Peter Gemeinhardt (* 3. Januar 1970 in Hamburg) ist ein deutscher evangelischer Theologe. Er ist seit 2007 Professor für Kirchengeschichte an der Theologischen Fakultät der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen und ab 2015 Sprecher des DFG-Sonderforschungsbereichs „Bildung und Religion in den Kulturen des Mittelmeerraums und seiner Umwelt von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter und zum Klassischen Islam“.
Gemeinhardt studierte von 1990 bis 1996 evangelische Theologie in Marburg und Göttingen und war Stipendiat der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes. 2001 promovierte er bei Wolfgang Bienert in Marburg im Fach Kirchengeschichte. 2003 wurde Gemeinhardt zum Pfarrer der Evangelischen Kirche von Kurhessen-Waldeck (EKKW) ordiniert. Von 2003 bis 2006 war er Martin-Bucer-Stipendiat der EKKW und habilitierte sich 2006 bei Martin Wallraff für das Fach Kirchengeschichte an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, an der er von 2006 bis 2007 die Professur für Kirchengeschichte (Patristik) vertrat. 2006 erhielt er einen Ruf auf die Professur für Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte (Schwerpunkt: Alte Kirche) an der Evangelisch-Theologischen Fakultät der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 2007 einen Ruf auf die Professur für Kirchengeschichte an der Theologischen Fakultät der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Von 2013 bis 2014 war er Studiendekan der Theologischen Fakultät Rucksack MCM.
Zum 1. Juli wurde der von ihm initiierte Sonderforschungsbereich „Bildung und Religion in den Kulturen des Mittelmeerraums und seiner Umwelt von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter und zum Klassischen Islam“ (SFGB 1136) von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) genehmigt, der für zunächst drei Jahre mit insgesamt 6,7 Millionen Euro gefördert wird.
Gemeinhardt war von 2010 bis 2014 Sprecher des Courant-Forschungszentrums EDRIS (Education and Religion From Early Imperial Roman Times to the Classical Period of Islam) an der Universität Göttingen und von 2007 bis 2012 Mitglied des Trägerkreises des DFG-Graduiertenkollegs „Götterbilder – Gottesbilder – Weltbilder“. Seit 2007 ist er Mitglied des Wissenschaftlichen Beirats des Konfessionskundlichen Instituts des Evangelischen Bundes in Bensheim/Bergstraße.
Peter Gemeinhardt ist mit der Lehrerin Bettina Gemeinhardt, geb. Süß, verheiratet. Sie haben drei Kinder Rucksack MCM.
The ultramarine flycatcher or the white-browed blue flycatcher (Ficedula superciliaris) is a small arboreal Old World flycatcher in the ficedula family that breeds in the foothills of the Himalayas and winters in southern India.
Summer: Common breeding visitor to the western Himalayas, from Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh to Uttarakhand (western race), and intergrading within Nepal with the eastern race aestigma which continues in the eastern Himalayas through Bhutan to Arunachal Pradesh. Breeding between 2000–2700 m, occasionally as low as 1800 and as high as 3200 m. Also in the lower hills of Meghalaya and Nagaland, Khasi and Cachar hills, sometimes considered a third race; winter movements of this population is not known. Habitat: Open, mixed forests of oak, rhododendron, pine, fir, etc., occasionally orchards.
Winter: Central India from Delhi south to northern Maharashtra, Goa, northern Maharashtra, and eastward to Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Wintering populations in the eastern states, possibly from Nepal/Sikkim, are mixed: a good part of this population also have white supercilium and basal tail patches (see description below).
Somewhat smaller than a sparrow (ca. 10 cm) and with a stocky build
. The male is deep blue above, sides of head and neck are deep blue, and a prominent white patch runs from centre of throat, through breast to belly. The amount of white on the brow and tail show clinal variation from West to East along the Himalayan foothills, which is sometimes taken to distinguish three races:
Usually singly, though sometimes in mixed hunting parties in the winter. Keeps largely to the low trees and bushes, feeding among the foliage canopy, not venturing much into the open. Constantly jerks up its tail, often accompanied by fluffing of head feathers and trrr note, especially in proximity of nest. Diet is mainly insects.
Dragon Age: Origins is a role-playing video game developed by BioWare’s Edmonton studio and published by Electronic Arts. It is the first game in the Dragon Age franchise. The game was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 on November 3, 2009, and for Mac OS X on December 21, 2009.
Set in the fictional kingdom of Ferelden during a period of civil strife, the game puts the player in the role of a warrior, mage or rogue coming from an elven, human, or dwarven background who must unite the kingdom to fight an impending invasion by demonic forces known as the „Darkspawn“. The player character is recruited as a Grey Warden and is tasked to defeat the Archdemon (a being with the soul of an old god in the body of a powerful Dragon) that commands the Darkspawn, and end the catastrophe known as the Blight. BioWare described the game as a spiritual successor to their previous Baldur’s Gate and Neverwinter Nights franchises. The game is played from a third-person perspective that can be shifted to top-down perspective. Throughout the game, players encounter various companions, who play major roles in the game’s plot and accompany the player throughout the game.
BioWare described Dragon Age: Origins as a „dark heroic fantasy“ set in a unique world. Its setting was inspired by The Lord of the Rings and A Song of Ice & Fire, and was described by BioWare as a mix between high fantasy and low fantasy. Development of the game began in 2002, and lasted over six years. BioWare employed more than 144 voice-actors, and hired Inon Zur to compose the game’s music.
Origins received critical acclaim upon release, with praise mostly directed at its story, setting, characters, music and combat system. It sold more than 3.2 million copies, and 1 million pieces of downloadable content. Its multiple year-end accolades included Game of the Year and Best Role-playing awards from several gaming publications. BioWare released an expansion pack for the game titled Awakening in March 2010, and two sequels, Dragon Age II and Dragon Age: Inquisition, were released in 2011 and 2014 respectively.
Dragon Age: Origins is an action role-playing game. The player is a Grey Warden, part of an order of elite fighters, whose task is to defeat the Archdemon and save the world from a disastrous event called the Blight. Players create their own Grey Warden character, customizing gender and appearance as well as choosing a race and class. The available classes are warriors, who perform strong physical attacks; rogues, who carry out stealth attacks and steal items from other characters; and mages, who cast spells on enemies, create combo spells, and support other party members. The three choices of race are human, elf, and dwarf. The combination of class and race determines which of six different origin stories the player experiences: Dalish Elf, City Elf, Dwarven Noble, Dwarven Commoner, Mage, or Human Noble. This affects the way other in-game characters perceive the player’s character; for instance, a Dwarven Commoner would receive hatred and discrimination from other dwarves. However, all classes follow the same plot after the completion of the origin story.
During gameplay the player encounters a variety of enemies, including giant spiders, darkspawn, ghosts, walking trees, and dragons. They also recruit companions, who accompany them and provide assistance in battle. These companions are normally controlled by artificial intelligence, with behavior that the player can adjust through the „Tactic“ menu, but the player also has the option to switch between characters, and is able to issue orders to them in real-time or pause the game to queue up actions.
Utilizing a third-person perspective, the combat in Origins is largely similar to BioWare’s previous Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic. The player and any companions engage in combat with the weapons they have equipped when the player targets or is noticed by a hostile enemy. Players can swap weapons and perform special attacks during combat, but most of these attacks have a recharge time. The point of view can be shifted from third person to a top-down view, where friendly and hostile units are labelled with different colors to distinguish them. At the end of a battle the characters‘ health and stamina, which powers a character’s skills, are automatically refilled. When an enemy is defeated, the player collects any items or loot from its corpse.
The player can level up their Warden character by earning experience points through completing quests and defeating enemies. Each time player levels up, they receive three points to spend on the character’s six attributes. Strength inflicts more damage, dexterity helps evade attacks more often, willpower increases stamina, magic increases spell damage or magic defense, cunning improves combat tactics, and constitution helps withstand attacks. Special skills, which are divided into four different aspects for each class, and specialization options, which offer class-specific skills, can also be unlocked by levelling up.
Players can be accompanied by a maximum of three companions. Companions who are not in the player’s active party stay in base camp, a hub where the player can talk to their party members as well as purchase new weapons, armor, and gear. In addition to the main story, the player can learn more about the world of Thedas by collecting the Indexes scattered throughout the game.
The game’s dialogue engine is the same as that of Mass Effect. The player can talk and interact with both party members and other non-playable characters. A dialogue tree offers several dialogue options for the player to select. Through conversation, the player can unlock unique quests and dialogue revealing the lore of Dragon Age. It can also be used to persuade or intimidate other characters. The player often must choose between morally ambiguous options, which result in consequences that affect the game’s world and progression, and can even lead to the death of a potential companion. Companions react to the player’s choices through an „approval system“. When they dislike or object to the player’s decisions, their approval drops, which can result in a companion leaving the party or even attacking the Warden. Approval points can also be influenced by gifts, which will improve any companion’s approval but are each intended for a specific companion. Some gifts, if given to the right character, start a cutscene and can even unlock a quest. A high approval rating improves a companion’s morale and gives bonuses to their combat abilities. A significant approval rating also makes it possible for the Warden to pursue a romantic relationship with certain companions. The game’s „interaction reactivity“ system means that the way a player treats one companion affects the approval rating of other companions as well.
The game is set in Ferelden, one of several countries in the mythical continent Thedas. Demonic creatures called the Darkspawn dwell within the Deep Roads, an underground highway system created by the dwarves long ago, deep beneath the surface of Thedas. Every few hundred years, the Darkspawn swarm the surface world in a movement known as a Blight. Ever since the first Blight, Thedas has relied on the legendary order of warriors known as the Grey Wardens to drive the Darkspawn back. Dragon Age: Origins begins on the eve of Thedas’s fifth Blight.
Thedas is a world in which race and class combine to determine social class. Elves are often viewed as second-class citizens by humans, while human nobles are treated with respect. Mages, on the other hand, are cloistered by the Chantry: they have access to the Fade, the unconscious realm that is the home of spirits, and a single lapse in vigilance could cause them to be possessed by demons. Apostate mages, who live outside the Chantry’s control, are considered extremely dangerous, and the Chantry has a militant wing, the Templars, to seek them out and subdue them by any means necessary.
The chief protagonist of Dragon Age: Origins is the player-controlled character, whose biography and combat specialization are determined by the race and class chosen at the start of the game. While the player can choose his or her avatar’s first name, the character is usually referred to as „The Warden“ by other characters and the game’s narration.
Many of the game’s non-player characters (NPCs) are companion characters, who appear throughout the game and may volunteer their services. Companions include Alistair, a reluctantly heroic Grey Warden with a sarcastic wit; Morrigan, the sultry but cynical dark mage who has little regard for authority or social mores; Leliana, an ex-member of Ferelden’s Chantry whose optimistic and virtuous demeanor belies an aptitude for espionage and combat; Sten, a proud but stoic warrior of the militaristic Qunari people who often questions human ways; Oghren, a brutal dwarven warrior whose love of alcohol is only matched by his penchant for violence and loyalty to his friends; Wynne, an Elder Mage of the Circle, a maternal figure to the party and a powerful healer; Zevran, a rakish elven assassin who is fond of treasures, sex and innuendo; and a loyal Mabari War Hound, which the player can name and use for scouting and combat. In the DLC, Shale, a sarcastic Golem with a mild ornithophobia who was a female dwarf in her prior life, is also available.
Outside of companion characters, NPCs significant to the Origins plot include Duncan, the Grey Warden who recruits the player; King Cailan, Ferelden’s naive but courageous leader and son of the legendary King Maric; Queen Anora, Cailan’s politically-savvy wife, whose youth and beauty are matched by a commanding personality but somewhat offset by her ambition and ruthlessness; and Flemeth, Morrigan’s mother, who appears to be a harmless old woman in public, but in truth is an infamous dark witch of Ferelden legend
The faceless Darkspawn horde is led by the archdemon Urthemiel, supposedly one of the Old Gods of the Tevinter Imperium in the form of a powerful and corrupted dragon with total control over the darkspawn. The game’s other main antagonists are Teyrn Loghain Mac Tir, father of Queen Anora, a once-respected war hero gone mad with ambition and paranoia; and Rendon Howe, the amoral and corrupt Arl of Amaranthine who allies with Loghain to further his own ambitions.
Depending on the player’s chosen race and class, they will begin the game with one of six predetermined origin stories. In each origin story, the player is introduced to Duncan, the commander of Ferelden’s Grey Wardens, who is trying to find recruits to join the order. At the end of the origin story, the player’s character is selected as a potential Grey Warden, and leaves with Duncan.
The player and Duncan journey to a fortress in southern Ferelden called Ostagar. There, they join Cailan, the King of Ferelden, and his father-in-law Loghain, a legendary general. The three leaders plan to make a stand against the encroaching Darkspawn before a new Blight overwhelms Ferelden. Duncan senses the influence of an Archdemon, a god-like being hosted in the body of a powerful Dragon that commands the Darkspawn, which makes this the first true Blight in over 400 years. Duncan emphasizes the importance of defeating the Blight before it can gain enough momentum to threaten the rest of Thedas.
Duncan initiates the player into the Grey Wardens through a dangerous ritual called the Joining. The Joining involves imbibing Darkspawn blood, which will either kill a person or imbue them with the powerful darkspawn essence known as the Taint, granting them the ability to sense Darkspawn and a rudimentary connection into their hive mind. After surviving the Joining, the player and another Grey Warden, Alistair, are given the task of lighting a beacon at the top of the fortress which will signal Loghain’s men to charge the horde’s flank. However, upon seeing the signal, Loghain abandons the battlefield with his army. Without Loghain’s reinforcements, King Cailan and Duncan are overwhelmed and slain by the Darkspawn horde, who massacre Cailan’s army, seize control of Ostagar and begin advancing into southern Ferelden.
The player’s Warden and Alistair are saved by Flemeth, a powerful witch who lives in a secluded hermitage with her daughter and apprentice, Morrigan. The player, Alistair, and Morrigan decide that in order to stop the Blight from destroying Ferelden, and possibly all of Thedas, they will need to gather a new army and slay the Archdemon. Using ancient Grey Warden treaties, the player’s Warden must travel across Ferelden to enlist the aid of the Dalish Elves, the Dwarves of Orzammar, the Circle of Magi, and the soldiers of Redcliffe, loyal to Arl Eamon. In addition, Alistair reveals that he is a bastard son of King Maric Theirin, Cailin’s father, putting him in contention for the recently vacated throne.
Meanwhile, Loghain returns to Ferelden’s capital city, Denerim, to inform his daughter Queen Anora of King Cailan’s death. Loghain uses the Grey Wardens as a scapegoat, blaming them for abandoning the battle and betraying Ferelden, outlawing the order and calling for the deaths of any remaining Wardens. While Anora inherits her husband’s authority, Loghain quickly declares himself her regent and effectively seizes control of the kingdom. Loghain swiftly becomes a brutal and tyrannical ruler willing to do anything to retain power, igniting a civil war between himself and Ferelden’s nobility, who refuse to acknowledge his authority. Both sides battle to an inconclusive stalemate, and the darkspawn take advantage of the chaos to advance further into Ferelden unopposed.
After the player successfully obtains the assistance of each of the primary factions, a Landsmeet is called among the nobles of Ferelden. There, the player confronts Loghain, ultimately either executing him or making him a Grey Warden. The player also settles who will lead Ferelden against the Blight and rallies support from the rest of the kingdom to face the Darkspawn. At this point, the player learns that only a Grey Warden can slay the Archdemon because of the Taint present in a Grey Warden’s body. Killing the Archdemon releases the demonic essence within it, which is drawn to the Taint in the Grey Warden and effectively kills them as well; if anyone other than a Warden slays it, the Archdemon’s essence survives and finds a new host in the nearest Darkspawn, making the monster effectively immortal.
On the night before the final battle, Morrigan offers the player’s Warden a way to slay the Archdemon without sacrificing anyone: Morrigan believes that if the player succeeds in conceiving a child with her, the child would also carry the Taint. Once the Archdemon dies, its demonic essence would be drawn away from any Grey Warden to safely merge with the unborn child instead. The resulting child would be born a demigod, which she plans to raise on her own. The player can accept Morrigan’s offer, convince Alistair or Loghain to take part instead, or refuse the witch’s proposal, which will cause her to leave the party.
The next day, the player and the newly assembled army of Ferelden fight their way through the city of Denerim, which has been overrun by the Darkspawn. After fighting their way through the Darkspawn horde, and a final battle against the Archdemon atop Denerim’s highest tower, the player is given the chance to deliver the killing blow or to let Alistair or Loghain do it. With each choice the Archdemon is killed and the leaderless Darkspawn army retreats from Denerim, marking the end of the Fifth Blight. Unless the ritual with Morrigan was performed, whoever slew the Archdemon also perishes. The story ends with a ceremony attended by the people of Ferelden during which the player and their companions are honored for saving the kingdom. The game then presents an epilogue in text and pictures which details the ramifications of the player’s in-game choices on the future of Ferelden and the lives of his or her companions.
Dragon Age: Origins was created by the Edmonton studio of BioWare, the developer of Neverwinter Nights and Jade Empire. Development of the game began in November 2002. It was officially revealed at E3 2004 as simply Dragon Age, and was re-revealed as Dragon Age: Origins in July 2008, alongside a new trailer for the game. According to BioWare, they kept any information about the game hidden from the public, to further the game’s design and technology. More than 180 people worked on the game, and full-scale production began three years after the game’s initial development. The subtitle „Origins“ was chosen to represent the six origins storyline, BioWare’s return to PC role-playing games, and the beginning of a new franchise. Origins is a spiritual successor to Baldur’s Gate and Neverwinter Nights, as an attempt to build a similar fantasy RPG without any licensing restrictions or issues. The similarities are mostly present in gameplay elements, such as real-time tactical combat; the game does not share the Dungeons and Dragons setting of the Baldur’s Gate series, and is instead set in a period resembling the Stone Age or Iron Age, with dragons prevalent.
David Gaider, the lead writer for Origins, built the game’s world first before writing the plot. The team chose a „fantasy“ setting because Dan Tudge, the game’s director, thought that BioWare was at its best in the fantasy genre. In the first draft, there were no Darkspawn or Grey Wardens, and mages were not allowed to use magic in cities. There were twelve different origin stories, including Human Commoner and Avvar, a barbarian origin. However, most of them were scrapped for being „ridiculous“, leading to six stories being finalized. Loghain was the first character to be created, while an Ogre, nicknamed „Fluffy“, and a human with medium armor were the first enemies designed. The concepts of Alistair and Morrigan were the next to be created, as they play the largest role in the game’s plot. Their creation also took far longer than other characters. Morrigan was originally conceived to be similar to Flemeth, speaking whimsically. However, Gaider was not satisfied and decided to completely rewrite her personality. As a result, she was designed as a „blunt“ person who always resists her mother. Finding a suitable voice actor for Morrigan took the most time of any character. The game’s final version features 68,260 lines of dialogue; the quality assurance testers for the game enabled a cheat to automatically skip these cutscenes and dialogues during test runs.
Ray Muzyka, co-founder of BioWare, said that the team wanted to try something that would be new but familiar to most players. They hoped that Origins would redefine the genre to become The Lord of the Rings of video game franchises. Greg Zeschuk, another co-founder of BioWare, described the fantasy of Dragon Age as in between the high fantasy of J. R. R. Tolkien’s works and the low fantasy of works by George R.R. Martin. The goal was a „dark heroic fantasy“ that would suit the taste of any fan of the genre. Thus, while the game has the typical races of human, elf, and dwarf, they are slightly altered from the usual nature of the three races, and a new lizard-like race called the Qunari was introduced. Some of the alterations they made included flipping how certain races, like elves, are treated in other fictional worlds. While elves are often described as a race of high prestige in fiction, Dragon Age: Origins presents them as slaves of humans, labelled as second class citizens who resent the human race. This extended to the gameplay, where the player can choose to discriminate against other races, and can experience discrimination from others based on their choices.
We don’t constrain what they do. We don’t strive for gratuitous content. But we also ask the teams to choose a direction and then run with it. That was their choice. That’s how they wanted to depict the romantic liaisons in the game, so that’s what we did.
BioWare recognized that non-linear choices are an element unique to video games in the entertainment industry. Zeschuk called the sheer number of choices in the game „big“ and „impactful“, and the team designed many of those to be emotional and create a more personal experience for the player. They intentionally avoided adding a karma system, as the choices are designed to be ambiguous, with only the player to judge whether they are good or bad. According to Muzyka, their goal was to make players sympathize with events and characters, connecting with them to feel true emotions. This vision challenged the team to balance many key aspects, such as the amount of dialogue and animation in each cutscene, to create a believable scenario for players.
The team also hoped to handle romance in a more „mature“ and „complicated“ way, with a true reflection on human relationships and reactions rather than „adolescent titillation“. The game has sex scenes, but no nudity. Muzyka added that it was an artistic choice, and a decision made by the team, not the publisher Electronic Arts.
While Origins is a single-player-only game, Muzyka described it as a „social experience“, considering the narrative and its variety of paths as an integral part of the gameplay. The characters a player meets, items they collect, and quests they receive and complete may be different, leading to a completely different experience. He also considered the ways a player explores the world and discovers new areas as an exploration narrative. As each player had different experience, they hoped that those players would collaborate to expand upon their knowledge of the world. To that effect, the team built a community site as an online social environment for players to communicate. Players could share stats and automatically generated screenshots with the community.
The game features an orchestral soundtrack with choir, used both in-game and during cutscenes. The soundtrack was recorded by performance of a 44-piece orchestra, recorded twice and merged to sound like an 88-piece orchestra. It was composed by Inon Zur and performed by the Northwest Sinfonia. According to Zur, he intentionally made most of the soundtrack feel „dark“, combining low brass and bass string instruments with ancient drums to express a feeling that is both heroic and demonic. One of the tracks, „Leliana’s Song“, was composed in under 24 hours. The soundtrack was presented at a panel in the Hollywood Music in Media Interactive Conference in 2009, and was performed as part of the September 26 „A Night in Fantasia 2009“ concert in Sydney, Australia, by the Eminence Symphony Orchestra.
Origins contains a large amount of voice acting recorded in the US and the UK. Actors include Tim Russ, Steve Valentine, Kate Mulgrew, Simon Templeman, Mark Rolston, Tim Curry, Adam Howden, Nicola Bertram, and Claudia Black. In total, more than 140 voice actors worked on the game. A large part of these recordings became the ambient dialogue that takes place between non-player characters in the adventuring party, adding to their backstories and lending more credibility to the characters. Mark Darrah, executive producer of BioWare, described the cast of characters the largest of any of their games at that time, and hoped that using celebrities would add a layer of depth and complexity to the characters. The main protagonist is not voice-acted, as the team hoped that players would „reflect their own inner voice“ when making decisions.
While the game was originally intended for PC, a console version was announced in 2008 by gaming magazine Game Informer. Prior to the announcement, Zeschuk suggested that the entire franchise has a „console future“. The decision was made to bring the game to consoles to introduce it to a wider audience. Mike Laidlaw, the game’s lead designer, considered creating the console versions‘ interface a challenge, as they has to convert the long and complex quickbar from the PC version to a more streamlined interface that could use the same actions with only few button presses. To that end, the team decided to map six different actions together, and allow players to customize the arrangement. Also, the console version does not allow the top-down view possible in the PC version.
The game was originally set to be released in early 2009 for Microsoft Windows, and later for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. The team partnered with Edge of Reality to develop the console versions of the game. However, its release date was pushed to the latter half of that year in order to have a simultaneous launch. BioWare announced that the game would be released on October 20, 2009, but pushed it back again to November 6, 2009, as the team wanted additional time to finalize some last-minute decisions. The PlayStation 3 version was at one point delayed to November 17, but did end up launching alongside the other versions. A Mac version of the game, developed by TransGaming, was released on December 21, 2009.
In addition to the standard version, other editions of Origins were made available for purchase. The Collector’s Edition came in a SteelBook with different artwork. Like the standard edition, the Collector’s Edition included a redemption code to obtain the Stone Prisoner and Blood Dragon Armor DLC for free, but added three additional exclusive in-game items, a bonus disc containing a making-of documentary, concept art, trailers, the game’s original soundtrack, and a cloth map of Ferelden. The „Ultimate Edition“, released on October 26, 2010, includes the base game, the Awakening expansion pack, and all 9 DLC packs.
The Dragon Age Character Creator was released on October 13, 2009, allowing players to create a character in advance and import it into the full game upon release. BioWare also released a „developer-grade“ toolset to allow extensive modification and customization of the game’s PC version. Players can use these tools to craft new campaigns, quests, cinematics, and lip-syncing.
On November 26, 2009, Electronic Arts announced a competition called Dragon Age: Warden’s Quest. Contestants formed groups of four people and competed to adventure through the game’s world, with the winning group receiving $12,500. The representatives from Hungary won the contest, followed by a group called Bioware Community, Canada and a group from Poland. On March 9, 2011, Electronic Arts announced that players who pre-ordered Darkspore would receive a free copy of Origins. In 2012, to celebrate the first-year anniversary of Electronic Arts‘ own digital distribution software Origin, the game was made free to download alongside Battlefield: Bad Company 2 and Spore for a limited time. On October 8, 2015, it became free to download again for a limited time as part of Origin’s On the House program.
BioWare announced that they would support the game with downloadable content for at least 2 years. The DLC packs are both story-based and content-based, and added in elements that were cut from the base game, such as Shale, a stone-based companion who always gets stuck in doors and causes trouble with the camera system. A crossover with Mass Effect 2, an item called the Blood Armor, is also available for purchase.
Dragon Age: Origins received critical acclaim from major video game critics upon its release. While the game is considered to be virtually identical across all platforms, differences in user interface, graphical performance, and online content delivery have led the PC version to be reviewed more favorably than the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 versions; Metacritic ranks the PC, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 versions of the game with scores of 91, 87, and 86, respectively.
The game’s setting was well received by critics. Dave Snider from Giant Bomb thought that the setting felt traditional due to the presence of dwarves and elves, but that the world was beautifully executed. He also appreciated the small touches BioWare added to the world, noting the „French-tinged accent“ of the Orlesian Empire humans. He added that the six origin stories and their unique dialogue and referencing throughout the game make the world feel cohesive. Kevin VanOrd from GameSpot made similar comments, stating that the new ideas added to a familiar world make it feel original and new. However, Jeff Haynes from IGN said that the origin stories were inconsistent, with missteps that make the world, while „rich and vivid“, feel less believable. Joe Juba from Game Informer wrote that the world was well-realized with a deep history, which makes the game addicting, as players can sense their Warden’s importance in the world.
The game’s story and characters also received praise. Snider said that the story is driven by the characters, and that the choices presented in the game were difficult, making him regret some choices for weeks after completing the game. He added that the game’s main quest was well-written, and its quality boosted by excellent voice acting; he called the performance of Claudia Black as Morrigan one of the best in the game. VanOrd commended the game’s story, saying that it was memorable and crafted with care, successfully making players care about the game’s world and characters. He added that the deep character development made every choice „momentous“. GamesRadar thought that the story and the Warden’s appearance felt generic, but that the story become more and more engrossing as it progressed. Nick Tan from Game Revolution liked the banter between companions as a humorous change of pace within the game. Gerald Villoria from GameSpy praised the exclusion of the moral system for making the characters feel more complex. Juba wrote that the story was good but predictable, not straying far from standard fantasy stories. Wesley Yin-Poole from VideoGamer.com called the story memorable, saying that it „leaves an itch in your mind“, and has attracted players to return to the game „like an addict seeking a hit of relief.“
As for the game’s combat, Snider called it streamlined, but said that players who do not want to use the pause mechanic would not be able to appreciate the game, as the combat requires both patience and strategy. He liked the game’s third-person view more than the top-down view, saying that being able to view the sky made environments feel more complicated, and praised the high difficulty of boss battles, which task players to manage their stamina carefully. His conclusion was that Origins „feels like a real throwback to the good old days of PC role-playing epics.“ VanOrd said that the combat system was easily recognizable for players who have played other RPGs developed by BioWare. He added that players can have a lot of fun switching between characters, and agreed that the game had created thrilling boss battles. He praised the choice to have health and stamina replenish immediately after battles, as it sped up combat pace and flow. Tan also commended the combat, finding it a better system than other BioWare RPGs, but disliked the fact that characters can step into water. Juba praised the amount of space for players to experiment with new skills and abilities, adding that the required focus and attention make combat very satisfying.
The game’s graphics received mixed reviews. VanOrd was not impressed, stating that the environments do not look as good viewed from a top-down perspective, but he praised the art style and some of the game’s „eye-catching“ landmarks. Tan liked that the environments were varied and unique, saying that each level felt „vast“ and filled with details. Villoria found its visual quality lacking when compared with that of Mass Effect 2, adding that the facial animation can feel wooden at times. However, he found the combat animation rewarding and satisfying. He further criticized the sex sequences as „off-putting“. Yin-Poole said that the game’s graphics were boring and generic, and called the sex scenes „anti-climatic“ and poorly-executed. Both Villoria and Yin-Poole felt that the six-year development time was too long, considering the game’s mediocre graphics.
GamesRadar estimated that there are more than 80 hours of content available in the game. Villoria called the world engaging, and its replay value very high, as players can play the story over and over again with a different origin. Juba agreed, as did Yin-Poole, who added that the way companions react to the player’s decisions, as well as the six origin stories, significantly expand the game’s longevity.
Dragon Age: Origins topped Steam’s sales chart on November 10, 2009. The Digital Deluxe version of the game was ranked first place, with the standard edition ranked second. The Xbox 360 version of the game was the ninth-best-selling game in the US according to the NPD Group, selling approximately 362,100 copies. According to John Riccitiello, CEO of Electronic Arts, the company is very satisfied with the sales of Origins; more than 1 million DLC packs for the game were sold before the end of 2009. In February 2010, Electronic Arts announced that more than 3.2 million copies of the game had been sold.
Origins gained recognition from several gaming publications for its achievements. The Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences named it the „Role-Playing/Massively Multiplayer Game of the Year 2009“. At the 2009 Spike Video Game Awards, Dragon Age: Origins received the Best PC Game and Best RPG awards. It was chosen as the PC Game of the Year, Best Xbox 360 RPG of the Year, Best Story of the Year, and Best PC Role-Playing Game of the Year by IGN. The game also received Giant Bomb’s Best PC Game of 2009 award, and Game of the Year 2009 and RPG of the Year awards from U.S. PC Gamer. In 2010, the game was included as one of the titles in the book 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die.
Although the name „Origins“ hinted that the game would be a beginning of a new franchise, the team did not expect the game to become successful, and had never planned for sequels. Due to its success, the game spawned a Dragon Age franchise consisting of video games, comics, and novels. The game’s sequel, Dragon Age II, was announced on July 9, 2010, with the goal of bringing improved graphics and combat to the franchise. Dragon Age II is set within a ten-year period and features a new predefined protagonist, Hawke, and a new locale within the Dragon Age world, the city of Kirkwall. Players are able to transfer save data from Dragon Age: Origins into the sequel; decisions that the player made during the course of Dragon Age: Origins are referenced while playing Dragon Age II.
The third installment of the series, titled Dragon Age: Inquisition, was announced on September 17, 2012. In Inquisition, players take on the role of an Inquisitor, and must unite Ferelden and Orlais to defeat an ancient Darkspawn called Corypheus. The game was released on November 18, 2014, and in addition to the original three gaming platforms, it brought the Dragon Age franchise to the eighth generation of video game consoles: PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.
A free-to-play mobile game, Heroes of Dragon Age, was released in 2013.
Coordinates: 50°51′33″N 0°42′46″W / 50.85928°N 0.71266°W / 50.85928; -0.71266
Boxgrove is a village and civil parish in the Chichester District of the English county of West Sussex, about five kilometres (3.5 miles) north east of the city of Chichester. The village is just south of the A285 road which follows the line of the Roman road Stane Street.
The parish has an area of 1,169 hectares (2,890 acres). According to the 2001 census it had a population of 901 people living in 423 households of whom 397 were economically active. Included in the parish are the hamlets of Strettington and Halnaker.
An electoral ward in the same name exists. This ward stretches North West to West Dean with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,235.
Boxgrove is best known for the Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site discovered in a gravel quarry known as Amey’s Eartham Pit located near the village but in Eartham Parish. Parts of the site complex were excavated between 1983 and 1996 by a team led by Mark Roberts of University College London. Numerous Acheulean flint tools and remains of animals (some butchered) dating to around 500,000 years ago were found at the site. The area was therefore used by some of the earliest occupants of the British Isles. Remains of Homo heidelbergensis were found on the site in 1994, the only postcranial hominid bone to have been found in Northern Europe
. Teeth from another individual were found two years later.
A Benedictine monastery was founded at Boxgrove by William de la Haye in 1115. The priory church remains as the Church of England parish church of St. Mary and St. Blaise, minus the original nave, and mostly dates from the 13th century.
Media related to Boxgrove at Wikimedia Commons
Kenneth Max Copeland (born December 6, 1936) is one of the leaders of the Charismatic Movement and is an American author, musician, public speaker, and televangelist. Copeland has been strongly identified with preaching a prosperity and abundance message, commonly referred to as the prosperity gospel, which has been criticized by various denominations. His Tarrant County, Texas-based Kenneth Copeland Ministries (KCM) advocates daily application of the „Word of God“, meaning the Bible. KCM is a teaching ministry that specializes in biblical teaching that focuses on faith, love, healing, prosperity and restoration through diverse media, such as television, books, CD and DVD. KCM’s motto is Jesus is Lord based upon Romans 10:9.
Kenneth Max Copeland was born on December 6, 1936, in Lubbock, Texas, and raised in West Texas near a United States Army Air Forces airfield, which inspired him to become a pilot. His parents were A.W. and Vinita Pearl (née Owens) Copeland, who stayed married, until his mother’s death in 1988.
Prior to his conversion to Christianity in November 1962, Copeland was a recording artist on the Imperial Records label, having one Billboard Top 40 hit („Pledge of Love“, which charted in the Top 40 on April 20, 1957, stayed on the charts for 15 weeks, and peaked at #17).
Following his religious conversion, Copeland turned the rest of his life over to the gospel and ministry work. In the fall of 1967, he enrolled in Oral Roberts University, where he soon became the pilot and chauffeur for Oral Roberts.
Since April 13, 1963, Kenneth has been married to his wife, Gloria Neece. Together, they are the parents of: John Copeland and Kellie Copeland Swisher. Copeland is also the father of Terri Copeland Pearsons, from a previous marriage, Ivy Boniford. Gloria and the Copeland children work for KCM. John is the ministry’s chief operating officer. Kellie preaches at various meetings throughout the US, as does Terri, who also preaches at Eagle Mountain International Church, pastored by her husband, George Pearsons.
Historically, Copeland’s ministry held a number of conventions across the United States which lasted anywhere from three to six days. The number of longer set conventions has waned in recent years, although KCM still holds an annual Believer’s Convention in his hometown of Fort Worth during the week of July 4. Kenneth and Gloria Copeland, along with ministry friends including some family members, also preach at other conventions and conferences throughout the world. These events stream live on Copeland’s website, kcm.org, as well as being shown on Christian television stations such as God TV and the Daystar Television Network. Portions of recorded conferences are shown Sundays. The Monday through Friday television broadcasts feature a Copeland family member, either alone or with another minister, discussing subjects from The Holy Bible. Most of these episodes are available on BVOV.tv.
Kenneth Copeland Ministries is located at 14355 Morris Dido Road, Fort Worth
, TX 76192 on 33 acres and was valued at $554,160 in 2008 by Tarrant Appraisal District. The site includes the Eagle Mountain International Church, television production and audio recording facilities, warehouse and distribution facilities, residences for the Copeland family, and Kenneth Copeland Airport. Approximately 500 people are employed by KCM.
KCM also owns a 1998 Cessna 550 Citation Bravo, which it received from a donor in October 2007 and is used for domestic flights, and a 2005 Cessna 750 Citation X, which it uses for international flights. It also is restoring a 1962 Beech H-18 Twin, which the ministry plans to use for disaster relief efforts.
In February 2007 Copeland was accused of using his ministry’s Citation X for personal vacations and friends. The Copelands‘ financial records are not publicly available, and a list of the board of directors is not accessible as these details are protected but known confidentially by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Responding to media questions, Copeland pointed to what he asserted was an accounting firm’s declaration that all jet travel complies with federal tax laws. In December 2008, KCM’s Citation Bravo was denied tax exemption after KCM refused to submit a standardized Texas Comptroller form that some county appraisal districts use to make determinations, which would have required making public the salary of all ministry staff. KCM subsequently filed suit with the Tarrant Appraisal District in January 2009 and its petition to have the aircraft’s tax-exempt status restored was granted in March 2010.
In late November 2007, Mike Huckabee, a 2008 Republican presidential primary candidate, made six appearances on Copeland’s daily television program Believer’s Voice of Victory, discussing „Integrity of Character“. Huckabee, an ordained Baptist minister, was appearing on Copeland’s daily broadcast to promote his book, Character IS the Issue: How People with Integrity Can Revolutionize America. Through the years, Copeland has invited many church pastors and evangelists to appear on his daily program to discuss their respective books. Subsequently, in January 2008, the Huckabee campaign paid for use of Kenneth Copeland Ministries‘ facilities for a fundraiser. The fundraising at the church was criticized by the Trinity Foundation.
As a result of the Huckabee appearances, Kenneth Copeland Ministries was one of six approached by the United States Senate inquiry into the tax-exempt status of religious organizations, chaired by U.S. Senator Charles Grassley, a supporter of fellow Senator John McCain’s failed 2008 Republican Party Presidential bid. The Copelands responded with a financial statement and created a website, Believers Stand United, to help explain their perspective.[dead link]
Ministry Watch lists a top 30 donor alert for KCM because it does not post audited financial statements on its website nor does it provide them on request.
In 2013 a measles outbreak (20 confirmed cases as of August 26) in Tarrant County was attributed in the press to anti-vaccination sentiments expressed by members of the Copeland Ministries. The church denied making any such statements and urged members to get vaccinations, even offering free immunizations through the church itself. Pastor Terri Copeland Pearsons, who is Kenneth Copeland’s daughter, offered free vaccination clinics and advised those who did not attend one of the clinics to quarantine themselves at home for two weeks. In a statement on the church website, Pearsons said she was not against immunizations, but also raised concerns about them.
Kenneth Copeland and his wife, Gloria Copeland, were featured in a 2015 episode of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver that gained media attention. Comedian John Oliver criticized the Copelands for using tax laws to live in a $6.3 million mansion as the parsonage allowance for their home is not subject to income taxes, for using church donations to buy a $20 million jet that was used for trips to a ski resort and a private game ranch, and for promotion of healing through faith and skepticism of medicine, which Oliver highlighted with a video of Gloria Copeland saying that doctors give patients „poison that will make you sicker“ and that the church is an alternative to medical treatment: „Which do you want to do? Do you want to do that,“ Copeland asked of the doctor’s „poison“ treatment, „or do you want to sit here on a Saturday morning, hear the word of God, and let faith come into your heart and be healed?“ Oliver then played an excerpt of the Trevor Glass documentary Suffer The Children that featured Bonnie Parker, a woman who died from cancer after sending money to the Copelands instead of receiving treatment. Parker’s daughter said in the documentary that notebooks left behind by her mother claimed that, according to the Copelands, the more money she sent to them, the greater chance she had of being healed.
Zellweger is the brand name of an electric switching device used to control off-peak electrical loads such as water heaters. It is an example of carrier current signaling. Power stations transmit a ripple signal on the main transmission lines when off-peak rates start (often around 10 pm). This ripple noise is picked up by the Zellweger, which after a random delay turns the hot water heater on. The noise is often picked up by other equipment, especially audio amplifiers and stereos and the noise can cause problems with other electrical devices. Even some telephone lines can pick up the noise. The noise can be particularly obtrusive from some fluorescent light systems.
Newer electrical meters incorporate this technology into the meter. „Time of use“ meters charge electricity to the current tariff within half an hour, giving customers incentive to run appliances such as dishwashers, pool pumps and clothes dryers during the night.
Power stations have plenty of unused capacity late at night but must keep running as they take days to shut down. Off-peak rates are used as an incentive for customers to use this surplus capacity and to reduce the amount of peak demand. This can produce cheaper power by delaying the need to build new power stations and reduce environmental impact. The random time delay in the Zellweger means that the power stations aren’t hit with a huge demand when all the hot water systems turn on at the same time, rather the load is spread over a greater time period.
Originally time-clocks were used, however they can easily lose accurate time and are not easily adjusted for daylight saving time. Zellwegers were first introduced in Australia in 1953, however were not compliant with modern harmonic disturbance standards. The second generation was introduced in the 1970s and was more reliable. A variety of devices can still be seen across Australia.
In at least some parts of Sydney, the ripple frequency is 1042 Hz. The signal usually consists of several bursts of a few seconds on and off, followed by a period of up to 50 seconds on
Le Coq Sportif Courtcraft S Suede Men Sports Sneakers
. This is coded to affect only selected equipment. Occurrences are very frequent, sometimes several times an hour throughout the day, not just at evening and morning off-peak times.
Zellweger ZE22/3 contain low-risk radioactive material, and must be only handled by authorised people as breakage of the glass tube could cause a dangerous situation by releasing the radioactive material. The device reportedly contains a ‚glow tube‘ containing tritium and radium.
A few images are attached from an older electromechanical Zellweger ripple plant near Silverdale. Many of these Zellweger plants are still in use in New Zealand. Frequency used is 1050 Hertz, superimposed upon the 50 Hz mains. Solid state Zellweger equipment is used as well, which can directly inject into the 22kV or 33kV sub transmission mains instead of the 11kV mains as with these older Zellweger plants.
Zellweger Motor Generator set
Zellweger Control Panel
Zellweger Tuning coils and Capacitors
Bro is a science fiction novel by Vladimir Sorokin, the first part in the series The Ice Trilogy, a “tripartite extravaganza [that] pummels the reader with super-dense chunks of satire, fantasy, parody, history and paranoid pseudo-theory.“ The other volumes are, respectively, Ice and 23,000. Although it chronologically precedes Ice, it was written several years after Ice was published.
The protagonist is a young boy named Alexander growing up with a well off family in the Ukraine. Around 1918 when he turned 10 the Russian civil war forced him and his family to leave their home in hopes of trying to escape to Warsaw but they were hit by artillery fire and killed his father, brother, and uncle. The protagonist ends up living with an aunt in Moscow and attending college there. His aunt ends up being arrested at which point the protagonist abandons the apartment they were living in and has already dropped out of college. The protagonist decides to go on an expedition to find the Tungus meteorite which happened to strike earth the same day he was born. During this expedition the protagonist abandons the group and makes a spiritual connection with the meteorite which he describes as „Ice“. The Ice tells the protagonist that he is a member of the brotherhood of the light, his name is Bro,and he must go out into the world and find the rest of 23,000 members.The brotherhood of the light created the universe but made one mistake which was earth. People and animals are disrupting the universe and the 23,000 want to come together to destroy the earth and restore order to the universe. The protagonist immediately sets out to accomplish this goal.
Bro-The protagonist of the story. Originally named Alexander Snegirev, he was born June 30, 1908, the same day that the meteor reached the Earth. During his childhood, he develops a fascination with astronomy and, after dropping out of college, is given an opportunity to search for the meteor that fell the day he was born. During this trip, he finds the ice from the meteor and falls, striking his chest, and awakens with a new identity. His heart tells him that his new name is Bro and his goal is to unite all 23,000 of his brothers and sisters of the Light. Fer-The first sister that Bro awakens using a hammer constructed from the ice. She and Bro often have a very strong connection, referred to as the heart magnet, which helps them find their other brothers and sisters. Together, they are the only ones who are able to distinguish between average people and their siblings. Ep-The first brother, who is awakened by both Bro and Fer. Ig- Originally named Deribas. He was part of an illegal group of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers‘ Party and later became an ambassador of the OGPU, the predecessor of the KGB. Due to his position, he is able to help Bro and their siblings adapt to human life by providing them with jobs. Khram-One of the successors of Fer and Bro. Like her two siblings, she has a seeing heart. At the end of the novel, she must travel east to find her other half – the other sibling with the ability to find the members of the Light.
Connection to Nazi Germany-Another theme that comes into play later in the novel is the themes associated with Nazi Germany. Sorokin has been quoted saying that, “its frightening that all cities are beginning to resemble each other. People are becoming the same and dressing the same. The complete unification of humanity is underway
.” In Bro the Brotherhood encounters Hitler and Nazi Germany, and the theme of one person or group controlling the whole is brought up. An article by Birgit Menzel talks about the themes inBro, „The idea of an elected Indo-Aryan race with the mission to purge the world of millions of unworthy lives refers to the connection between Nazi mysticism and the Russian nationalist version of the occult one finds in the theories of Alexander Dugin and Lev Gumilyov.“
Identity-The protagonist of the story changes irrevocably after the explosion which kills his brother, father, and uncle. The protagonist then acquires a new identity, and becomes not truly human. Identity, and the concept of being reborn is a theme constantly touched upon in this novel.
Religion – Certain features of the novel are particularly reminiscent of religion, especially notions of creation myths, heaven, the brotherhood, and souls. Perhaps the most prominent example in the novel is the tale Bro internalizes when he undergoes his awakening. Similar to the creation myth of other religions, the story begins with an ultimate being, in this case the Primordial Light creating the universe, including the Earth, inhabited by the 23,000 light rays, which evolve into the brotherhood. This brotherhood, comparable to any religious congregation, further contributes to the religious allusions. Within the group, they often using their heart rather than speech, placing greater emphasis on emotion, rather than reason, symbolizing a favoring of the soul, an important notion in religion. As Alexei Pavlenko writes: „Sorokin’s language about the heart’s awakening and its ability to communicate with other awakened hearts is compelling because it resonates with an ancient and rich mythology. In the Judeo-Christian and other ancient traditions…the heart is seen as the center of man’s life, the point of ultimate presence.“ Finally, although Sorokin never explicitly addresses the afterlife, it is implied that the brotherhood are reunited after death, in an environment similar to heaven.
Society-In his interview, Sorokin states that The Ice Trilogy representative of his disappointment with society: „More precisely, contemporary civilization means the entire twentieth century, whose ready-made goods for mass mass consumption, mediocre taste and mass production have gradually transformed people into ‚meat machines.‘ Multiply this by the total atheism advancing upon us, and human begins become a cog in this machine…“ To reflect this view, Sorokin has attributed the name ‚meat machine‘ to the ordinary humans in the novel and grotesquely describes all relevant aspects of humanity: life, death, warfare, crime, deceit and greed.
Violence-Connected to the theme of Nazi Germany is the overall theme of violence throughout the novel. The Brotherhood of the Light uses violence, specifically smashing people’s chests with hammers, and later murdering people. In the same interview Sorokin is asked why he brings up violence so much in this novel. Sorokin replies that violence fascinates him, „Why can’t people do without violence? Why can’t they keep from killing? This is a mystery to me, and I try to talk about it in literary form.” Sorokin also mentions how violence is often justified by some overall goal, and how he plays with this idea in Bro, „There is an idea, a lofty goal, in Bro the killing takes place in the name of a lofty goal.“
Sorokin diverges away from traditional Russian literature with this novel. This is described as, „betraying Russian prose.“ Sorokin replies that, „“As before, they think of it as something sacred. There is a kind of secret in literature and the literary process, to be sure. But literature is not a temple, and it should not be assigned the function of sacred texts. Russian writers shouldn’t be made into priests.” Bro is significant because it shows Sorokin’s urge to break away from traditional Russian literature goes along with his intent to mirror actual events in society with this novel. Sorokin states, „“To my mind the entire Ice Trilogy is a discussion of the twentieth century. It’s a kind of monument to it. You can look at this as a metaphor, or as science fiction, or as some sort of conspiratorial novel.“ Sorokin mirrors many themes of real events in this novel, such as alluding to the control of Nazi Germany and human obsession with violence.
In an interview, Sorokin states that he first began thinking about The Ice Trilogy while teaching Russian language and literature in Japan. After finishing the first novel, Ice, he realized that he could not simply move on to his next work. Instead he wanted to return to the theme of his disappointment with contemporary society, sensing that the story was not yet complete and so he bagan the prequel, Bro.
Titled, Put‘ Bro, or Bro’s Way, in Russian, the title takes the name of the protagonist after he has undergone his awakening. It reflects the significance of the discovery of his new identity as a part of the brotherhood and sisterhood of the Light, as well as his quest to unite the 23,000.
Talk Radio Network (TRN) is an independent, American producer and national syndicator of news and talk radio programming. The network emphasizes conservative talk on weekdays and variety talk radio on weekends. It is headquartered in Central Point, Oregon.
Talk Radio Network was founded in 1993. It is made up of several affiliates that produce and syndicate their own radio content. The Original Talk Radio Network produced and syndicated The Savage Nation from 1999 to 2012; Talk Radio Network Enterprises produces and syndicates The Jerry Doyle Show, and it produced and syndicated The Laura Ingraham Show from 2004 to 2012; Talk Radio Network – FM produced and syndicated The Mancow Experience until 2014 and The Phil Hendrie Show; Talk Radio Network Entertainment produces and syndicates America’s Morning News; and America’s Radio News Network „produces and syndicates four separate three-hour daily weekday news programs“ and it has produced and syndicated „top- and bottom-of-the-hour news reports on a 24-hour-per-day, 7-day per week basis.“
Bear Stearns issued a report in 2007 that concluded TRN was the second-largest provider of top-tier nationally syndicated radio talk shows in the United States, behind only Premiere Radio and ahead of competitors ABC Radio and Westwood One for national talk programming.
The network’s first offering was Art Bell’s Coast to Coast AM. TRN sold the rights to Bell’s program (and its owned-and-operated stations, held under Chancellor Broadcasting) to Clear Channel Communications in 1996. The Savage Nation was heard on TRN from 1999 until 2012, when Michael Savage successfully sued TRN over his contract and subsequently left the network. During 1998 to 2000, TRN was a for-profit subsidiary of the nonprofit Foundation for Human Understanding.
Talk Radio Network’s programming is arranged in the format of a 24-hour network, such that the programming rarely overlaps, with the programming split up among three satellites. Aside from encores, almost all of TRN’s programs air live. TRN currently carries no short-form programming; in April 2007
, Talk Radio Network debuted its first short-form program, a daily commentary hosted by Dick Morris, but it has since left the air.
TRN’s weekday programs have mostly been distributed individually as opposed to a straight network, while the network’s weekend programming is mostly syndicated as a large block. Since the late 2000s, however, TRN been increasingly fed its weekday programming to stations in multi-program blocks; according to TRN, the network is „capable of delivering a full turn-key talk operation to one radio station.“
Much of TRN’s programming could be heard on CRN Digital Talk Radio Networks until November 2009, when CRN dropped the network and replaced it with Air America Media. Most TRN programs returned to CRN in 2010 after Air America’s demise. TRN programming is split up among CRN2, CRN4 and CRN5, with most weekday programs on CRN4 and weekend shows airing on CRN5.
In January 2011, TRN began rolling out an all news network service for stations, called America’s Radio News Network (ARNN), which ran weekdays from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m. As of September 6, 2013, ARNN has suspended operations due to Talk Radio Network’s ongoing battle with Dial Global, Westwood One and Cumulus Media. Prior to the shutdown, ARNN was carried on CRN7. Once the Cumulus lawsuit was settled in 2014, Talk Radio Network reintroduced a four-hour all-news block to its morning drive schedule.
All times below are Eastern Time Zone (ET), adjusted seasonally for daylight saving time.
Encores of Talk Radio Network programming and fill-in hosts such as Bill Wattenburg and Tammy Bruce fill in the gaps.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NBC News Wall Street Journal Agence France-Presse Foreign Pool Bloomberg BNA Washington Examiner Talk Radio News Service
Fox News CBS Radio News USA Today msnbc Time Yahoo! News Dallas Morning News
CBS News Bloomberg McClatchy Washington Times NY Daily News Salem Radio Roll Call
AP NPR AURN The Hill Hearst/SF Chron/Balt. Sun Media News/Daily Beast CBN
ABC News Washington Post Politico Fox News Radio NY Post Christian Sci. Monitor BBC/Boston Globe
Reuters NY Times Tribune VOA RealClearPolitics SiriusXM Scripps/BuzzFeed
CNN AP Radio ABC News Radio National Journal Chicago Sun-Times/Al Jazeera Dow Jones Financial Times/The Guardian
Forman Brown (1901–1996) was one of the world’s leaders in puppet theatre in his day, as well as an important early gay novelist. He was a member of the Yale Puppeteers and the driving force behind Turnabout Theatre. He was born in Otsego, Michigan, in 1901 and died in 1996, two days after his 95th birthday. Brown briefly taught at North Carolina State College, followed by an extensive tour of Europe.
Forman’s Yale Puppeteers, which he established upon graduating from University of Michigan (class of 1922), opened a puppet theatre in Los Angeles in 1941 (the Turnabout Theater) that attracted celebrity attention and support from some of Hollywood’s biggest names, e.g.
, Greta Garbo, Marie Dressler, and Douglas Fairbanks, as well as other notable figures including Albert Einstein. Brown wrote all the songs and sketches for the troupe’s productions. Regular performers included Elsa Lanchester and Odetta. Bette Midler sang one of Forman’s songs, Mrs. Pettibone, at a Los Angeles AIDS benefit.
Along with Yale Puppeteers Harry Burnett and Richard Brandon (Brown’s lifelong lover), Brown launched Turnabout Theatre in 1941 as „a vehicle for performing both puppet plays and revues for adults.“ Turnabout Theatre was a highly popular puppetry venue until its dissolution in 1956. Reversible seats were installed in the theatre so that after the puppet shows were performed at one end of the auditorium, the puppeteers asked the audience to „turnabout“ their seats for the Turnabout revue staged at the opposite end of the auditorium.
In 1933, he wrote Better Angel, under the pseudonym Richard Meeker, about a young man coming to terms with his homosexuality. The novel is regarded as „the first American novel to present the ‚gay‘ experience in a healthy light.“
He also wrote the book and lyrics for the Richard Rodgers/Lincoln Center revival of „The Merry Widow.“
A padrão (Portuguese pronunciation: [pɐˈðɾɐ̃w̃], standard; plural: padrões) was a large stone cross inscribed with the coat of arms of Portugal that was placed as part of a land claim by numerous Portuguese explorers during the Portuguese Age of Discovery. Notable explorers known to have erected padrões were Diogo Cão, Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama.
The Lisbon Geographic Society managed to restore in the 20th century three padrões erected by Diogo Cão and one by Bartolomeu Dias.
At the Dias Cross Memorial on the coast of South Africa’s Eastern Cape province, there is a padrão replica on a spectacular outcrop (False Island – Kwaaihoek in Afrikaans, meaning „Nasty corner“); it marks the site of Dias‘ most easterly landfall, after becoming the first European navigator to round the Cape of Good Hope
. The original padrão was discovered by Arthur Axelson in the 1930s – it had fallen, or was pushed, off the top of Kwaaihoek, and was in pieces in the gullies below. Axelson recovered these pieces and was able to reconstruct the padrão; the reconstructed original now stands in the William Cullen Library of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg.
Indonesia National Museum hosts the Luso Sundanese padrão erected by Henrique Leme in 1522 in Sunda Kalapa port (present day Tugu, sub-district of Jakarta, Indonesia).