. nystagmus) – są to mimowolne, rytmiczne oscylacje gałek ocznych wynikające z braku równowagi w napięciu mięśni ocznych. Może być następstwem uszkodzenia obwodowej lub ośrodkowej części przedsionka lub być przejawem tzw
. oczopląsu ocznego. W opisie oczopląsu wyróżniamy następujące cechy:
Leczenie może przynieść poprawę w tych przypadkach, w których istnieje „blokada“ („strefa ciszy“) oczopląsu przy pewnym ustawieniu gałek. Polega ono na odpowiednim chirurgicznym ustawieniu oczu. Niekiedy ustawienie takie można uzyskać stosując szkła pryzmatyczne.
Około 8% populacji w wieku studenckim może wytworzyć oczopląs na zawołanie. 4/5 takich osób ma krewnych, którzy także są do tego zdolni. Oczopląs symulowany przypomina kształtem fali oczopląs wahadłowy, natomiast częstotliwością – niektóre formy wahadłowego drgania gałek ocznych. Nie może on być utrzymywany średnio dłużej niż 25 s. Parametry te pozwalają na odróżnienie go od oczopląsu patologicznego.
Fizjologia człowieka z elementami fizjologii stosowanej i klinicznej pod redakcją Władysława Z. Traczyka i Andrzeja Trzebskiego Otoneurologia pod red. G. Janczewskiego i B
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Rezultaty Rajdu Ypres (49. Geko Ypres Rally 2013), eliminacji Rajdowych Mistrzostw Europy w 2013 roku, który odbył się w dniach 27 czerwca – 29 czerwca. Była to szósta runda czempionatu w tamtym roku, odbywająca się na nawierzchni asfaltowej, a także piąta w mistrzostwach Belgii. Bazą rajdu było miasto Ypres. Zwycięzcami rajdu została belgijska załoga Freddy Loix i Frédéric Miclotte jadący samochodem Škoda Fabia S2000. Wyprzedzili oni Francuzów Bryana Bouffiera i Xaviera Panseriego w Peugeocie 207 S2000 i Irlandczyków Craiga Breena i Paula Nagle’a w Peugeocie 207 S2000.
Rajdu nie ukończyło 55 załóg. Na 2. odcinku specjalnym odpadł Czech Jaroslav Orsák w Mitsubishi Lancerze Evo IX R4, który miał wypadek. Na tym samym oesie wypadł Fin Mikko Pajunen w Fordzie Fieście S2000, który miał awarię napędu. Na 4. odcinku specjalnym wycofał się Francuz Robert Consani w Renault Mégane RS. Na 14. oesie z rajdu wycofał się Nowozelandczyk Hayden Paddon w Fordzie Fieście S2000, który miał wypadek
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, is a proposal for the world’s first underground park in the New York City borough of Manhattan that would be located under the eastbound roadway of Delancey Street on the Lower East Side, adjacent to the Essex Street station (J M Z trains). Co-founders James Ramsey and Dan Barasch have suggested natural light would be directed below ground using fiber optics—described in the proposed plan as „remote skylights“—to provide an area in which trees and grass could be grown beneath the city streets. Light collectors would be placed at ground level, with suggested locations, including the median on Delancey Street. Artificial lighting would be used to supplement the redirect sunlight, and at night and when the sun is obscured by clouds. The area, with ceilings 20 feet (6.1 m) high, extends three blocks east from Essex Street to Clinton Street and was used until 1948 as a station and balloon loop for streetcars crossing the Williamsburg Bridge to and from Brooklyn. R. Boykin Curry IV is the third urban entrepreneur behind the proposal.
The large trolley terminal that is the site has sat unused for more than 60 years. The project was first proposed in 2011 and quickly generated widespread media attention.
In 2012, the project raised over $150,000 from 3,300 backers on Kickstarter to create a full-scale exhibition of the solar lighting technology. The project was named by Mashable as one of the top Kickstarter projects of that year. In September 2012 an installation was opened on the Lower East Side to promote the project; titled „Imagining the Lowline,“ it consisted of a 30-foot wide aluminum solar canopy distributing natural sunlight onto a live cultivated landscape „park.“ The exhibit saw over 11,000 visitors and featured design talks, school visits, weekend street fairs and a political event
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. The executive producer of the exhibit was Robyn Shapiro and the industrial designer was Ed Jacobs with support from Brandt Graves.
The project has been endorsed by politicians and organizations such as US Senator Kirsten Gillibrand
, former NY State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, Manhattan Community Board 3, and the Lower East Side business improvement district. Barasch and Ramsey worked with HR&A Advisors and Arup to complete a feasibility study outlining the cost to build the park
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, long-term business model and community benefits. The findings were released to various news outlets such as the Wall Street Journal. and New York magazine.The Lowline was shown in Time magazine’s 25 best inventions of 2015 (Dec7 issue). The underground area borders the 1,650,000 square feet (153,000 m2) Seward Park Urban Renewal Area, for which the Economic Development Corporation has issued an RFP. The Lowline site is not included in the RFP as it is owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Lowline team is currently working with the MTA, who will not contribute any funds, and the New York City Council to gain access to build on site, as well as continuing with their fundraising efforts.
, Newbury. It comprises the villages of Shaw and Donnington and contains the partially ruined castle of Donnington Castle which has most of its various outside walls intact.
The area is mostly green space but where developed is almost entirely residential with shops and cafés. It has housing immediately north of (contiguous with) the town of Newbury. It comprises the villages of Shaw and Donnington and contains the partially ruined castle of Donnington Castle which has most of its various outside walls intact.
The ecclesiastical parish church which crosses the River Lambourn bounding the civil parish to the south for a few hundred metres
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The R356 road is a regional road in Ireland linking Killimor, County Galway with Cloghan, County Offaly. The road also travels through the towns of Eyrecourt and Banagher. At Banagher the road crosses the River Shannon via a seven arch bridge erected by the Commissioners for the Improvement of Navigation of the Shannon in 1841–1843 cheap ted baker.
The road is approximately 32km in length.
The R356 commences at a T-junction with the N65 National secondary road in Killimor. The road continues in an eastwards direction before joining the R355 road for about 1km of the journey. After leaving the R355 the road continues eastwards towards Eyrecourt. This section of the road is of very poor quality. Sharp bends
, poor quality surface and a very narrow alignment are common throughout this section. The road enters Eyrecourt as River Street and Main Street. At the end of Main Street there is a very sharp turn to stay on the R356. From Eyrecourt the quality of road improves somewhat and travels alongside the River Shannon before crossing the river on the Banagher bridge and bringing the road from County Galway into County Offaly
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. The road continues into Banagher as Main Street. In Main Street a T-junction is formed with the R439 road. In order to stay on the R356 one must turn left (coming from County Galway) and continue on the Harbour Road. Further on the road forms a junction with the R438 road and the road continues on towards Cloghan. The road terminates at the junction with the N62 National secondary road.
La famille de Gramont est une maison ducale de la noblesse française. Sa terre de Gramont a été érigée en duché-pairie en 1648. Elle est originaire de Navarre et subsiste encore aujourd’hui.
Elle compte deux maréchaux de France et un cardinal.
, seigneurs navarrais font partie des douze ricos hombres (’hommes riches’), et à ce titre participent à l’élection des rois de Navarre.
Le duché de Gramont a été créé par lettres patentes de Louis XIV, roi de France et de Navarre, édictées en novembre 1648 et enregistrées le 15 décembre 1663, faisant suite à l’élévation du comte de Gramont en duc à brevet et pair par lettres patentes du 31 décembre 1643.
Il se compose de dix paroisses : six situées en totalité dans le royaume de France, les paroisses labourdines de Urt, Bardos et Guiche et les paroisses gasconnes de Sames, Léren et Saint-Pé-de-Léren
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, une située partie en France et partie en Navarre, Came et trois situées en Navarre, Bergouey, Viellenave-sur-Bidouze (aujourd’hui unies en Bergouey-Viellenave) et Escos.
On ne doit pas le confondre avec la souveraineté de Bidache, autre terre sous la juridiction des ducs de Gramont dans le même secteur, dont le territoire se confond exactement avec celui de la petite ville de Bidache, le duché de Gramont étant d’ailleurs formé de deux morceaux séparés par le territoire de la souveraineté.
Les Gramont ont été capitaines puis gouverneurs de Bayonne de 1472 à 1789. Dans cette ville, ils résidèrent dès le XVe siècle au Château-Neuf, puis au Château-Vieux à partir de la fin du XVIe siècle,.
Cette famille compte aussi des prélats : un cardinal-archevêque et un archevêque.
Les papiers personnels de la famille de Gramont sont conservés aux Archives nationales sous la cote 101AP.
D’or, au lion d’azur, armé et lampassé de gueules. Devise: A RESISTENTE CORONOR.
Écartelé, au I et IV, de gueules à trois fasce ondées d’or ; aux Iet III, cousu de gueules à trois jumelles d’argent ; sur-le-tout, contre-écartelé : au 1, d’or, au lion d’azur, armé et lampassé de gueules (Gramont) ; au 2, de gueules, à trois flèches d’or, armées et empennées d’argent, 2 et 1, les pointes en bas (Aster); au 3, d’or, à un lévrier de gueules, colleté d’azur, à l’orle de sable, semée de besants d’or (Aure) ; au 4, d’argent à un chef endenté d’azur.
Écartelé, au 1, d’or, au lion d’azur, armé et lampassé de gueules (Gramont) ; au 2 et 3, de gueules, à trois flèches d’or, armées et empennées d’argent, 2 et 1, les pointes en bas (Aster); au 4, d’or, à un lévrier de gueules, colleté d’azur, à l’orle de sable, semée de besants d’or (Aure) ; sur-le-tout, contre-écartelé : au I et IV, de gueules à trois fasces ondées d’or ; aux II et III, cousu de gueules à trois jumelles d’argent.
Écartelé : au 1, d’or, au lion d’azur, armé et lampassé de gueules (Gramont); aux 2 et 3, de gueules, à trois flèches d’or, armées et empennées d’argent, 2 et 1, les pointes en bas (Aster); au 4, d’argent, à un lévrier de gueules, colleté d’azur, à l’orle de sable, semée de besants d’or (Aure). Sur le tout de gueules à quatre otelles d’argent (Comminges). Cri: DIOS NOS AYUDE!. Devise: DEI GRATIA SUM ID QUOD SUM.
Écartelé, au I et IV, contre-écartelé : au 1, d’or
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, au lion d’azur, armé et lampassé de gueules (Gramont) ; au 2, de gueules, à trois flèches d’or, armées et empennées d’argent, 2 et 1, les pointes en bas (Aster); au II et III, d’or à la croix de gueules cantonnée de seize alérions 2 et 2 (Montmorency) ; sur le tout de Comminges.
The Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment. A subset of fingerprint impressions acquired with various sensors was provided to registered participants, to allow them to adjust the parameters of their algorithms. Participants were requested to provide enroll and match executable files of their algorithms; the evaluation was conducted at the organizers’ facilities using the submitted executable files on a sequestered database
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, acquired with the same sensors as the training set.
The organizers of FVC are:
Each participant can submit up to one algorithm to the open and light categories.
The first, second and third international competitions on fingerprint verification (FVC2000, FVC2002 and FVC2004) were organized in 2000
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, 2002 and 2004, respectively. These events received great attention both from academic and industrial biometric communities. They established a common benchmark, allowing developers to unambiguously compare their algorithms, and provided an overview of the state-of-the-art in fingerprint recognition. Based on the response of the biometrics community, FVC2000, FVC2002 and FVC2004 were undoubtedly successful initiatives. The interest shown in previous editions by the biometrics research community has prompted the organizers to schedule a new competition for the year 2006.
In 2006 there were:
One of the most important and time-consuming tasks of any biometric system evaluation is the data collection. Organizers have created a multi-database, containing four disjoint fingerprint databases
, each collected with a different sensor technology.
For each database and for each algorithm:
Although it is possible to reject images in enrollment, this is strongly discouraged. In fact, in FVC2006, as in FVC2004 and FVC2002, rejection in enrollment is fused with other error rates for the final ranking; in particular, each rejection in enrollment will produce a „ghost“ template which will not match (matching score zero) with all the remaining fingerprints.
For each algorithm and for each database, the following performance indicators are reported:
The following average performance indicators are reported over the four databases:
Bryan Scott Smith (born May 21, 1979), is an American mixed martial artist currently competing in the Middleweight division. A professional competitor since 2001, Smith was also a contestant on the The Ultimate Fighter: The Comeback, and has competed for the UFC, Strikeforce, EliteXC and PFC. He is also the former WEC Light Heavyweight Champion.
Smith was born in Reno, Nevada and raised in Elk Grove
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, California, attending Elk Grove High School where he competed in wrestling. Smith then continued his career in junior college where he placed in the California State Championship.
In the early half of his career, Smith fought as a Heavyweight and compiled victories in the International Fighting Championships and Gladiator Challenge shows across the United States. While successful in the smaller promotions, Smith’s first major appearance in the mixed martial arts world came in the World Extreme Cagefighting organization. Smith entered a WEC Light Heavyweight tournament with limited name recognition, but was branded by experts as the dark horse of the competition. Smith defeated WEC veteran Tim McKenzie in the semi-finals. With that victory, Smith was slated to fight Justin Levens in the tournament finals; Levens, however, was halted on doctor’s advice due to a shoulder injury he sustained in his semi-final bout. The tournament alternate, Tait Fletcher, was brought into the championship round instead. Smith made short work of Fletcher, scoring a first-round technical knockout to become the WEC Light Heavyweight Champion.
Smith would defend his championship from Justin Levens at WEC 18 before scheduling a fight with the Ultimate Fighting Championship in April 2006, moving down a weight class to fight David Terrell at UFC 59. The fight – marked with questionable officiating – ended in controversial fashion, prompting Smith to file a complaint with the California State Athletic Commission. The referee called for a break, which Smith adhered to but Terrell did not hear. When Smith stopped fighting, Terrell quickly locked in a rear naked choke, which the referee did not break. Smith was forced to tap out and protested immediately
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Smith was then seen as a middleweight contestant on The Ultimate Fighter: The Comeback, where he quickly lost his quarterfinal matchup against Travis Lutter. Smith appeared on the season finale, knocking out Pete Sell in the second round of a very exciting fight in a sequence that saw Smith sustain a hard punch to the liver, and throw the bout-winning knockout punch before falling to the ground in pain.
Smith lost his next fight in the UFC by decision against Patrick Cote at UFC 67. More recently, Smith defeated Troy Miller by technical knockout at Palace Fighting Championship 2 in Lemoore, California. He lost against Ed Herman at UFC 72
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. Herman submitted Smith with a rear naked choke at 2:25 in the second round after Herman landed a nasty elbow on Smith in the first round covering his face in blood.
Smith made his EliteXC debut on February 16 knocking out Kyle Noke seven seconds into round two. The victory earned him a title shot against Robbie Lawler. The bout was declared a no contest after an accidental poke in the eye in the third round. The first two rounds were so exciting that Gary Shaw awarded both fighters their win bonuses and announced an immediate rematch. Smith lost the subsequent rematch to Lawler via TKO on July 26, 2008, at EliteXC: Unfinished Business.
At Strikeforce: Destruction, Smith took a fight with Terry Martin on one week’s notice and defeated Martin via KO (punch) in the 1st round.
Smith faced Benji Radach at Strikeforce: Shamrock vs. Diaz on April 11, 2009. Smith defeated Radach by knocking him out in the third round. Radach had, for the majority of the fight, showcased his ability as the more refined striker, and was arguably heading toward a unanimous decision victory until Smith caught him with a flush straight right late on in round three and followed up with strikes to seal a dramatic victory. On June 6, 2009, Smith was matched up with Nick Diaz at a catchweight of 180 lb. during Strikeforce: Lawler vs. Shields, losing via rear naked choke at 1:19 of the third round.
Smith fought Cung Le at Strikeforce: Evolution on December 19, 2009. Despite being dominated throughout most of the fight, Smith won via third round knock out and became the first man to ever defeat Cung Le. Smith fought Le again in a rematch with at Strikeforce: Fedor vs. Werdum on June 26, 2010. Smith lost by second round KO.
Smith fought Paul Daley in a welterweight bout on December 4, 2010, at Strikeforce: Henderson vs. Babalu II. Daley defeated Smith via one punch KO in the first round. As Smith was throwing a punch, Daley caught him with a hook.
Smith took some time off after his loss to Daley, trying to heal up some injuries and rejuvenate his ground game. He faced Tarec Saffiedine at Welterweight at the Strikeforce: Fedor vs. Henderson event. He lost the bout via unanimous decision.
After an 8-month layoff
, Smith faced Lumumba Sayers at Strikeforce: Tate vs. Rousey. He lost via submission (guillotine choke) in round one, suffering his fourth loss in a row.
Smith was expected to face Marcus Gaines at Gladiator Challenge on June 23, 2012, but an injury during training forced him to withdraw from the bout.
Smith faced Mark Matthews on August 3, 2013, at WCFC 6 for the WCFC Middleweight Championship. He won the fight via second round TKO. He was then expected to face Max Griffin at WCFC 8 on February 15, 2014, however the bout was cancelled prior to the event.
Smith has two sons. Smith has a younger brother, Shawn, who is also a mixed martial artist. He also has three sisters and an older brother.
M&M’s (styled as m&m’s) are „colorful button-shaped chocolates“ produced by Mars, Incorporated, and similar to and inspired by Smarties. The candy shell, each of which has the letter „m“ printed in lower case on one side, surrounds a filling which varies depending upon the variety of M&M’s. The original candy had a milk chocolate filling which, upon introducing other variations, was branded as the „plain“ variety. „Peanut“ M&M’s, which feature a peanut coated in milk chocolate, and finally a candy shell, were the first variation to be introduced, and they remain a regular variety. Numerous other variations have been introduced, some of which are regular widespread varieties (such as „peanut butter“, „almond“, „pretzel“, „crispy“, and „dark chocolate“), while others are limited in duration or geographic availability.
M&M’s originated in the United States in 1941, and are now sold in as many as 100 countries. More than 400 million individual M&M’s are produced every day in the United States. They are produced in different colors, some of which have changed over the years. The candy-coated chocolate concept was inspired by a method used to allow soldiers to carry chocolate without having it melt. The company’s longest-lasting slogan reflects this: „Melts in your mouth, not in your hand.“
A traditional milk chocolate M&M weighs about 0.91 grams / 0.032 ounces and has about 4.7 kilocalories (kcal) of food energy (1.7 kcal from fat).
Forrest Mars, Sr., son of the founder of the Mars Company Frank C. Mars, copied the idea for the candy in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War when he saw soldiers eating British made Smarties, chocolate pellets with a colored shell of what confectioners call hard panning (essentially hardened sugar syrup) surrounding the outside, preventing the candies from melting. Mars received a patent for his own process on March 3, 1941.[full citation needed] Production began in 1941 in a factory located at 285 Badger Avenue in Clinton Hill, Newark, New Jersey. When the company was originally founded it was M&M Limited. The two „Ms“ represent the names of Forrest E. Mars Sr., the founder of Newark Company, and Bruce Murrie, son of Hershey Chocolate’s president William F. R. Murrie
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, who had a 20 percent share in the product. The arrangement allowed the candies to be made with Hershey chocolate, as Hershey had control of the rationed chocolate at the time.
The demand for the candies during World War II caused an increase in production and its factory moved to bigger quarters at 200 North 12th Street in Newark, New Jersey, where it remained until 1958 when it moved to a bigger factory at Hackettstown. During the war, the candies were exclusively sold to the military.
In 1950, a black „M“ was imprinted on the candies giving them a unique trademark. It was changed to white in 1954.
In the early 1950s, the Midwest Research Institute (now MRIGlobal) in Kansas City, Missouri, worked on behalf of M&M’s to perfect a process whereby 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of chocolate centers could be coated every hour.
Peanut M&M’s were introduced in 1954, but first appeared only in the color tan. They were debuted at the same time as the tagline „Melts in your mouth, not in your hand.“ In 1960, M&M’s added the yellow, red, and green colors.
In the 1980s, M&M’s were introduced internationally to Australia, Canada, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom.
Although they were marketed and then withdrawn in the 1960’s, almond-centered M&M’s hit stores again in 1988 in limited release, with appearances only during Christmas and Easter times; they became a standard part of the product line in 1992.
Also in 1986, M&M’s launched Holidays Chocolate Candies for Easter and Christmas, with the Easter candies having bunny, chick, and egg symbols on pastel-colored shells, and the Christmas candies having pine tree, bell, and candle symbols on red and green shells; with the latter also having a special mint flavor. By 1993, the holiday symbols were replaced with the standard trademark „M“.
In 1991, Peanut Butter M&M’s were released. These candies have peanut butter inside the chocolate center and the same color scheme as the other brands. As of at least 2013, the size of the peanut butter M&M has become slightly smaller.
In 1996, Mars introduced „M&M’s Minis“, smaller candies usually sold in plastic tubes instead of bags.
In 1999, Crispy M&M’s were released. They were slightly larger than the milk chocolate variety and also featured a crispy wafer center. They were discontinued in the United States in 2005
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, and remained available in Europe, and Southeast Asia. On October 2, 2014, it was announced that Crispy M&M’s would return to the United States in January 2015.
In July 2001, Dulce de Leche M&M’s were introduced in five markets with large Hispanic populations: Los Angeles, California; San Diego, California; Miami, Florida; Mcallen-Brownsville, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. The flavor never became popular with the Hispanic community, who preferred existing M&M’s flavors, and it was discontinued in most areas by early 2003.
In 2010, Pretzel M&M’s were released. They contain a crunchy, salty pretzel center inside of the chocolate coating and are about the same size as the Peanut M&M’s, but their shape tends to be more spherical.
In 2013, the M&M’s chocolate bar was re-released. It was originally released in 2004, and named M-Azing.
In 2014, Mega M&M’s were re-introduced. Before then, the ‚Mega M&M’s‘ had been released in 2007 promoting the Shrek Movies, being dubbed „Ogre Sized M&M’s.“
In 2015, Crispy M&M’s were re-introduced in the United States. They had remained available continuously in Europe and Australia.
In 2016 the M&M cookie has been re-introduced in the United States
M&M’s varieties have included the following fillings:
Over the years, marketing has helped build and expand the M&M’s brand. Computer-animated graphics, personification of the candies as characters with cartoon-like storytelling, and various merchandising techniques including the introduction of new flavors, colors and customizable merchandise have helped to increase the brand’s recognition as a candy icon.
In 1982, the Mars candy bar company rejected the inclusion of M&M’s in the new Steven Spielberg movie E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial. Competitor Hershey, on the other hand, took a chance with their Reese’s Pieces, which is similar to M&M’s but contains a peanut butter filling, and with the blockbuster success its candy sales dramatically increased, perhaps by as much as 300%.
In 1990, M&M’s exhibited at New York’s Erie County Fair a life-size fiberglass cow covered with 66,000 M&M candies—each adhered by hand with the „m“ logo on each candy facing outward. According to a website run by the cow’s designer, Michael Adams, the stunt earned M&M Mars $1 million in free publicity because it was reported on by Newsweek magazine, as well as the New York Post, UPI and WABC-TV, and Live with Regis.
In 1995, the company ran the M&M’s Color Campaign, a contest in which participants were given the choice of selecting purple, blue, or pink as the color of a new variety of M&M’s. The announcement of the winning color (blue) was carried on most of the television networks‘ news programs as well as the talk shows of David Letterman and Jay Leno. As part of the contest results, the company had the Empire State Building lighted in blue. Although the financial details of these deals were not disclosed and neither was the campaign’s effect on sales, one marketing book estimated that the company „collected millions“ in free publicity and that the campaign „certainly“ resulted in an increasing of the brand’s awareness.
In 1998, M&M’s were styled as „The Official Candy of the New Millennium,“ as MM is the Roman numeral for 2000. This date was also the release of the rainbow M&M’s, which are multi-coloured and filled with a variety of different fillings.
In 2000, „Plain“ M&M’s (a name created in 1954 when „Peanut“ M&M’s were introduced) were renamed „Milk Chocolate“ M&M’s, and pictures of the candy pieces were added to the traditional brown and white packaging.
In 1990, Mars Snackfood US signed up to be a sponsor for NASCAR. Drivers for the M&M’s-sponsored car through the years have included Ernie Irvan (1999), Ken Schrader (2000–02), Eliott Sadler (2003–06), Ricky Rudd (2007), David Gilliland (2006–07), Kyle Busch (2008-current), and Michael McDowell.
The introduction of the blue M&M to Australia was promoted by the Australian Football League’s Carlton Football Club, which wore sky-blue coloured guernseys in one of its matches in 1997 instead of its traditional navy blue – a color which the successful and fiercely traditional club had worn since the 1870s. In 2010, Mars Snackfood Australia described it as the most successful promotional campaign it had ever engaged in.
In April 2005, M&M’s ran the „mPire“ promotion to tie in with the Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith movie release. M&M’s were offered in dark chocolate varieties (Regular and Peanut) for the first time after a string of Addams Family M&M’s commercials.
In May 2004, M&M’s ran a Shrek 2 promotion to tie in with the movie’s release. M&M’s were offered „ogre-sized“ (65% larger) in swamp/ogre colors. They were sold at many stores displayed in huge cardboard-cutout ogre displays.
In the summer of 2005, Mars added „Mega M&M’s“ to the lineup. These candies, at 55% larger than the traditional M&M’s, were a little smaller than the ogre-sized version. They were available in milk chocolate and peanut varieties. The colors for Mega M&M’s were changed to less-bright colors, ostensibly to appeal to older consumers: teal (replacing green), beige (replacing orange), maroon (replacing red), gold (replacing yellow), blue-gray (replacing blue), and brown.
In July 2006, Dark Chocolate M&M’s reappeared in a purple package, followed in 2007 by Dark Chocolate Peanut M&M’s. Also in 2006, the company piloted White Chocolate M&M’s as a tie-in with their Pirates of the Caribbean promotion. The company also offered eight new flavors of M&M’s via online sales, as well as at M&M’s World locations: „All That Razz“; „Eat, Drink, & Be Cherry“; „A Day at the Peach“; „Orange-U-Glad“; „Mint Condition“; „AlmonDeeLicious“; „Nut What You Think“ and „Cookie Monster“. Mars also released a „Crispy Mint“ variety in Australia that year.
Also in 2006, M&M’s became the official chocolate of NASCAR
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In 2007, M&M’s introduced a limited-edition raspberry flavor called „M&M’s Razzberry Chocolate Candies“.
Also in 2007, M&M’s produced a 50-foot, smiling Lady Liberty M&M statue to kick off a campaign encouraging Americans to create their own M&M characters at mms.com. The website allows for people to log in and create their own character from scratch. They can choose features such as the color, shape, hair and accessories.
In 2008, two limited-edition varieties of the candy were introduced – „Wildly Cherry“ M&M’s, and, as a marketing tie-in with the film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, „Mint Crisp“ M&M’s.
M&M’s also introduced another new product called „M&M’s Premiums“ in 2008. They come in five flavors – chocolate almond, mint chocolate, mocha, raspberry almond, and triple chocolate (milk, dark, and white chocolate), which are sold in small upright cartons with a plastic bag inside. M&M’s Premiums do not have a candy shell but are coated with carnauba wax and color
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. Dark Chocolate was added in 2009, replacing Mocha.
During the summer of 2008, My M&M’s launched ‚Faces,‘ which allows consumers to print the faces of loved ones on M&M’s chocolate candies at mymms.com.
In February 2009, M&M’s launched the „M&M’s Colour Break-Up“ promotion in Australia where M&M’s were sold in separate packs (one for each color): the packs included a code to win prizes.
In Summer 2009, M&M’s launched a limited-edition „Strawberried Peanut Butter“ variant to tie in with the release of Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. In addition, M&M’s launched a limited edition „Coconut M&M’s,“ which became a permanent item in 2010.
In early 2010, M&M’s Bare All were released as part of a competition in Australia and New Zealand. M&M’s Bare All winning packs were ordinary M&M’s, but without colored shells. An official website was launched, along with television advertisements. In April 2010, M&M’s launched a new pretzel variety.
In November 2011, Mars released M&M’s Cinnamon Milk Chocolate for Christmas.
About the time pretzel M&M’s came out, the M&M’s wrapper designs in the U.S. were redone, from the old design, used from 2004-early 2010.
In 2012, M&M’s released two new Dark Chocolate flavors: Raspberry and Mint. Also that year, M&M’s released a White Chocolate flavor for the Easter season. From May 30, 2012 onwards, M&M’s will be launched in Macau. Its Macanese launch language is Portuguese. In 2012, Peanut M&M’s were produced in the UK in a limited edition „Red, White and Blues only“ pack, in connection with the country’s Diamond Jubilee and 2012 Olympics. The trademark ‚M‘ remains white on the white candies. The commercial promoting this promotional package has Yellow donning various outfits of British stereotypes to try and get into the limited edition pack. Simarly, to promote the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Peanut M&M’s were produced in a pack that contained only green, yellow, and blue candies, dubbed „Brazilian M&M’s“ in reference to the colors of the flag of Brazill.
Related candy brands from Mars include Minstrels, Revels, Skittles, and Treets.
M&M’s World specialty shops have been established in some locations, including Las Vegas, New York, and London.
Several M&Ms-themed video games have been created. M&M’s: The Lost Formulas was released on September 28, 2000, and M&M’s: Mini Madness was released on December 14, 2000.
Early black-and-white adverts for the candy in 1954 featured two talking, anthropomorphic M&M characters – one plain and one peanut – diving into a swimming pool full of chocolate.
Concurrent with 1995’s blue M&M campaign, M&M’s introduced computer animated „spokescandies“ in their television commercials. These include the team of the cynical and sardonic Red (originally voiced by Jon Lovitz, thereafter Billy West) who is the mascot for milk chocolate M&M’s, and the happy and gullible Yellow (originally voiced by John Goodman, thereafter J.K. Simmons), who is the mascot for peanut M&M’s (he was originally known as „Peanut“ when first introduced). Other mascots include the „cool one“, Blue (voiced by Phil Hartman until his death in 1998, thereafter Robb Pruitt) who is the mascot for almond M&M’s; the seductive Green (voiced by Cree Summer), who is the mascot for dark chocolate M&M’s (she was previously the mascot for peanut butter and coconut M&Ms); and the slightly neurotic Orange real name Crispy (voiced by Eric Kirchberger), who was introduced when Crispy M&M’s were first released and returned when Pretzel M&M’s debuted in 2010. Orange, upon his return, was joined by the second non-M&M mascot, Pretzel Guy, who „supporting“ him and offering helpful advice as he hates the idea of having a pretzel put inside his body.
Other mascots that were introduced, but no longer used, are Almond, the original green guy; Orange, a female peanut character, Chocolate Bare; the first non-M&M character that always gets foil or out done by Red and Yellow by being melted when M&M’s can, and the Swarmees for M&M’s Minis candies, which are portrayed as destructive yet crafty troublemakers who Red and Yellow are always trying unsuccessfully to contain.
Female M&M’s mascots were introduced in 1995. Green was the milk chocolate mascot and Tan was the peanut. Marketing discontinued Tan when they introduced the then new Blue mascot. Green was the only female M&M’s mascot from her introduction in 1995 until 2012, when M&M’s unveiled a new additional spokescandy, the businesslike Ms. Brown (voiced by Vanessa Williams), the „Chief Chocolate Officer.“ She made her debut in a Super Bowl XLVI advertisement, where several people at a party assume she is naked because her shell is the same color as her insides, which causes Red to remove his outer shell thinking „it’s that kind of party“, and start dancing to „I’m Sexy And I Know It“ by LMFAO.
In early 1995, Mars ran a promotion in which consumers were invited to vote on which of blue, pink, or purple would replace the tan M&M’s. Blue was the winner, replacing tan in the fall of 1995. Consumers could vote by calling 1-800-FUN-COLOR. Ads for the new blue colors featured a plain and an almond blue M&M character as Red and Yellow take notice of trying to do takes in the commercial by painting themselves blue where they appear on stage with B.B. King singing the blues, but the filmmakers had to cut the scene as they were not the real blue M&M’s
; another featured Red and Yellow holding their breath to look like the new blue M&M’s, where Steven Weber sees the three M&M’s, Red, Yellow, and Blue; and one more featuring Weber talking to the blue M&M if he had dived into the chocolate pool, but did not.
In 2002, Mars solicited votes in their first ever „M&M’s Global Color Vote“ to add a new color from three choices: aqua (turquoise), pink, and purple. This time, purple won and was featured for a limited time. To help the colors get votes, Ken Schrader and his MB2 Motorsports team, who was sponsored by M&M’s at the time, ran four paint schemes during the 2002 NASCAR Winston Cup Series season representing the promotion (one for aqua, one for pink, one for purple, and another one with all three colors on the car.) Specially marked packages of M&M’s were released in Japan. If you happened to find all purple M&M’s in a bag you won 100 million yen (equivalent to approximately $852,000).
On January 1, 2004, at the stroke of midnight, Mars removed all of the colors of M&M’s and made them black-and-white on both their candies and the packaging. It coincided with a commercial parodying The Wizard of Oz where Dorothy is home in bed and looks out of the window and sees what the colors of the four M&M’s were. The goal was to help the M&M’s find their colors in black-and-white packages of M&M’s, in this order: brown, orange, red, green, yellow, and blue. After all of the colors have been found, the colored packaging returned, and began carrying the theme „Chocolate is better in color“.
Since 2004 M&M’s have been available online in 17 colors, with personalized phrases on each candy on the opposite side from the „m“. Released around Christmas, these custom-printed M&M’s were originally intended for holiday greetings, but are now available all year round.
For the 2008 Valentine’s Day season, Mars introduced all-green bags of M&M’s. This was due to common urban folklore that says green M&M’s are an aphrodisiac. They were brought back for 2009 alongside the „Ms. Green Heats Up Valentine’s Day“ contest.
In October 2011, Mars released M&M’s White Chocolate Candy Corn exclusively in the United States for Halloween. These candies come in three colors: white, bright yellow, and bright orange (the colors of candy corn).
The following is a summary of the changes to the colors of the flagship (milk chocolate) flavor of M&M’s, the only filling manufactured continuously since the beginning of the brand. From 1941 until 1969, each package contained M&M’s in five different colors; when red M&M’s were reintroduced in 1987, they were added as a sixth color instead of replacing any of the existing colors.
Red candies were eliminated in 1976 because of health concerns over the dye amaranth (FD&C Red #2), which was a suspected carcinogen, and were replaced with orange-colored candies. This was done despite the fact that M&M’s did not contain the dye; the action was purely to satisfy worried consumers. Red candies were reintroduced ten years later, but they also kept the orange colored M&M’s. Paul Hethmon, then a student at University of Tennessee, started the campaign to bring back red M&M’s as a joke that would eventually become a worldwide phenomenon.
James Adam (21 July 1732 – 20 October 1794) was a Scottish architect and furniture designer, but was often overshadowed by his older brother and business partner, Robert Adam. They were sons of architect William Adam.
In 1755 James worked on Gunsgreen House in the Berwickshire town of Eyemouth.
In 1758, Robert, James, and their younger brother William Adam started their business in London (living in Lower Grosvenor Street), focusing on designing complete schemes for the decoration and furnishing of houses. Palladian design was popular, but Robert had evolved a new
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. The Adam brothers’ success can also be attributed to a desire to design everything down to the smallest detail, ensuring a sense of unity in their designs.
He then followed in Robert’s footsteps by undertaking the Grand Tour, leaving in May 1760 to October 1763, when he arrive back in London.
James succeeded Robert as Architect of the King’s Works in 1768 just before work on the brothers‘ Adelphi project (1768–1772) almost bankrupted the firm (the business employed other notable architects including Joseph Bonomi (1739–1808) who, from 1768, remained with the Adams until 1781).
From 1771-5 he was engaged with his brother in the design and building of Wedderburn Castle near Duns, Berwickshire
James emerged from his brother’s shadow after Robert’s death in 1792, designing several notable buildings in Glasgow, including the old Infirmary (1792; demolished 1907), Assembly Rooms (1794; demolished in 1890) and the Tron Kirk (1794). He also designed Portland Place in central London. However, his glory was short-lived — he died at his home in London’s Albermarle Street in October 1794.
During their lifetime Robert and James Adam published two volumes of their designs, Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (in 1773–1778 and 1779; a third volume was published posthumously, in 1822).