avec Pierre Jourde, il publie, en 2004, une parodie de manuel de littérature, Le Jourde & Naulleau, sur le modèle du Lagarde et Michard, dont une nouvelle édition enrichie est publiée en 2008 chez Mango.
En 2006, Éric Naulleau devient éditeur chez Balland.
En 2011, il postule au fauteuil no 30 de l’Académie française (il évoquera par la suite un canular). La même année, il est critique littéraire pour le magazine Paris Match.
En 2013, Éric Naulleau co-écrit avec l’essayiste Alain Soral le livre Dialogues désaccordés sur le thème : « pourquoi vote-t-on Front national ? ».
À partir de mars 2015, il tient une chronique culturelle, « J’ai le dernier mot », dans le magazine VSD.
Éric Naulleau fait ses premiers pas à la télévision en tant que chroniqueur[Quand ?] dans Ça balance à Paris diffusée sur Paris Première soccer uniforms wholesale. Il débute à la radio dans l’émission de Colombe Schneck, J’ai mes sources, sur France Inter[Quand ?].
En 2007, il remplace Michel Polac dans l’émission de Laurent Ruquier On n’est pas couché le samedi soir sur France 2, où il officie comme critique en compagnie d’Éric Zemmour. Sa participation à l’émission cesse à la fin de la saison 2010-2011.
À partir de , il est chroniqueur pour le quotidien Aujourd’hui Sport et, depuis 2010, il est consultant pour France 3 dans l’émission Le Match des experts.
Il intervient aussi régulièrement dans l’émission On refait le monde sur RTL.
Sur TPS Star, de à , il anime aux côtés de Valérie Amarou, l’émission Starmag consacrée à l’actualité culturelle.
En 2009, il est critique littéraire dans l’émission D@ns le texte présentée par Judith Bernard sur le site d’Arrêt sur images et la chaîne câblée Arrêt sur images.tv.
Le il participe, en tant que chroniqueur, au 200e numéro de Ça balance à Paris, sur Paris Première.
De 2009 à 2010 il participe, en tant qu’invité, et de manière aléatoire, au jeu télévisé En toutes lettres. Depuis 2009 il est également un des invités récurrents du jeu Mot de Passe sur France 2.
À partir de la rentrée de septembre 2010, Éric Naulleau remplace Pierre Lescure à la tête de Ça balance à Paris, émission qui l’avait révélé au grand public en tant que chroniqueur quelques années auparavant.
À partir de , il anime, en duo avec Éric Zemmour, Zemmour et Naulleau, un talk show hebdomadaire en seconde partie de soirée sur Paris Première, rediffusé sur M6. Il rejoint également Stéphane Bern sur RTL dans l’émission À la bonne heure où il tient une chronique littéraire : « Pitié pour les arbres ».
Les 22 avril et , il anime, avec Xavier de Moulins, Nathalie Renoux et Éric Zemmour, deux soirées consacrées à l’élection présidentielle française de 2012, sur M6.
Durant l’été 2013, il anime, avec Thierry Chèze, On revit le match, sur RTL. À partir de septembre 2015, le vendredi à 8 h 45, il anime une chronique littéraire et cinématographique sur Sud Radio en compagnie de Christine Bouillot.
S’inscrivant, dans une certaine mesure, dans le filon des critiques à la plume acerbe et redoutée – tels Angelo Rinaldi et Jean-Edern Hallier, Éric Naulleau fait part de ses doutes quant à la crédibilité littéraire de certains écrivains contemporains. Déclarant être « frappé par l’anémie du roman français, extrêmement étriqué et nombriliste », il fustige, pour illustration, les œuvres autofictives de Guillaume Dustan et Christine Angot.
Comme écrit Le Figaro littéraire : « À ceux qui vantent les gloires consacrées, [Éric Naulleau] oppose son goût de l’irrévérence pour démasquer ces auteurs à la mode qui aimeraient faire passer leurs textes pour de la grande littérature. » Dès lors, ses « cibles » sont des écrivains médiatiques dont Éric Naulleau dénonce « le réseau » et la connivence avec les critiques littéraires : Frédéric Beigbeder, Bernard-Henri Lévy, ou Patrick Besson et Philippe Sollers dont il souligne les traits d’écrivains moyens et leur influence au sein du milieu littéraire.
Éric Naulleau réfute aussi la littérature commerciale et les best-sellers qu’il apparente à une certaine forme de médiocrité littéraire, dénuée de style et de véritable savoir-faire romanesque, à savoir les œuvres de Marc Levy, Anna Gavalda, Alexandre Jardin entre autres.
Il note l’uniformisation et la standardisation progressive de la littérature française, et la prépondérance des enjeux financiers qui parcourent le monde de l’édition : « la rentrée littéraire est confisquée par quelques titres, le Beigbeder, le Amélie Nothomb, le Marie NDiaye, alors que des centaines de livres paraissent. C’est comme un film à gros budget, avec la masse de ses figurants, qui ne met en valeur que quelques stars. De toute façon c’est une invention des éditeurs qui n’a rien à voir avec la littérature, et qui leur sert à remplir les caisses pour l’année. »
Éric Naulleau évoque également la remise en cause de la critique littéraire, qui aurait laissé place à une simple promotion des ouvrages. Dans La Situation des esprits, il notait d’ailleurs que, selon lui, puisque l’édition croule sous le poids des publications, les chroniqueurs littéraires font semblant qu’un certain nombre de romans valent la peine d’être achetés, montrant ainsi que le manque de crédibilité de la critique ouvre le champ à une forme d’escroquerie littéraire : celle qui consiste à croire que tous les livres se valent, sans hiérarchie.
Défendant l’idée d’une littérature, exigeante et écrite (au sens propre du terme), il réfute la mouvance d’une époque qui met sur un même plan des œuvres purement littéraires et des livres-témoignages, et qui confond écrivain et people. Il s’oppose aussi aux Prix littéraires et dénonce les manigances littéraires et journalistiques qui consistent à faire émerger médiatiquement des textes qu’il juge sans intérêt.
Accusé, de manière récurrente, de faire preuve de méchanceté dans ses critiques littéraires, il se défend en déclarant que « le simple fait de ne pas obéir à la logique promotionnelle donne l’impression de lancer des flèches », et ajoute : « la véritable dureté, c’est de dire du bien d’un livre sans l’avoir lu. Je peux me tromper, mais je les lis jusqu’au bout et j’argumente mes critiques. »
En revanche, il exprime son admiration pour Robert Musil, Paul Claudel, François Mauriac, Georges Simenon
, Saphia Azzeddine ou encore Jens Christian Grøndahl et avoue : « il est vrai que mes grands auteurs, mes amours littéraires, je les trouve davantage dans la littérature étrangère que dans la littérature française contemporaine. »
La valeur littéraire des ouvrages de Naulleau a été remise en question, notamment par un journaliste aux Inrockuptibles Christophe Conte pour qui « (les) qualités d’écrivain (de Naulleau), hormis à travers les compliments qu'(il) ne manque jamais une occasion de (s)’administrer » sont sujettes à caution.
Enfin, indépendamment des polémiques créées lors de l’émission On n’est pas couché, les méthodes de Naulleau en tant que journaliste ont également été critiquées par Mathias Reymond du site en ligne Acrimed qui lui reproche son « machisme » lors d’une émission avec la journaliste Erika Moulet.
En 2005, il fait une brève apparition dans le film Imposture de Patrick Bouchitey.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, cities, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns.
For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and respectively regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration (the contiguous, built-up area) with zones not necessarily urban in character, but closely bound to the center by employment or other commerce. These outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles‘ metro area in the United States.
In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, and in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement; comparative statistics for metropolitan area should take this into account. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions.
There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since then, and more are expected. Because of the fluidity of the term „metropolitan statistical area,“ the term used colloquially is more often „metro service area,“ „metro area,“ or „MSA“ taken to include not only a city, but also surrounding suburban, exurban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, which requires urban contiguity. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines ’statistical divisions‘ as areas under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or a major city. Each of the state and territory capital cities as well as the national capital, Canberra, forms its own statistical division, and the population of the statistical division is the figure most often quoted for that city’s population. However, this definition has largely become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. For example, the City of Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, has long since become contiguous with the surrounding cities of Ipswich, Logan City, Redland City, Redcliffe, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and the Gold Coast. This conurbation is common to all the major metropolitan areas of Australia, which include all the capital cities and many major regional centres such as the Gold Coast, Newcastle, Wollongong, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns and Toowoomba.
In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called ‚metropolitan regions‘. Each State defines its own legislation for the creation, definition and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports. Their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They don’t have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. There are currently 52 metropolitan regions, distributed in all major regions of the country, the largest of them being the metropolitan area of São Paulo with over 20,900,000 inhabitants, making it the largest metropolitan area in the southern hemisphere, and the 7th largest in the world.
Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area (CMA) as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton.
In Denmark the only metropolitan area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand and Skåne County (Sweden). Greater Copenhagen has an approximate population of 3.9 million people. This area is the most densely populated area in the Nordic Region. The definition broadly overlaps with that of the Øresund Region.
In Egypt, there is officially a region called Greater Cairo, which includes the capital and its province as well as surrounding cities. Alexandria’s urban area is another metropolitan area, but not considered officially as such.
In Pakistan, there is officially a region called Greater Karachi and Lahore, which includes the capital city Islamabad and its province as well as surrounding cities. Faislabad’s urban area is another metropolitan area, but not considered officially as such.
The European Union’s statistical agency, Eurostat, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone (LUZ). The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area electric toothpaste dispenser, and the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the „functional urban region“.
The Republic of Ireland has a two metropolitan areas, Dublin and Cork.
France’s national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine (official translation: „urban area“). This statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine (metropolitan area) to refer to France’s largest aires urbaines.
The top ten metropolitan cities based on 2012 Census population are Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, Nice, Nantes, Strasbourg and Rennes.
In India, a metropolitan city is defined as, one having a population of 1 million and above. As of 2011 census of India, there are 46 metropolitan cities in India and the top ten are, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat and Jaipur runner pouch. Residents of these cities are also entitled to a higher house rent allowance.
Indonesia has five metropolitan areas – Bandung, Jakarta, Medan, Surabaya and Makassar. Jakarta is Indonesia’s capital and largest city with approximately 28 million metropolitan inhabitants.
In Israel there are four recognized metropolitan areas: Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa and Beersheba. Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area in late 2005 numbered about three million inhabitants. This is a center of metropolitan employment and business in Israel. Today, some argue that the Tel Aviv metropolitan area—Gush Dan, will be deployed in future from Hadera to Gedera (for all „rings“—inner, middle and outer). Nazareth is also a developing metropolitan area, somewhat in the scale of Beersheba. By most definitions a big part of Jerusalem’s metropolitan area is in the West Bank and so is some of Tel Aviv’s. Gaza would be another metropolitan area in the region but it is limited to the Gaza Strip.
In Japan a metropolitan area would betoshiken(都市圏?, metropolitan area in Japanese).
In Korea, the term of metropolitan area is gwang-yeoksi (광역시, officially translated in Korean) and Teukbyeolsi (특별시).
Metro Manila is the largest conurbation or urban agglomeration in the Philippines, and its official metropolitan area is composed of the city of Manila plus 15 neighboring cities and a municipality. Other metropolitan areas are centered on the cities of Angeles, Bacolod, Baguio, Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Dagupan, Davao, Iloilo, Naga, Olongapo.
Spain has a few large metropolitan areas, Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, Valencia, Seville, Málaga, Zaragoza, Mallorca, A Coruña. The largest is Madrid, with about 6 million inhabitants.
Tunisia has 3 major metropolitan areas: Tunis, Sfax and Sousse. The largest being Tunis with 2.7 million inhabitants.
The word metropolitan describes a major city in Turkey like Istanbul, a city that is dominant to others both financially and socially. There are 16 officially defined „state metropolitan areas“ in Turkey, for governing purposes. More than ten of these metropolitan areas are populated with more than one million people: İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Gaziantep, Konya, Antalya, Samsun, Kayseri, Eskişehir and Mersin.
İstanbul-Kocaeli-Sakarya-Yalova-Bursa metropolitan areas, almost continuously inhabited, form one single megalopolitan area around the eastern part of Marmara Sea, with total population of almost 20 Million and with the combined economy of US$750 Billion. İstanbul Province itself has a population of 17 Million and an economy of almost US$500 Billion.
There are currently 13 metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom with a population of over one million, according to the The European Union’s ESPON project.
Most recently on February 28, 2013, the United States Office of Management and Budget defined 1,098 statistical areas for the metropolitan areas of the United States and Puerto Rico. These 1,098 statistical areas comprise 929 Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) and 169 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs). The 929 Core Based Statistical Areas are divided into 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs – 381 for the U.S. and seven for Puerto Rico) and 541 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs – 536 for the U.S. and five for Puerto Rico). The 169 Combined Statistical Areas (166 for the U.S. and three for Puerto Rico) each comprise two or more adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas.
Vietnam’s two metropolitan areas are the Hanoi Capital Region and Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area.
The concept of a „megalopolis“ was first examined in detail by the Scottish geographer Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book Cities in Evolution. Geddes describes it as a „city-region“, a chain of interlinked urban or metropolitan areas.
One prominent North American example of a megalopolis is the Northeast megalopolis, sometimes called the BosWash after the cities on either end: it consists of Boston; Providence, RI; Hartford, CT; Greater New York City; Philadelphia; Wilmington, DE; Baltimore; Washington, DC and their vicinities. Two other prominent megalopolises in North America are as follows:
The world’s largest megalopolis is probably the Taiheiyō Belt (the Pacific megalopolis) of Japan on southeastern Honshu that consists of the metropolis of Tokyo, Kawasaki, Yokohama, Shizuoka, Hamamatsu, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka and their surrounding cities and towns. Major means of ground transportation in Japan such as its railroad network (for both passengers and freight), many expressways, and the „Shinkansen“ bullet train are concentrated in this region, which also includes the northern shore of the Inland Sea of Japan. This is a highly industrialized part of Japan, and it is also the location of its most important seaports in Japan – such as at Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima and Kure – and its most important international airports – such as at Tokyo and Osaka. The population of this megalopolis can be as high as 83 million people, depending on where one draws its boundaries.
Seoul National Capital Area is a megalopolis with a population of 24 million, which includes Seoul, Incheon, Suwon, Goyang and the rest of Gyeonggi-do and extends to some fraction of western Gangwon-do, and Chungcheong-do. Its area is over 10,000㎢ and about 11,745㎢, which is connected by ground transportation such as its railroad network, many expressways, and High-speed rail so-called „KTX“.
Guangdong Province’s Pearl River Delta is a megalopolis with a population of 48 million that extends from Hong Kong and Shenzhen to Guangzhou. Some projections assume that by 2030 up to 1 billion people will live in China’s urban areas. Even rather conservative projections predict an urban population of up to 800 million people. In its most recent assessment, the UN Population Division estimated an urban population of 1 billion in 2050.
Europe contains numerous large metropolitan areas, such as the Madrid metropolitan area in Spain (pop. 6.3 million), the Milan metropolitan area (pop. 8 million) in Italy, the Barcelona metropolitan area (pop. 5 million), the Randstad (pop. 7.1 million) in the Netherlands, the Upper Silesian metropolitan area (pop. 7 million) in Poland and the Czech Republic, and the Flemish Diamond (pop. 5.5 million) in Belgium. The largest are the London metropolitan area (pop. 13.6 million), Paris metropolitan area (pop. 12.2 million), and the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (pop. 11.5 million) in Germany. However, it is generally considered only to contain one megalopolis, best known as the ‚Blue Banana‘. The concept was developed in 1989 by Frenchman Roger Brunet. Its precise extent is not universally agreed, but it typically stretches from London and the Thames estuary down the Rhine corridor including the likes of Brussels, Paris and the Rhine-Ruhr as far as Turin and Milan. Assessments of the total population range from 92 to 110 million, depending on the inclusion of the Parisian area which was most explicitly excluded by Brunet. It has been subject to criticism, particularly due to the discontinuity caused by the very low-population areas of the Alps and the North Sea; alternative models have also been suggested, such as the overlapping Golden Banana, and an emerging English megalopolis comprising most of southeastern England, the Midlands and parts of northern England. Indeed, using the criterion of population density, England as a whole already has a population density of 407 people per square kilometre, which is higher than the United States Northeast megalopolis.
Africa’s first megalopolis is situated in the urban portion of Gauteng Province in South Africa vintage replica football shirts, comprising the conurbation of Johannesburg, and the metropolitan areas of Pretoria and the Vaal Triangle, otherwise known as the PWV.
Brazil has one megalopolis: the Rio de Janeiro—São Paulo Megalopolis, which includes parts of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has a population of over 45 million inhabitants. It spreads throughout much of the Southeast Region of the country, a conurbation that brings together more than 450 cities – defined primarily by metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and the whole catchment area around and between them (separated by about 300 km) is by far the most urbanized and industrialized in the country and Latin America.
Megacity is a general term for metropolitan areas that usually have a total population in excess of ten million people. In Canada, „megacity“ can also refer informally to the results of merging a central city with its suburbs to form one large municipality. A Canadian „megacity“, however, is not necessarily an entirely urbanized area, since many of its named „cities“ have both rural and urban portions. Also, 10 million inhabitants is an unreasonably high number for Canada. Moreover, Canadian „megacities“ do not constitute large metropolitan areas in a global sense. For example, Toronto has a metropolitan population of about five million people, but is part of a much larger metropolitan region called the Golden Horseshoe, which has about eight million people.
The census population of a metro area is not the city population. However, it better demonstrates the population of the city. Los Angeles may only have a city population of slightly less than four million, but depending on the definition, it has a metropolitan area population of either 13 million, or 18 million people in its combined statistical area. A major question is whether or not to include San Diego and Tijuana.
Football Association Challenge Cup 1871-72 var den første udgave af Football Association Challenge Cup, nutildags bedre kendt som FA Cup. Femten af The FA’s medlemsklubber var tilmeldt turneringen, der blev afviklet som en cupturnering. Tre af klubberne trak sig imidlertid inden den første kamp, så turneringen fik deltagelse af 12 klubber. De første kampe blev spillet den 11. november 1871, og finalen blev afviklet den 16. marts 1872 på Kennington Oval i London, hvor Wanderers FC vandt 1-0 over Royal Engineers AFC på et mål af Morton Betts, der spillede under pseudonymet A.H. Chequer.
Skotlands førende klub Queen’s Park FC var tilmeldt turneringen og nåede semifinalerne uden at spille en kamp. Holdet spillet uafgjort med Wanderers FC i semifinalen men havde ikke råd til at rejse til London igen for at spille omkampen og var dermed nødt til at trække sig fra turneringen. På den tid fandtes en regel om, at hvis en kamp endte uafgjort, kunne turneringskomiteen lade begge hold gå videre til næste runde. Denne regel blev anvendt to gange i turneringen.
Første runde blev spillet den 11. november 1871 og havde deltagelse af 14 af de 15 tilmeldte hold, idet Hampstead Heathens var oversiddere i denne runde. Der blev imidlertid kun spillet fire kampe, da Reigate Priory FC og Harrow Chequers FC meldte afbud til kampene mod henholdsvis Royal Engineers AFC og Wanderers FC, som dermed begge gik videre uden kamp. Endelig kunne Queen’s Park FC og Donington School ikke enes om en kampdato for deres opgør, og resultatet blev af begge hold gik videre til anden runde. Kampen mellem Hitchin FC og Crystal Palace FC endte uafgjort 0-0, og turneringkomiteen besluttede, at begge hold fik lov at gå videre til anden runde.
Anden runde blev afviklet i perioden 16. december 1871 – 10. januar 1872 og havde deltagelse af de 12 hold, der var gået videre fra første runde. Queen’s Park FC og Donington School trak igen hinanden som modstandere, men denne gang trak Donington sig helt fra turneringen, så Queen’s Park gik videre til tredje runde uden at have spillet en kamp. Kampen mellem Barnes FC og Hampstead Heathens endte uafgjort, men denne gang fik holdene ikke lov til begge at går videre. I stedet blev holdene sat til at spille en ny kamp.
Kvartfinalerne havde deltagelse af fem hold og blev afviklet i perioden 20. – 27. januar 1872. Queen’s Park FC blev trukket som oversidder i kvartfinaler, hvilket betød, at holdet gik videre til semifinalerne uden at have spillet en eneste kamp i turneringen. Kampen mellem Wanderers FC og Crystal Palace FC endte uafgjort, og begge hold fik lov til at gå videre til semifinalerne.
Semifinalene blev spillet i perioden 17. februar – 9. marts 1872, og alle kampene blev spillet på Kennington Oval i London. Begge semifinaler endte uafgjort 0-0 og skulle derfor spillers om. Men Queen’s Park FC havde ikke råd til endnu en lang tur fra Glasgow til London, og holdet måtte derfor trække sig fra sin omkamp mod Wanderers FC, der dermed gik videre til finalen. Den anden finaleplads gik Royal Engineers AFC
Das Slowakische Nationaltheater (slowakisch: Slovenské národné divadlo) in Bratislava, ist das älteste Theater der Slowakei. Es wurde im Jahre 1920, nach der Unabhängigkeit der damaligen Tschechoslowakei, gegründet..
Das Slowakische Nationaltheater vereint die Bühnenkünste Schauspiel, Oper und Ballett. Es wurde im Jahre 1920, nach der Unabhängigkeit der damaligen Tschechoslowakei, gegründet.
Das erste Stück, welches am 1. März 1920 im Slowakischen Nationaltheater aufgeführt wurde, war die Oper Hubička des Komponisten Bedřich Smetana. Zu den ersten Intendanten des Theaters gehörte Oskar Nedbal (von 1923 bis 1930). Bevor die Slowakische Philharmonie gegründet worden war, wurden im Theater auch Konzerte gegeben.
Seit seiner Gründung hatte das Theater seine Heimat in einem historischen Gebäude, das in den Jahren 1884–86 als Stadttheater vom Büro Fellner & Helmer am Hviezdoslav-Platz erbaut worden war (48.14233917 how to tenderize tough beef.110087).
Am 14. April 2007 wurde am Rande des Stadtzentrums in der Nähe des Donauufers (48.14124217.123353) das neue Haus des Theaters eingeweiht, dafür wurden zwei andere how to tenderize steak fast, nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gebaute Gebäude aufgegeben. Im modernen neuen Gebäude vereinigt sind nun alle Sparten des Theaters, welche sich in den vorangegangenen Jahrzehnten auf mehrere Häuser verteilen mussten. Parallel dazu wird das alte Theater am Hviezdoslav-Platz weiterhin bespielt small running bag.
BBC television dramas have been produced and broadcast since even before the public service company had an officially established television broadcasting network in the United Kingdom. As with any major broadcast network, drama forms an important part of its schedule, with many of the BBC’s top-rated programmes being from this genre.
From the 1950s through to the 1980s the BBC received much acclaim for the range and scope of its drama productions, producing series, serials and plays across a range of genres, from soap opera to science-fiction to costume drama, with the 1970s in particular being regarded as a critical and cultural high point in terms of the quality of dramas being produced. In the 1990s, a time of change in the British television industry, the department went through much internal confusion and external criticism, but since the beginning of the 21st century has begun to return to form with a run of critical and popular successes, despite continual accusations of the drama output and the BBC in general dumbing down.
Many BBC productions have also been exported to and screened in other countries, particularly in the United States on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) Masterpiece Theatre strand and latterly on the BBC’s own BBC America cable channel. Other major purchasers of BBC dramas include the BBC’s equivalents in other Commonwealth nations, such as Australia’s ABC, Canada’s CBC and Gibraltar’s Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC).
Already an established national radio broadcaster, the BBC began test transmissions with the new technology of television in 1929, working with John Logie Baird and using his primitive early apparatus. The following year, as part of one of these test transmissions, the BBC screened their first television drama production, an adaptation of the Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello’s short play The Man With the Flower in His Mouth.
Broadcast live at 3.30pm on 14 July 1930, the play was produced from a small studio in the Baird Company headquarters at 133 Long Acre, London. The play was chosen because of its confined setting, small cast and short length, and was directed by Val Gielgud, who was at the time the BBC’s senior producer of radio drama. Because of the primitive 30-line camera technology, only one figure could be shown on screen at a time and the field of vision of the cameras was extremely restricted. The Prime Minister of the day, Ramsay MacDonald, watched the play with his family on the Baird Televisor Baird had previously installed at their 10 Downing Street home. The reviewer for The Times newspaper commented that: „This afternoon on the roof of 133, Long Acre will prove to be a memorable one… The time for interest and curiosity is come, but the time for serious criticism of television plays, as plays, is not yet.“
The BBC’s test broadcasts continued throughout the early part of the decade as the quality of the medium improved. In 1936 the BBC launched the world’s first „high-definition“—then defined as at least 240-lines — television channel, the BBC Television Service, from studios in a specially converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. At the time of the channel’s debut on 2 November 1936 there were only five television producers responsible for the entire output. The producer selected to oversee drama was George More O’Ferrall, who had some experience with working in a visual medium as he was a former assistant director of films. This was unlike most of his colleagues, who came across from the BBC’s radio services.
The first drama production to be mounted as a part of the new, regular service was a twenty-five-minute selection of scenes from the West End play Marigold by L. Allen Harker and F. R. Pryor, produced by O’Ferrall with the original London Royalty Theatre cast. This was broadcast live from the Alexandra Palace studios on the evening of Friday 6 November 1936. Later BBC Television Head of Drama Shaun Sutton wrote about the production for The Times in 1972. „It was probably little more than a photographed version of the stage production, with the camera lying well back to preserve the picture-frame convention of the theatre.“ Most initial drama efforts were of a similar scale; productions of selected dramatised ’scenes‘ or excerpts from popular novels and adaptations of stage plays, and a programme entitled Theatre Parade would regularly use original London theatre casts for re-enacting selected scenes.
An increasing number of full-length dramatised productions began to take place in the Alexandra Palace studios during 1937, with Journey’s End in November 1937 being a notable full-scale adaptation of a play waist belt for running. When television transmissions on Sundays began in March 1938, one Sunday per month would see the broadcast of a full-length Shakespeare play by actors from the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. Productions also become more technically advanced, with the use of film inserts on telecine and more ambitious shooting, cutting and mixing, as opposed to televising the equivalent of a standard theatrical performance with unmoving cameras. Outside broadcast cameras were used to show thirty Territorial Army troops with two howitzers in the Alexandra Palace grounds for added effect in The White Chateau (1938), and boats on the Palace lake in scenes depicting the Zeebrugge Raid in a World War I play.
The Times credited the ambition of BBC television drama in its review of a July 1938 modern dress version of Julius Caesar, while also criticising some of the production’s technical failings.
„From the moment when Mr. Sebastian Shaw and Mr. Anthony Ireland were discovered sitting at a café table, discussing the political situation over a glass of beer, looking like two Fascist officers, yet speaking the lines assigned to Brutus and Cassius, the attention of the audience was riveted… The penumbrascope, a device for providing a background by means of shadows, which came into play for the first time in this production, was used so carelessly that its edges were often visible. The essence of stagecraft is illusion, which must not be shattered by such accidents. Caesar’s ghost was also very unconvincing, nor did the handful of people listening to the funeral orations suggest an excited mob.“
Greater praise was given by the same paper to Felicity’s First Season, broadcast in September 1938 and, unusually for the time, written directly for television.
„The play relies on dialogue throughout, and there is a skilful use of film to suggest the journey to Scotland. While there are few characters and little change of scenery, enormous cocktail parties, balls, and jumble sales seemed to be in progress just out of sight. The result was something between a stage play and a film—that is to say, good television entertainment.“
The overwhelming majority of BBC television drama produced during the 1930s consisted of adaptations of stage plays, but there were exceptions. These included the first multi-episodic drama serial, Ann and Harold, a five-part story about a married couple which began showing on 12 July 1938. There was also Telecrime, a series of ten- and twenty-minute plays which presented various crimes, with the viewers given enough clues to be able to solve themselves using the evidence shown on screen and the specially-written drama Condemned To Be Shot (1939).
As with almost all programmes of the era, the live television broadcasts meant that no record of the drama productions were kept outside of photographs, scripts and press reviews. BBC Programme Organiser Cecil Madden later claimed that they had experimented with telerecording a production of The Scarlet Pimpernel, but were ordered by film director Alexander Korda to destroy the print as he felt it infringed his film rights.
Despite the difficulties and challenges its production often presented, drama had become a central part of the BBC’s television schedules; a BBC audience research survey conducted in 1937 found that 90% of those replying generally enjoyed the drama productions, a figure equalled only by outside broadcasts. In Christmas week 1938, drama accounted for fourteen of the twenty-two hours of programming broadcast. By the following year, drama programming had fifteen producers working on it, compared to nine for all other types of programmes combined.
In 1939, the total audience for the BBC’s programmes had grown to an estimated audience of 100,000 viewers, watching on 20,000 television sets. However, BBC television broadcasting ceased on 1 September 1939 in anticipation of World War II. The station remained off-air for the duration of the conflict. The British Government were afraid that the VHF transmission signals would act as a guiding beacon for German bombers targeting central London, and the technicians and engineers of the service would in any case be needed for war efforts such as the radar programme.
BBC Television resumed broadcasting on 7 June 1946, and the service began in much the same way it had ceased in 1939, with many of the 1930s drama producers returning. In 1949 there was a major development in drama when Val Gielgud was made the new head of department, a position he had previously and successfully occupied at BBC Radio. Since producing the first television play in 1930, Gielgud had worked in television again, serving on attachment to the service at Alexandra Palace in 1939 and directing a half-hour adaptation of his own short story Ending It, starring John Robinson and Joan Marion and broadcast on 25 August 1939, less than a week before the service was placed on hiatus.
Gielgud was an unpopular choice with many in the television service, with the channel’s controller, Norman Collins, protesting that „Anything less than complete familiarity with all aspects of television production will mean… that the Head of Television Drama is an amateur.“ Gielgud himself felt that television drama was too influenced by the cinema and ought to be closer to its radio equivalent, with television plays being more like illustrated radio broadcasts than independent entities in and of themselves. Gielgud eventually returned to radio, being replaced as Head of Drama by his assistant, the experienced producer Michael Barry, in 1952.
One important move that had occurred under Gielgud was the establishment in 1950 of the Script Department, and the hiring of the television service’s first in-house staff drama writers, Nigel Kneale and Philip Mackie. Gielgud began to commission new drama, such as Jack Hulbert’s The Golden Year in 1951, a contribution to the Festival of Britain and something of a throw-back to a previous age, as it was the first ever musical comedy made for television. Barry later expanded the Script Department and installed the experienced film producer Donald Wilson as its head in 1955. Television was now developing beyond simply adapting stories from other media into creating its own originally written productions. It was also becoming a high-profile medium, with national coverage and viewing figures now running into the millions, helped by the explosion of interest due to the live televising of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in the summer of 1953.
That same year, Barry invested the majority of his original scripting budget into a six-part science-fiction serial written by Kneale and directed by Rudolph Cartier, an Austrian-born director who was establishing a reputation as the television service’s most inventive practitioner. Entitled The Quatermass Experiment, the serial (miniseries in American terminology) was a huge success and went a long way towards popularising the form, where one story is told over a short number of episodes, on British television: it is still one of the most popular drama formats in the medium to this day. Kneale and Cartier went on to be responsible for two sequel serials and many other highly successful and popular productions over the course of the decade, drawing many viewers to their programmes with their characteristic blend of horror and allegorical science fiction.
It was they who were responsible for the 1954 adaptation of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, the second performance of which drew the largest television audience since the coronation, some seven million viewers, and is one of the earliest surviving dramas in the archive. The telerecording process had by now been perfected for capturing live broadcasts for repeat and overseas sales, although it was not until the early 1960s that the majority of BBC dramas were prerecorded on the new technology of videotape. The BBC, unlike American broadcasters, only gradually produced dramas shot entirely on film from the 1960s onwards; ITV’s filmed series were in the minority, and most of the commercial channel’s drama productions were made in the same ‚hybrid‘ form as those of the BBC. Filmed sequences would be mounted for external scenes which would be pre-shot and inserted into productions at relevant points, later being inserted into shows at the video editing stage. „These sequences bought time for the more elaborate costume changes or scene set-ups, but also served to ‚open out‘ the action,“ as the British Film Institute explained on its Screenonline website in 2004.
The BBC suffered during the second half of the 1950s from the rise of the ITV network, which had debuted in 1955 and rapidly begun to take away audience share from the Corporation as its coverage spread nationally. Despite popular hits such as the police drama series Dixon of Dock Green and soap opera The Grove Family, the BBC was seen as being more highbrow, lacking the popular common touch of the commercial network. One of the major figures in commercial television drama of the late 1950s and early 1960s was Canadian producer Sydney Newman, the Head of Drama at ABC Television responsible for such programmes as Armchair Theatre and The Avengers. In December 1962, keen to turn around the fortunes of their own drama department, the BBC invited Newman to replace the retiring Barry as Head of Drama, and he accepted, keen on the idea of transforming what he saw as the staid, docile image of BBC drama.
Even before Newman’s arrival, some BBC producers were attempting to break the mould, with Elwyn Jones, Troy Kennedy Martin and Allan Prior’s landmark police drama series Z-Cars shaking up the image of television police dramas and becoming an enormous popular success from 1962 onwards. Newman, however, restructured the entire department, dividing the unwieldy drama group into three separate divisions: series, for on-going continuing dramas with self-contained episodes; serials, for stories told over multi-episode runs, or programmes which were made up of a series of serials; and plays, for any kind of drama one-offs, an area Newman was especially keen on following the success of Armchair Theatre at ABC.
Newman followed BBC Managing Director of Television Sir Huw Wheldon’s famous edict to „make the good popular and the popular good,“ once stating: „damn the upper classes! They don’t even own televisions!“ While he did personally create populist family-entertainment-based dramas such as Adam Adamant Lives! and the incredibly long-running science-fiction series Doctor Who, he also attempted to create drama that was socially relevant to those who were watching, initiating The Wednesday Play anthology strand to present contemporary dramas with a social background the resonance. Says Screenonline of this development, „It was from this artistic high of the ‚golden age‘ of British TV drama (this ‚agitational contemporaneity‘, as Newman coined it) that a new generation of TV playwrights emerged.“
The Wednesday Play proved to be a breeding ground for acclaimed and sometimes controversial writers such as Dennis Potter and directors such as Ken Loach, but sometimes Newman’s desire to create biting, cutting drama could land the Corporation in trouble. This was particularly the case with 1965’s The War Game by Peter Watkins, which depicted a fictional nuclear attack on the UK and the consequences of such, and was banned by the BBC under pressure from the government. It was eventually screened on television in 1985.
Newman’s reign saw a large number of popular and critically acclaimed dramas go out on the BBC, with Doctor Who, Z-Cars, Doctor Finlay’s Casebook and the epic The Forsyte Saga picking up viewers while the likes of The Wednesday Play and Theatre 625 presented challenging ideas to the audience. Newman left the staff of the BBC once his five-year contract expired in 1967, departing for an unsuccessful attempt to break into the film industry. He was replaced by Head of Serials Shaun Sutton, initially on an acting basis combined with his existing role, but permanently from 1969.
Sutton became the BBC’s longest-serving Head of Drama, serving as such until 1981 and during the BBC’s move from black and white into colour broadcasting. His era took in the whole of the 1970s, a time when the BBC enjoyed large viewing figures, positive audience reaction and generally high production values across a range of programmes, with drama enjoying a particularly well-received spell. The Wednesday Play transformed into the equally celebrated and longer running Play for Today in 1970; later in the decade the BBC began a run of producing every single Shakespeare play, a run which Sutton himself would later take over the producer’s role on following his departure from the Head of Drama position in the early 1980s.
Popular dramas such as Doctor Who and Z-Cars continued into the new decade, and were joined by costume dramas following The Forsyte Saga such as The Pallisers, The Onedin Line and Poldark. Family-audience based period dramas, often adaptations such as The Eagle of the Ninth (1977), were popular on Sunday afternoons, with the ‚Classic Serial‘ strand which ran there becoming something of an institution until the early 1990s. Another success between 1973 and 1977 was the popular Warship drama series, filmed with a documentary-like look for forty-five episodes over four seasons on a Royal Navy frigate. Along with many BBC dramas of the decade, Warship was also very successful in countries such as Ireland and Australia.
There were also failures, however. The epic Churchill’s People, twenty-six fifty-minute episodes based around Winston Churchill’s A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, was deemed unbroadcastable by Sutton after he had viewed the initial episodes, but so much time and money had been invested in huge pre-transmission publicity that the BBC had no choice but to show the plays, to critical derision and tiny viewing figures. Never again would a fifty-minute series be given a run as long as twenty-six episodes, for fear of being too committed to a project: runs of thirteen became the norm, although in later years even this began to be considered quite long. Plays such as Dennis Potter’s Brimstone and Treacle and Roy Minton’s Scum were not broadcast at all due to fears over their content at the highest levels of the BBC, although despite this Potter continued to write landmark drama serials and one-offs for the Corporation throughout the rest of the decade and into the 1980s. Both Brimstone and Treacle and Scum were eventually transmitted some years later.
Whenever writers and media analysts criticise the current state of British and particularly BBC television drama, it is frequently the 1960s and 1970s period which they cite as being the most important and influential, with a vast variety of genres (science fiction, crime, historical, family based) and types of programme (series, serials, one-offs, anthologies) being produced. „What may justly be rated as the golden age of television drama reached its zenith,“ as The Guardian described it in their 2004 obituary of Sutton. Or in the words of the Royal Television Society, „…an era that championed new writers, young directors and challenging drama. The amazing diversity… helped to make it the golden age of broadcasting.“
However, despite this high esteem, the television drama of the era does not fully exist in the archives. Most of the live output was not recorded at all, and a large amount of material from the 1960s and early 1970s was wiped once it had been repeated the number of times contractually allowed real goalkeeper gloves, or when it was of no further use for overseas sales. This practice continued in the early years of colour television, although by 1978 the BBC had realised the historical value of its archive and ceased the wiping process. However, by this stage many series were completely missing – United!, a football-based soap opera which ran from 1965 to 1967 has no episodes existing at all. Others have large gaps; Dixon of Dock Green has only about thirty of its more than four hundred episodes surviving from its twenty-year run.
Following Sutton’s departure from the Head of Drama role in 1981 and his return to front-line producing duties in the Shakespeare cycle, his place as Head of Drama was taken by Graeme MacDonald. MacDonald had been Head of Serials and later Head of Series & Serials under Sutton, with the two departments having been merged in 1980, remaining so for most of the decade before separating again at the end of it. MacDonald maintained the status quo, and was only Head of Drama for a short time before he was promoted again to run a channel as Controller of BBC2. He was succeeded in turn by his own Head of Series & Serials, Jonathan Powell.
Powell had been a producer of high-quality all-film drama serials such as Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1979) and its sequel Smiley’s People (1982), and he very much favoured this form of short-run, self-contained filmed serial over longer-running videotaped drama series. It was under his aegis, therefore, that the BBC produced some of its highest-quality examples of this type of drama, of particular note being 1985’s Edge of Darkness by Troy Kennedy Martin, and the following year’s Dennis Potter piece The Singing Detective, both regarded as seminal BBC drama productions. „A gripping, innovative six-part drama which fully deserves its cult status and many awards,“ was the British Film Institute’s verdict on Edge of Darkness in 2000.
Powell also oversaw the rise of more populist continuing drama series, however, encouraged by the ratings-chasing strategy of the then Controller of BBC1, his friend Michael Grade. It was during Powell’s tenure that the BBC launched the twice-weekly soap opera EastEnders (1985–present) and the medical drama Casualty (1986–present), both of which remain linchpins of the BBC One schedule today and the highest-rated drama productions on BBC television. Indeed, EastEnders achieved phenomenal success in its early years, its Christmas Day 1986 episode earning a massive 30.15 million viewers, the highest British television audience of the 1980s.Aside from these continuing dramas, based in one major location and shot entirely on videotape and thus comparatively cheap to make, longer runs of drama series became rare, with short series of six or eight episodes becoming the norm.
The single play, in its original studio-based form, also began to disappear from the schedules, with the final series of Play for Today airing in 1984, and the last single drama recorded at Television Centre being Henry IV, Part 1 in 1995. The BBC was envious of the success of its rival Channel 4’s newly formed film arm, which had seen made-for-television one-offs such as Stephen Frears‘ My Beautiful Laundrette (1985) gain cinematic releases to considerable success. New strands such as Screen One and Screen Two concentrated on short runs of all-film, cinematic-style one-off dramas, with the most successful of these being Anthony Minghella’s Truly, Madly, Deeply (Screen Two, 1990) which became a successful film released to cinemas. (Screen One and Two ran until 1994.)
The Plays department eventually disappeared altogether, being replaced latterly with a ‚Head of Film & Single Drama‘ position with autonomous powers for investing in feature film production, co-commissioning television one-offs with the Head of Drama. This interest in film production is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that both of Powell’s successors as Head of Drama, Mark Shivas (1988–93) and Charles Denton (1993–96), went on to work in the film industry after leaving the position.
Another major change to BBC production methods in all areas, but particularly affecting drama, occurred the passing of the 1990 Broadcasting Act, which amongst other things obliged the BBC to commission 25% of its output from independent production companies. Many BBC drama productions were subsequently outsourced to and commissioned from independent companies, although the BBC’s in-house production arm continued to contribute heavily, with the separate Drama Series and Serials departments remaining intact. Production arms such as costumes, make-up and special effects were all closed by the early 21st century, however, with these services now being bought in from outside even for in-house programmes.
Jonathan Powell’s attempt to repeat the success of EastEnders in 1992, when he had become Controller of BBC One, led to one of the BBC’s most notorious and costly failures. Eldorado was set in the British expatriate community in Spain, created by the same team of Julia Smith and Tony Holland who had come up with EastEnders. The costly soap opera, hugely maligned by critics and the victim of a viewer backlash against the massive advertising campaign the BBC had undertaken to promote it, was scrapped by Powell’s successor Alan Yentob after less than a year’s run, under pressure from the Director-General of the BBC John Birt.
The 1990s saw a rise in the popularity of costume drama adaptations of literary classics, mostly adapted by the acclaimed screenwriter Andrew Davies. One of the most successful of these was a 1995 adaptation of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, starring Colin Firth and Jennifer Ehle. Contemporary social drama, a BBC signature style since the 1960s, remained in the form of landmark productions such as Our Friends in the North (1996), but it was notable that this was transmitted on the more niche BBC Two channel rather than the mainstream BBC One as might well have been the case in previous decades.
There was criticism of the department’s commissioning process in some quarters, which was seen as being overly intricate and bureaucratic. As The Independent described: „Lengthy agonising over whether the BBC1 saga Seaforth would be given a second series (eventually, it wasn’t) further encouraged the view that the BBC’s management floor is full of desks where the buck does not so much stop as hang around for a few months.“ ^ Further problems emerged for the drama department after the departure of Charles Denton as its Head in May 1996. He was briefly replaced on a temporary basis by Ruth Caleb, the Head of Drama at BBC Wales. However, Caleb had no interest in taking the job on a permanent basis, and after a six-month attachment left the post at the end of the year. With no suitable candidate to take the job on a full-time basis having been found, Director of Television Alan Yentob was forced to oversee the department, again on a temporary basis.
There was much criticism in the press over the inability of the BBC to find a full-time Head of Drama, with even the BBC Chairman Sir Christopher Bland criticising the amount of time it was taking to find a new Head of Department, stating publicly that: „There aren’t a lot of people who are pre-eminently qualified and able to do the biggest job in drama. That’s the difficulty.“ ^ . Experienced BBC Drama staff such as Michael Wearing (Head of Serials) were leaving the department, which was seen to be in trouble after the failure of hugely expensive productions such as the historical drama Rhodes in 1996. „Many in the drama business, and not just BBC insiders, are worried about the hand-over of creative say to the controllers, low morale and the lack of a head,“ ^The Guardian reported in December 1996. Finally in June 1997 Colin Adams was appointed as the new Head of Drama. Adams was a surprising choice, his previous role at the Corporation having been as Head of Northern Broadcasting. However, he was essentially an administrator and seen by Drama staff as a temporary appointment.
In 1997 the BBC approached Mal Young, best known for producing Liverpool-set Channel 4 soap Brookside, to head up the Drama Series section of the in-house Drama Department, which had become something of a poisoned chalice with many Controllers departing in quick succession. As Controller of Continuing Drama Series, Young oversaw the move to volume production and also commissioned a new medical Series, Holby City. By the time Young left the BBC to join 19 Television Limited as head of Drama in December 2004, the BBC had increased Series production to nearly 300 hours per annum, including EastEnders at four times a week, Holby City for 52 episodes, Casualty for 48 episodes. Volume Series production was a controversial move because it took a large part of the Drama budget away from original production and contributed to accusations of „dumbing down“ its programming. „The decision to show EastEnders four nights a week, followed by Holby City has left the corporation open to accusations that the BBC1 schedule has been cleared for a diet of ‚precinct pulp‘,“ reported The Guardian in 2003.
As of 2010, the current Commissioner of Drama at the BBC is Ben Stephenson. Working with Stephenson are: Head of Series & Serials Kate Harwood and Controller of Continuing (i.e. year-round) Drama Series John Yorke (who also acts as Head of Drama for the BBC’s in-house production arm), with David M. Thompson of Film & Single Drama overseeing one-offs. Sarah Brandist and Polly Hill are the commissioning editors for independently-produced drama programming.
Having been Head of Serials from 1997 to 2000, Jane Tranter was made Head of Drama in 2000. Tranter’s era from 2000–06 saw a return to longer-run episode series, with programmes such as Spooks being given longer second runs following successful debut seasons. Recent years have also seen a huge increase in continuing drama output, with EastEnders gaining a fourth weekly episode to add to the third added during the mid-1990s, and Casualty and its spin-off series Holby City (1999–present) turning from regular seasonal shows to year-round soap opera-style productions. These moves have been criticised in some quarters for filling the market with insubstantial populist dramas at the expense of ‚quality‘ prestige pieces, although there have been several notable drama serial successes, such as Paul Abbott’s State of Play (2003) and the historical drama Charles II: The Power and The Passion (BBC Northern Ireland – 2004).
Another move of recent years has been the regionalisation of BBC drama, in response to criticisms that the majority of programmes were made and set in and around London and the surrounding areas, with the BBC’s central drama department currently being based at Television Centre in West London. As far back at 1962, the makers of Z-Cars had deliberately set their programme near Liverpool in the North of England to break away from the perceived London bias (although, ironically, it was shot in the BBC’s London studios), and in 1971 an English Regions Drama Department had been established at BBC Birmingham headed by David Rose with a remit for making ‚regional drama‘, gaining a major success with Alan Bleasdale’s Boys from the Blackstuff in 1982. In the modern era, however, the separate BBC branches in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all have their own drama departments with Heads of Drama who have autonomous commissioning powers, both for in-house production and co-production with or commissioning from independents.
Although some of these shows are purely for regional consumption, such as BBC Scotland’s River City and BBC Wales‘ Belonging, many programmes networked nationally on BBC One and Two are made in ‚the nations‘, with perhaps the highest profile being the current BBC Wales revival of Doctor Who. The larger English regions also produce drama productions of their own, with BBC Birmingham providing the detective drama Dalziel and Pascoe, daytime soap opera Doctors and anthology series The Afternoon Play for national consumption, for example.
From 1999 until 2006, the BBC also had a new in-house drama division, BBC Fictionlab, which specialised in producing dramas for the corporation’s digital stations, particularly BBC Four. Notable Fictionlab productions for BBC Four included The Alan Clark Diaries (2003), a live re-make of The Quatermass Experiment (2005) and the biopic Kenneth Tynan – In Praise of Hardcore (2005). Several of these have later seen analogue transmission on BBC Two. However, in January 2006 the BBC announced that Fictionlab was to be disbanded, as the digital channels were now well established and no longer needed a specialised drama production unit.
The BBC has established a strong reputation in the field of children’s drama, although children’s dramas are almost universally commissioned and / or produced by the BBC’s Children’s Department rather than the Drama Department itself. There are however occasional crossovers – Doctor Who, for example, would commonly be regarded as a children’s or family programme, but has always been produced by the main Drama Department.
Throughout much of the department’s history, the emphasis has been on continuing productions of short-run drama serials, including adaptations of classic children’s literature such as Little Lord Fauntleroy, as well as made-for-television productions. Science-fiction has been a popular theme, from Stranger from Space (1951–52) through to the likes of Dark Season (1991) and Century Falls (1993). Since the middle of the 1980s, children’s dramas – with the exception of the Sunday evening ‚classics‘ slot – have almost always been screened in the weekday BBC One 3pm-5.30pm Children’s BBC (CBBC) strand.
Longer continuing drama series became common from the late 1970s, spearheaded by the 1978 launch of the popular school-set drama series Grange Hill. Created by Liverpudlian dramatist Phil Redmond, the intention of the programme was to present issues relevant to children in a realistic manner, showing characters in a modern Comprehensive school and concentrating on the issues facing children in such schools. The series was a huge success, and in 1989 a similar programme, Byker Grove, set in a youth club, was launched by the BBC’s North-Eastern arm and screened on Children’s BBC.
From the 1990s onwards, in common with BBC programming in other genres, children’s drama has often been commissioned from independent producers as well as being made in-house. Grange Hill switched to independent production after twenty-five years as an in-house programme in 2003, when production was taken over by Mersey Television, the company established by the programme’s creator Phil Redmond in the early 1980s. Co-productions with foreign broadcasters are also common, with BBC Scotland’s successful 2004 fantasy drama Shoebox Zoo being made in collaboration with the Canadian company Blueprint Entertainment.
As of 2005, the BBC continues to broadcast children’s drama, usually in the weekday afternoon CBBC slot, but also occasional Sunday early evening / late afternoon prestige productions such as the adaptation of Kidnapped (April 2005). As of July 2005, the Head of Children’s Drama is Jon East.