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The Nordertor (Danish: Nørreport) is an old town gate in Flensburg, Germany, which was built around 1595. Today the landmark is used as a symbol for Flensburg.
The town wall of Flensburg was built step by step from 1345 onwards. A town gate, named Norder Porte, was built in the northern section of the wall. At the end of the 16th century it was replaced by the Nordertor, a bulding with stepped gables and archway. At this time the Nordertor marked the northern boundary of the town. It was a checkpoint that was closed at night.
On the north face of the gate are two plaques. The left one bears the royal coat of arms of King Christian IV, 1577-1648 and the Latin words: Regna Firmat Pietas — Piety strengthens the Realm. The right one bears the coat of arms of Flensburg with the German words: Friede ernährt, Unfrieden verzehrt — Peace nurtures, strife devours. Also to be seen is the date of renovation, inscribed as „Renov. 1767“. The town gate was restored in the time of Christian VII, 1749-1808. The left plaque is most likely the older of the two, possibly from the time when the Nordertor was built.
In 1796 a ban on building outside the town walls ended, and the town began to expand beyond. The suburb of Neustadt (Danish: Nystaden, meaning Newtown) was built in the neighborhood of the Nordertor. In 1913/14 the gate was restored by the architect Paul Ziegler, and a clock was installed. In 1966 the Deutsche Bundespost issued a 30 Pfennig stamp with the gate’s image. Over 3 billion of these stamps for letter post were sold. In the 1990s the gate was again restored and the clock was removed. In 2004 the gate was licensed as a venue for civil weddings, so that weddings are now performed in a room above the archway of the gate.
View from the original site of the Norder Porte to the Nordertor today
The coats of arms and the mottos
The Nordertor 1972
Flensburg’s tramway in front of the Nordertor in 1972
Coordinates: 54°47′43.504″N 9°25′48.175″E / 54.79541778°N 9.43004861°E / 54.79541778; 9.43004861

Tony Miller (basketball)

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Tony Miller (born April 16, 1973) is an American basketball coach and former player. In 2012–13 he spent his fourth season as an assistant coach for the University of Southern California (USC) men’s basketball team after having retired from professional basketball at the end of 2007–08. Miller was a two-time Dutch League All-Star in 1998 and 2000. During his collegiate career at Marquette University, Miller recorded 956 assists, which as of the end of the 2012–13 season still remains the seventh-highest total in NCAA Division I history.

Miller was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He attended Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School (VASJ) where he was a two-sport star between basketball and football. Miller was the starting point guard for all four seasons in basketball and led them to a state championship as a senior in 1991–92. In football, he became the starting quarterback in his sophomore season, succeeding future National Football League quarterback Elvis Grbac. Miller led the football squad to a state championship as a junior, a feat Grbac did not even accomplish. He wasn’t heavily recruited from college basketball teams because it was thought he would play football at the next level instead, but then-Marquette head coach Kevin O’Neill was persistent in his recruitment, and eventually Miller signed to play for the Warriors.
In his four-year career spanning from 1991–92 and 1994–95, Miller started all 123 games in which he played. For his career he averaged 8.3 points and 7.8 assists while finishing with 1,027 and 956, respectively. His assists total ranks seventh all-time in Division I history, and was fifth all-time when he graduated. In his sophomore and junior seasons, Miller was the catalyst for Marquette’s back-to-back NCAA Tournament berths; in the 1994 tournament, he was the primary reason why Marquette was able to break Kentucky’s full-court press as the Warriors upset the Wildcats to advance to the Sweet 16. As a senior, Marquette were the runners-up in the 1995 National Invitation Tournament. Miller was a three-time Great Midwest Conference Second Team selection from 1993 to 1995.
Miller played professional basketball from 1995–96 through 2007–08. In 13 seasons he played for different teams in the United States, Belgium, Lithuania, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In 1997–98 and 1999–2000 he was a Dutch League All-Star. Miller finished his professional career playing in the British Basketball League for the Everton Tigers.
Miller’s first job came in 2009–10 as the strength and conditioning manager for USC. He was hired by his former head coach at Marquette, Kevin O’Neill, who was then the USC head coach. In 2010–11, Miller was promoted to a full-time assistant coach position. He was not retained when Andy Enfield took over as head coach in 2013–14.

Panzer Division Müncheberg

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Panzer-Division Müncheberg was a German panzer division which saw action on the Eastern Front around Berlin during World War II.

Panzer-Division Müncheberg began forming on 8 March 1945 in Müncheberg, Germany. The majority of the division’s staff and panzer troops were drawn from the 103rd Panzer Brigade, which had been dissolved three days before. Major General of the Reserve (Generalmajor der Reserve) Werner Mummert, the commander of the 103rd Panzer Brigade, was placed in command of the division.
Despite its being severely understrength and an ad-hoc formation, the Müncheberg Division eventually received small amounts of the latest in supplies and equipment, including several Panther (Type G) tanks equipped with Sperber Infrared (IR) systems, as well as a company of Panzergrenadiers equipped with Sperber IR systems.
In addition, the division received several of the superheavy Jagdtigers, as well as several Tiger II Ausf. Bs, and the last five Tiger 1 Ausf. Es to be sent to the front. By 12 March the division’s strength was still only 6,836 men. On 18 March the men from an infantry battalion of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler division were used to bolster the division’s strength.
As the advancing Soviet forces neared Müncheberg, the partly formed Müncheberg Division was ordered to move east as the mobile reserve for the Ninth Army, which was part of Army Group Vistula.
The town of Küstrin lies roughly 70 km to the east of Berlin. Adolf Hitler had declared that the town was to be a fortress (Festung). Unlike other so-called fortress towns and cities, Festung Küstrin was indeed a fortress. The forces of Marshal Vasily Chuikov had reached the outskirts of Küstrin on 31 January and attempted to secure a bridgehead across the Oder. Bridgeheads were established to the north and south of Küstrin, but the Soviet forces could not consolidate their bridgehead[which?] until Küstrin was captured. Chuikov’s forces, hesitant to attack the well-defended fortress, began attempts to surround Küstrin.
Despite repeated Soviet attacks, the narrow strip of land between Busse’s 9th Army and Küstrin, dubbed the Küstrin Corridor, was kept open. On 22 March a major Soviet effort to sever the corridor went into action. The Soviet plan consisted of an inner and outer encirclement. The inner encirclement succeeded quickly, and the corridor was cut. Müncheberg went into action on 22 March alongside XXXIX Panzer Corps. By 25 March the outer encirclement was completed, trapping several German units including a platoon from the Müncheberg.
On 27 March, the Germans launched a counter-offensive aimed at re-opening the Küstrin Corridor. Müncheberg was subordinated to XXXIX Panzer Corps for the attack. The corps was unable to break through to the city. A Soviet counter-attack hit the 20th Panzergrenadier Division and soon the attack was in disarray, with elements of the 20th falling back in a disorganised rout. After the failure of the Küstrin counter-attack, Müncheberg was pulled out of the line to be refitted.
On 16 April the Red Army launched an offensive operation across the Alte Oder aimed at capturing Berlin. From this date until the end of the war, Müncheberg was in constant combat. On 20 April Müncheberg, together with its neighboring formation 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland fell back into Berlin itself.
The division was pushed back into Berlin itself by the advancing Soviet forces. The remnants of the Müncheberg were positioned in the north-eastern sector of Berlin, north of the River Spree. By this stage, the division retained roughly a dozen tanks and about thirty halftracks.
On 25 April, General Helmuth Weidling, the recently appointed commander of the defence of Berlin, ordered Mummert to take command of the LVI Panzer Corps, command of the Müncheberg being handed over to Colonel Hans-Oscar Wöhlermann, the artillery commander (ArKo) for the city. On 26 April Müncheberg, along with Nordland, was ordered to attack towards Tempelhof Airport and Neukolln. With its last ten panzers, the Müncheberg initially made progress, but several local Soviet counter-attacks soon halted the advance.
Around noon on 26 April Wöhlermann was released from command and Mummert was reinstated as commander of the division. The following is from the diary of an officer with the Müncheberg Division and describes the evening of 26 April.
Scarlet night. Heavy artillery fire. Uncanny silence. We get shot at from many houses. Foreign workers, no doubt. From the Air Ministry comes news that General Erich Bärenfänger has been relieved of his post of commander of the Berlin garrison. One hour later we hear that General Weidling is our new commander. General Mummert takes charge of the Tank Corps…
On 27 April, very early in the morning, Hitler ordered the flooding of the Berlin underground to slow the advancing Red Army. Hitler’s order resulted in the drowning of many German soldiers and civilians who had taken refuge in the tunnels. The diary of the officer with the Müncheberg Division went on to describe the flooding.
New command post: Anhalter subway station. Platforms and control rooms look like an armed camp. Women and children huddle in niches and corners. Others sit about in deck chairs. They all listen for the sounds of battle… Suddenly water starts to pour into the station. Screams, sobs, curses. People fighting around the ladders that run through the air shafts up to the streets. Masses of gurgling water rush over the stairs. Children and wounded are abandoned and trampled to death. The water rises three feet or more and then slowly goes down. The panic lasts for hours. Many are drowned. Reason: On somebody’s orders, engineers have blasted the locks of the canal between Schoeneburg and Mockern Bridges to flood the tunnels against the advancing Russians. Meanwhile heavy fighting has been going on above ground level. Change of position to Potsdamer Platz subway station in the late afternoon. Command post on the first floor, as tunnels still under water. Direct hits on the roof. Heavy losses among wounded and civilians. Smoke pours in through the shell holes. Outside, stacks of Panzerfists go up in the air. Another direct hit, one flight below street level. A horrible sight: Men, soldiers, women, and children are literally glued to the wall.
See also History of the Berlin U-Bahn
As the division fought in Wilmersdorf, the encirclement of Berlin was completed and the remnants of the Müncheberg were trapped. The diary of the officer with the Müncheberg Division also described the „flying courts-martial“ prevalent at this time:
Flying courts-martial unusually prominent today. Most of them very young SS officers. Hardly a decoration among them. Blind and fanatical. The hope of relief and the fear of these courts bring men back to the fighting. General Mummert refuses to allow any further courts-martial in the sector under his command… He is determined to shoot down personally any courts-martial that appears… We cannot hold the Potsdamer Platz and move through the subway tunnel to Nollendorferplatz. In the tunnel next to ours, the Russians are advancing in the opposite direction.
On 30 April, Hitler committed suicide. The Müncheberg, 18th Panzergrenadier Division along with a few Tiger IIs from SS Heavy Panzer Battalion 103 were engaged in heavy fighting near the Westkreuz and Halensee train stations and on the Kurfurstendamm. By 1 May the division had been pushed back to the Tiergarten and was fighting to defend the Zoo Flak Tower, the shelter of thousands of civilians. The Müncheberg’s last operating panzer, a Tiger 1, was abandoned on the Unter den Linden straße a hundred metres from the Brandenburg Gate.
The division, together with the remnants of 18th Panzergrenadier, attempted to escape Berlin to the west, to surrender to the Americans. On 3 May the divisions had reached a crossing over the Havel River in Spandau, under fire by the Red Army. Those who made it across the bridge found that they were surrounded by the Soviet forces; on 5 May the division ceased to exist.
March 1945 – Küstrin counterattack
April 1945 – Battle of Berlin

Eugénie Grandet (1994)

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Eugénie Grandet ist ein französischer Film aus dem Jahr 1994 von Jean-Daniel Verhaeghe nach dem Roman Eugénie Grandet von Honoré de Balzac.

Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts in Saumur an der Loire. An ihrem 13. Geburtstag machen die benachbarten Familien der Eugénie Grandet ihre Aufwartung. Während die weltgewandte Bankiersgattin Lucienne des Grassins ihren Sohn Adolphe mit der jungen Böttcherstochter verheiraten will, setzt Abbé Cruchot seinen Neffen auf Eugénie an. Denn Eugénies Vater, ein Geizhals, hat ein beträchtliches Vermögen angehäuft. An diesem Abend taucht Eugénies Cousin Charles auf. Nach dem Selbstmord seines bankrotten Vaters sucht er Hilfe bei den Grandets. Als Monsieur Grandet die finanzielle Lage von erkennt, schickt er ihn fort. Doch Eugénie, die sich in Cousin verliebt hat, gibt ihm ihr erspartes Geld. Als Vater Grandet das erfährt, sperrt er Eugénie ein. Seine Frau stirbt darüber vor Kummer. Nach dem Tod des Geizhalses Grandet intrigieren die Des Grassins und Cruchots weiterhin um das Vermögen der Erbin.
Jean-Daniel Verhaeghes Verfilmung des Romans von Balzac erhielt mehrere 7 d’or, Auszeichnungen für den französischen Fernsehfilm. Die Hauptrollen des Films sind exzellent besetzt. Jean Carmet spielt den Vater der Heldin, die von Alexandra London gespielt wird. Mit Dominique Labourier als Mutter Eugénies sowie Claude Jade und Pierre Vernier als Intrigen spinnendem Ehepaar Des Grassins ist das elegante Ensemble einer der Vorzüge des in Ausstattung und seinem Ton präzisen Films. Das Filmlexikon schreibt: „Erneute Verfilmung eines der berühmtesten Romane der Weltliteratur, der am Einzelschicksal den sozialen Wandel einer Gesellschaft und dessen Folgen beschreibt. Der Film zeichnet den Egoismus der Personen ebenso wie das schwer einzuordnende Wesen der vermögenden Braut, die zwischen Opferbereitschaft, Leidenschaft und Herablassung schwankt.“

Rachid Bouchareb

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Rachid Bouchareb en 2011.
Rachid Bouchareb, né le 1er septembre 1953 à Paris, est un réalisateur et producteur franco-algérien.

D’origine algérienne, né à Paris, il commence sa carrière comme assistant de mise en scène à la télévision, de 1977 à 1984. Durant cette période, il réalise quelques courts métrages. Rachid Bouchareb réalise son premier long métrage en 1984. En 1989, il démarre une carrière de producteur de cinéma en s’associant à Jean Bréhat pour créer la maison de production 3B. Ainsi il produira plusieurs films, notamment La Vie de Jésus (1998), L’Humanité (2000), Flandres (2006), des films de Bruno Dumont qui sont récompensés au Festival de Cannes.
Rachid Bouchareb réalise ensuite plusieurs longs-métrages. Il est à plusieurs reprises nommé pour ses films. En 1991, Cheb est primé au festival de Cannes, et présenté en compétition pour l’Oscar du meilleur film étranger. En 1995, Poussières de vie est nommé pour l’Oscar du meilleur film étranger. En 2001, Little Senegal est nommé pour l’Ours d’or de Berlin et reçoit le Prix du meilleur long métrage au 11e Festival du cinéma africain de Milan. Mais le plus grand succès fut celui d’Indigènes en 2006 qui fut en lice pour la Palme d’or et reçut le Prix d’interprétation masculine pour l’ensemble de ses acteurs au Festival de Cannes 2006. Rachid Bouchareb reçoit le Prix Henri Jeanson, décerné par la SACD, pour l’ensemble de son œuvre en 2006. En février 2009, son film London River reçoit une distinction à la Berlinale (Festival de Berlin, 05-15 février 2009). L’acteur Sotigui Kouyaté y reçoit l’Ours d’argent du meilleur acteur.
Rachid Bouchareb est aussi scénariste. Il a notamment écrit les scénarios de tous ses longs métrages. Celui d’Indigènes lui a notamment valu un César.
En avril 2007, il est nommé Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. Il est également membre du conseil d’administration de la Fémis.
En 2011, il débute le tournage du premier volet de sa trilogie américaine : Just Like a Woman, un road movie avec Sienna Miller et Golshifteh Farahani en 2012 suivi d’un deuxième, La Voie de l’ennemi en 2013.
En 2014, il réalise avec l’historien Pascal Blanchard une série télévisée historique, Frères d’armes, présentant en 50 courtes biographies des hommes et femmes du monde entier (et en particulier de l’ancien empire colonial français) ayant combattu au service de la France.

2010 U.S. Figure Skating Championships

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The 2010 United States Figure Skating Championships were a national championship to determine the national rankings of the United States in the 2009–10 figure skating season. The event was among the criteria used to select the U.S. teams for the 2010 World, World Junior, Four Continents Championships, and the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Skaters competed in four disciplines – men’s singles, ladies‘ singles, pair skating, and ice dancing – across three levels: senior, junior, and novice. Medals were awarded in four colors: gold (first), silver (second), bronze (third), and pewter (fourth).
Organized by U.S. Figure Skating with AT&T as the title sponsor, the 2010 Championships took place between January 14 and 24 at the Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena in Spokane, Washington.
The Olympics were to begin 18 days after the end of the U.S. Championships. The senior-level Championship events were therefore spread out over two weekends to allow the skaters approximately four weeks between the end of their event and the start of the corresponding Olympic competition.
The senior compulsory dance was the Golden Waltz.

The results of the 2010 U.S. Championships were among the criteria used to determine the 2010 Olympic team. The competitions used in the selection process were, in order of priority:
The United States had qualified 3 Olympic spots in men’s singles and ice dancing and 2 Olympic spots in ladies singles and pair skating. The entrants are nominated by U.S. Figure Skating and must be confirmed by the United States Olympic Committee.
The nominees in each discipline were announced following the completion of that discipline’s competition. The pairs entrants were nominated on January 16, the men on January 17, and the ladies and ice dancers on January 23.
Qualification for the U.S. Championships began at one of nine regional competitions: New England, North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Upper Great Lakes, Eastern Great Lakes, Southwestern, Northwest Pacific, Central Pacific, and Southwest Pacific. The top four finishers in each regional competition advanced to one of three sectional competitions: Eastern, Midwestern, and Pacific Coast. Skaters who placed in the top four at the sectional competitions advanced to the U.S. Championships.
Byes to the competition were given to skaters who had won medals at the 2006 Winter Olympics or the 2009 World Figure Skating Championships; to the top five finishers in each senior-level discipline at the 2009 U.S. Figure Skating Championships; to any skaters who qualified for the 2009–10 Junior or Senior Grand Prix Final in the discipline in which they qualified; and to any skater who was assigned to an international event that occurred at the same time as their sectional championship.
The following skaters have been given byes to the 2010 U.S. Championships and did not have to compete at regionals or sectionals.
Ice dancers Morgan Matthews / Leif Gislason would have received a bye due to their 5th place finish. However, the team dissolved following the 2008–09 season.
The nominations to the Olympic team were announced as follows:
The World team was announced as follows:
The Four Continents team was announced as follows:
The World Junior team was announced as follows:

Isdal Woman

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The Isdal Woman (Norwegian: Isdalskvinnen) is the subject of an unsolved case involving an unidentified woman found dead at Isdalen Valley in Bergen, Norway, on 29 November 1970. Considered one of Norway’s most profound mysteries, the case has been the subject of intense speculation over the years regarding the identity of the victim, the events leading up to her death and the cause of death. Public interest in the case remains significant.
The woman was found in a part of Isdalen popularly known as „Death Valley“, which lies in the direction towards Mount Ulriken. Next to the scene police found a burned-out passport. The autopsy showed that the woman had suffered blunt force trauma to the neck and had taken several sleeping pills before she died. The official police report concluded suicide, but this conclusion is highly controversial.

On 29 November 1970 at approximately 13:15, while hiking in the foothills of Mount Ulriken’s north face, in an area known as the Isdalen Valley, a university professor and his two young daughters came across the partially charred remains of a naked woman hidden among some rocks at a remote hiking trail. Present at the scene were a dozen pink sleeping pills, a packed lunch, an empty quart bottle of liqueur, and two plastic bottles that smelled of gasoline. A full scale murder investigation was immediately initiated and the case has since evolved to become the most comprehensive criminal case by the Bergen police.
She had died from a combination of burns and carbon monoxide poisoning, and an autopsy showed traces of at least 50 sleeping pills in her body. Her neck bore a bruise, possibly the result of a blow.
Police traced the woman to two suitcases that were found in an NSB train station in Bergen. Police also found that the labels had been removed from every piece of clothing she wore, and that her fingerprints had been sanded away.
In addition, police discovered a prescription for a lotion, but both the doctor’s name and date had been removed. Within the lining on one suitcase police discovered 500 Deutsche Mark. Partial fingerprints were found on a few pieces of broken glass. They were insufficient for an identification, but police suspected that they belonged to the dead woman. The police were able to make composite sketches on the basis of witness descriptions and analysis made from the body; these sketches were published in the media and disseminated via INTERPOL in a number of countries.
Police eventually found out that the woman had travelled around Norway and Europe with nine different identities: Jenevive Lancia, Claudia Tjelt, Vera Schlosseneck, Claudia Nielsen, Alexia Zarna-Merchez, Vera Jarle, Finella Lorck and Elizabeth Leen Hoywfer. All of these identities were false. According to witness sightings the woman used various wigs, and in the trunk there were found several cryptic diary entries. The codes were later deciphered by police who concluded that they were coded dates and places the woman had previously visited. The woman’s teeth were thoroughly checked during the autopsy, and the way the dental work was performed indicated that the woman had been to a dentist in Latin America.
Witnesses reported that the woman had spoken several languages: French, German, English and Dutch. The woman had stayed at several hotels in Bergen. She had repeatedly changed rooms after checking in, when she wanted a room that had a balcony. In the papers she signed the cheque specified that she was a travelling saleswoman and an antiquities collector. The woman was presumably fond of porridge with milk, as this order was left at several of the hotels where the woman had stayed.
After the woman’s suitcases were found, police sought the help of the city’s most prominent textile retailers to identify her dress. It was concluded that the woman had a somewhat provocative style, which was marked by Italian taste.
Early in the investigation police contacted an Italian photographer who had given the woman a lift and had dinner with her at Hotel Alexandra in Loen. The Italian had previously been questioned in connection with a rape case, though those charges were dismissed. One of the Italian’s postcards that were sold in Norway was also found in the woman’s luggage. The photographer claimed the woman had told him that she came from a small town north of Johannesburg in South Africa, and that she had six months to see the most beautiful places in Norway. This line of inquiry did not lead to any new information about the woman’s identity.
The last observation of the so-called Isdal woman was when she checked out of room 407 at the Hotel Marin. She paid in cash and then asked to be picked up by a taxi. The woman was described as 30–40 years old, 164 cm tall, wide hips, small eyes and good-looking. Hotel staff said the woman stayed mainly in her room, and seemed to be on guard. Another hotel guest told police that she smoked South State cigarettes, a native Norwegian brand.
One witness testified that she had overheard the woman while she was talking to a man across the hall in a hotel in Bergen and that she heard the woman say „Ich komme bald“ (German: „I am coming soon“).
On 24 November, five days before the discovery of the woman, a local 26-year-old man was hiking with friends around the same area. He reported to have come across a woman of foreign appearance, her face completely distorted by fear. He noted that the woman was dressed elegantly, although not appropriately for being outdoors, let alone hiking in the hills. As they passed each other she formed her mouth as if to say something but appeared intimidated by two black-coated men who followed her. The men also had a foreign appearance.
The 26-year-old contacted the police after hearing that a young woman was found dead in the same area. He immediately recognized her from the composite sketches, but according to him the policeman with whom he spoke answered „Forget her, she was dispatched. The case will never be solved“, he followed the advice, waiting 32 years to tell the story publicly.

Arnott, Wisconsin

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Arnott is an unincorporated community located in the town of Stockton, Portage County, Wisconsin, United States. It is situated at the intersection of County Hwys. B and J.

In 1872, the Green Bay and Western Railroad laid tracks through a portion of what is now Arnott. During 1881 and 1882, William Arnott, Joseph Bremmer, and Calvin Richmond canvassed the countryside raising money to build a railroad depot. The depot, and the settlement around it, was named after Arnott, a local farmer who served as chairman of the town of Stockton and the Portage County Board, and who was elected to the Wisconsin Legislature in 1876.
Arnott is located in central Wisconsin approximately four miles east of Plover, four miles south-south west of Custer, and seven miles west of Amherst (Lat: 44° 27′ 26.0″, Lon: -89° 26′ 48.5″).
Arnott has one tavern, a feed mill, a lawn equipment dealer, and an egg roll factory. It is a stopover for the Tomorrow River Trail, a former railroad grade turned into walking path, and snowmobile trail.
Arnott is near the Wimme Sand & Gravel Pit, Milestone Materials‘ gravel pit, American Asphalt’s Custer Road plant, and a traffic safety/road marking company.
Coordinates: 44°27′26″N 89°26′48″W / 44.45722°N 89.44667°W / 44.45722; -89.44667

Karol Irzykowski

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Karol Irzykowski (ur. 23 stycznia 1873 w Błażkowej pod Jasłem, zm. 2 listopada 1944 w Żyrardowie) – polski krytyk literacki i filmowy, poeta, prozaik, dramaturg, teoretyk filmu, tłumacz, szachista.

Karol Franciszek Irzykowski urodził się 23 stycznia 1873 roku w Błażkowej, w folwarku Jasiony (obocznie Jesiony lub Józefówka), który został odziedziczony przez ojca Karola. Rodzicami Irzykowskiego byli Czesław Irzykowski (ok.1844-1908) oraz Julianna z Ławrowskich Irzykowska (1850-1923), córka księdza obrządku greckokatolickiego. Irzykowski pochodził z rodziny szlacheckiej. Ojciec pieczętował się herbem Ostoja, zaś matka Sas. Karol miał starszego brata Alfreda Marię (1871-1923) oraz siostry: Helenę (ok.1877-po 1940) i Irenę (1879-ok. 1880). Irzykowski został ochrzczony 4 sierpnia 1873 r. w kościele parafialnym w Brzyskach (jego rodzicami chrzestnymi byli Klemens Pawłowicz, szwagier matki, oraz Ludwina Irzykowska, babka). Ponieważ stan majątkowy Irzykowskich pogarszał się, postanowiono sprzedać Jasiony. Stało się to w roku 1881. Czesław Irzykowski przeprowadził się z synami do matki do Brzeżan, Julianna wraz z Heleną wynajęły mieszkanie we Lwowie (faktycznie doszło do rozpadu małżeństwa). W momencie przenoszenia się do Brzeżan Karol miał 8 lat. Jasiony w pewnym stopniu stały się miejscem akcji powieści Pałuba. Irzykowski planował powrócić po latach do Błażkowej, jednak nigdy nie zrealizował swych marzeń. Po II wojnie światowej dworek został rozebrany. Obecnie (2008) na jego terenie mieści się tartak. Pozostały jedynie: aleja, którą powozy zajeżdżały przed ganek, kilka drzew oraz widoki na Liwocz i dolinę Wisłoki.
W roku 1881 Karol został zapisany do C. K. Wyższego Gimnazjum w Brzeżanach. Miał wówczas osiem i pół roku i był młodszy od pozostałych kolegów (uczęszczał do klasy ze starszym bratem Alfredem). Z tego powodu na początku Irzykowski miał pewne problemy z nauką, ale wkrótce nadrobił zaległości. W tym okresie u Karola wystąpiło jąkanie. Problem ten będzie go prześladował do końca życia. W brzeżańskim gimnazjum Irzykowski zaczął interesować się literaturą. Po raz pierwszy został publicznie pochwalony za dobrze napisane wypracowanie, stworzył dwa dramaty: Dwaj bracia czyli zemsta i Sobowtór (nie zachowały się), pisał wiersze i rymowane historyjki. Po ukończeniu piątej klasy został przeniesiony do gimnazjum w Złoczowie. Według biografki pisarza Barbary Winklowej mogły wchodzić w grę: różnica w poziomie gimnazjów (złoczowskie było lepsze), łatwiejszy dojazd do Lwowa, gdzie mieszkała matka Karola, bądź bliskość wsi Wołczkowce i Mogiłki (własność ojca). W gimnazjum złoczowskim Irzykowski analizował dzieła Homera i Wergiliusza, zapoznał się z Pieśnią o Nibelungach. Na lekcjach religii przeżył też kryzys wiary.
W połowie 1887 roku, po ukończeniu szóstej klasy gimnazjum, Irzykowski przeprowadził się do Lwowa i zamieszkał wraz z matką i siostrą przy placu Św. Jura 5. We wrześniu Karol rozpoczął naukę w siódmej klasie C. K. Lwowskiego Gimnazjum im. Franciszka Józefa. Jednym z jego szkolnych kolegów był późniejszy historyk literatury Wiktor Hahn. W VII klasie gimnazjum Irzykowski zetknął się z literaturą ukraińską, a zwłaszcza z twórczością Iwana Franki. W dwutygodniku „Ruch“ przeczytał wówczas baśń Franki W pogoni za biedą (dziesięć lat później zapoznał się z autobiograficznym wstępem Franki pt. Nieco o sobie samym, który stanowił wprowadzenie do Obrazków galicyjskich. W 1897 r. zwierzał się w jednym z listów do Michała Rudnickiego, iż wstęp ów wpłynął na powstanie jego Kuźni bluźnierstw) . W tym okresie po raz pierwszy poważnie myślał o tym, by zająć się literaturą i filozofią. W VIII klasie otrzymał nawet od kolegów przezwisko „filozof”. W VIII klasie powstał pierwszy odnotowany wiersz pt. Do poety skierowany do Hieronima Niegłosa (pseud. Powstańczyk).
W czerwcu 1889 r. Irzykowski zdał maturę, a w październiku rozpoczął studia germanistyczne na Wydziale Filozoficznym C. K. Uniwersytetu im. Cesarza Franciszka we Lwowie. Został członkiem Czytelni Akademickiej, która mieściła się na Rynku. Na początku studiów zbliżył się do socjalistów, ale po krótkim czasie – jak pisał potem w jednym z listów – rozczarowało go ich zacofanie. W Czytelni Akademickiej nawiązał znajomość z późniejszymi przyjaciółmi – Stanisławem Womelą i Emilem Grossem. Na pierwszym roku studiów zetknął się także z prof. Ryszardem Marią Wernerem, który w dużym stopniu wpłynął na kształtowanie się myśli młodego pisarza. Irzykowski zainteresował się twórczością Grabbego, Kleista, Ludwiga, a przede wszystkim Hebbla. Wszedł w skład Zarządu Kółka Szachowego działającego w ramach Czytelni Akademickiej. Na początku 1891 roku rozpoczął pisanie dziennika, który – z przerwami – prowadził przez całe życie (1891-1897; 1916-1922; 1928-1944). Podczas wakacji po II roku studiów Irzykowski pracował w Brzozowie jako korepetytor synów Eugeniusza Gerarda Festenburga.
Z powodu trudnej sytuacji materialnej studiów nie udało mu się ukończyć, uzyskał jedynie absolutorium. W latach 1894-1895 był zastępcą nauczyciela w szkole gimnazjalnej (uczył niemieckiego), jednak jąkanie utrudniało mu pracę dydaktyczną, z której w końcu musiał zrezygnować. Zajmował się stenografią sprawozdań parlamentarnych i sądowych w sejmie galicyjskim, rozpoczął pracę dziennikarską.
W drugiej połowie 1908 roku Irzykowski przeniósł się do Krakowa, w którym od 1903 r. przebywała jego matka. Początkowo zamieszkał przy ul. Zwierzynieckiej 8. W grudniu tego roku przeprowadził się na ul. Garncarską 1. W Krakowie pracował jako korespondent w Cesarsko-Królewskim Biurze Korespondencyjnym oraz w latach 1910-17 w redakcji krakowskiej “ Nowej Reformy“.
Po I wojnie światowej przeniósł się do Warszawy. Kierował tam biurem stenograficzno-sprawozdawczym Sejmu. Współpracował ze „Skamandrem“, „Wiadomościami Literackimi“ (1924-33), a w latach 1922-1934 – jako recenzent teatralny – z „Robotnikiem“ – organem PPS. W 1929-30 współredagował czasopismo „Europa“. Zabierał głos w wielu dyskusjach literackich. Prowadził dział dramatu w „Roczniku Literackim“, współpracował z Polskim Radiem. Od 1933 roku był członkiem Polskiej Akademii Literatury. W latach 1933-39 współpracował z “ Pionem“. Publikował też (do pewnego czasu) w prawicowym piśmie „Prosto z Mostu“. 10 listopada 1933 „za zasługi na polu krytyki literackiej i literatury” został odznaczony przez Prezydenta RP Ignacego Mościckiego Krzyżem Oficerskim Orderu Odrodzenia Polski
We wrześniu 1939 roku Irzykowski mieszkał na Kolonii Staszica. W okolicy znajdował się duży kompleks budynków wojskowych. To zapewne przesądziło, iż w przeddzień kapitulacji Warszawy Kolonia została zbombardowana. Mieszkanie pisarza spłonęło doszczętnie. Zniszczeniu uległa wówczas kompletowana przez wiele lat biblioteka. W czasie okupacji niemieckiej Irzykowski utrzymywał się z wykładów stenografii polskiej i niemieckiej, biorąc także udział w podziemnym życiu kulturalnym. Pisał książkę pt. Wyspa (niemal w całości spłonęła w powstaniu warszawskim, ocalały zaledwie fragmenty), w której zamierzał przedstawić swą filozofię klerkizmu. Podczas powstania Kolonię Staszica opanowali żołnierze RONA, którzy dopuszczali się gwałtów i morderstw na ludności cywilnej. Irzykowski niedomagał w tym czasie na serce. Postanowił opuścić mieszkanie przy ul. Filtrowej, w którym wówczas przebywał. Został ranny w nogę. Niemieccy żołnierze przenieśli go na Okęcie, a stamtąd trafił do prowizorycznego szpitala w Milanówku, który mieścił się w willi „Perełka“. Następnie przeniesiono go do szpitala w Żyrardowie. Leżał tam w jednej sali z młodymi powstańcami. Okazało się, że rana uległa zakażeniu. Pojawił się też karbunkuł.
W Żyrardowie w opiekę nad Irzykowskim zaangażował się Paweł Hulka-Laskowski, który dzień po śmierci krytyka pisał do Jarosława Iwaszkiewicza:
„Wielce Szanowny Panie, piszę do Pana w imieniu córki ś.p. Karola Irzykowskiego, który umarł w szpitalu tutejszym po b. ciężkich cierpieniach spowodowanych złamaniem podudzia i karbunkułem, z którego ropa przedostała się do krwi, powodując zakażenie ogólne. Przed paru tygodniami Irzykowski zwrócił się do mnie, prosząc o pomoc, bo leżał w zaimprowizowanym szpitalu w Milanówku w warunkach opłakanych. Zrobiliśmy, co było w naszej mocy, aby Go ratować, niestety, wszystkie usiłowania lekarzy okazały się daremne. (…) Czy Związek nie mógłby przyjść z pomocą w poniesieniu kosztów pogrzebu zasłużonego Pisarza?“.
Irzykowski zmarł 2 listopada 1944 r. Pogrzeb odbył się cztery dni później. Rozpoczął się mszą w Kościele Matki Bożej Pocieszenia, następnie kondukt przeszedł na żyrardowski cmentarz. Trumna została umieszczona w grobie ziemnym. Po kilku latach, z inicjatywy ZLP, na grobie stanął pomnik. W 1981 roku, dzięki staraniom córek, prochy pisarza ekshumowano, przeniesiono na Cmentarz Rakowicki w Krakowie i złożono w grobie rodzinnym.
Pisma zebrane Irzykowskiego, wydane pod redakcją Andrzeja Lama, liczą 19 tomów. Ukazywały się w latach 1976-2001. W ramach tej edycji opublikowano m.in. pisma rozproszone, pisma teatralne, dzienniki oraz spuściznę rękopiśmienną. Edycję uzupełnia trzytomowa monografia Karol Irzykowski. Życie i twórczość – autorstwa Barbary Winklowej.
Kościół w Brzyskach, w którym odbył się chrzest Irzykowskiego
Zabytkowa chrzcielnica w kościele w Brzyskach
Grób Karola Irzykowskiego na cmentarzu w Żyrardowie
Grób Karola Irzykowskiego na Cmentarzu Rakowickim w Krakowie

Heritage railways in Kauai

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There are two heritage railways in Kauai, the birthplace of Hawaiian railroading. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 19, 1979.
The Grove Farm Sugar Plantation Museum preserved original steam locomotives from the earliest days of rail transport in Kauai, restoring the small-gauge engines without much notice beyond the local community. The museum acquired property where historic right-of-ways had run, and found, in the thick vegetation, track beds ready for restoration, allowing the Museum to display their authentic, working locomotives.
The second heritage railway in Kauai is the Kauai Plantation Railway at Kilohana. Unlike the Grove Farm Museum trains, which are brought out only once a month, the Kauai Plantation Railway is a daily fee-based attraction.

Sugarcane plantations in Hawaii led to the introduction of railways to Hawaii. Rail transport in Hawaii began in the late 19th century when small-gauge locomotives were brought in to replace oxen or horses to haul harvested sugarcane from the fields to mills, and then to transport the raw sugar to docks for shipment to refineries in California.
Hawaii’s first commercial sugar plantation was created in Koloa, Kauai in 1835, and sugar rapidly grew to dominate Kauai’s economy—and the economy of the Hawaiian archipelago—through the 19th and 20th centuries; railways were but one of several innovations introduced to Kauai to increase efficiency and capitalize on available resources during the 19th century. For example, steam plows were used by around the middle of the century, and abundant electricity was generated from mountain streams both to power mills and illuminate the fields for 24-hour shifts as early as 1885. Kauai’s early leadership in rail transport in Hawaii is consistent with this tradition of innovation.
Railways were under construction in both Kauai and on Hawaiʻi island at about the same time in 1881.
In Kauai, the Kilauea Sugar Plantation purchased a steam locomotive from Germany and created 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge tracks through the sugarcane fields. The first spike in this track was driven by Princess Liliʻuokalani, then Regent and soon to assume the throne as last Queen of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She had arrived the day before, disembarking at Hanalei, a nearby port, and was invited to the September 24 ceremonial opening at the site of what is now the town of Kilauea. The assembled dignitaries included Governor Paul P. Kanoe and the Plantation Manager, Robert A. Macfie, Jr. This is often credited as Hawaii’s first railway.
While field railways ran on “literally little more than panels of snap-track laid and re-laid across the fields as the seasonal cutting progressed,” more permanent right-of-ways were soon established to provide freight and passenger service from mills to ports, where raw sugar was packed aboard ocean-going ships bound for California refineries. An engineer, sent to Kauai from Honolulu in 1898, took the train from Waimea, on the coast, to the Kilauea Plantation’s Kekaha mill, situated in the midst of the cane fields, and he described the trip:
The railroad is a cute affair, only 30 inch gauge—cars mostly flat for hauling cane and sugar in bags….All cars are no more than 4 feet wide….Engines… are regular toys—they weigh about eight tons….[We] bowled over the four miles of toy railroad to the headquarters of the Plantation….They have engineer only—no fireman—no breakman. No breaks on cars.
On Hawaiʻi island (known as the Big Island), a larger railway was also under construction, with the first tracks being laid in March 1881 in Māhukona, North Kohala; its official charter of Incorporation under the name of The Hawaiian Railroad Company was granted in July 1880. The Hawaiian Gazette reported that twelve miles (19 km) of track had been laid in September 1881, but its unofficial opening was in March 1882. The New York Times, however, reported that the first steam railway was to be built on the Big Island in 1899, which may be a misunderstanding based on financial reorganization of the existing railways.
The Hawaiian Gazette, in the same 1882 issue that it mentions the initial freight hauling by steam on the Big Island, also states that on Maui, the “Kahului railroad has met all the requirements for transporting freight.”
Although one source claims that Oahu did not enter the railway age until 1889, it appears that Oahu had a field railway using the engine Olomana in 1883.
The preservation of steam locomotives on Kauai is largely due to the Grove Farm Sugar Plantation Museum, led by Mabel and Elsie Wilcox, nieces of George Norton Wilcox, who bought Grove Farm Plantation in 1864.
The sisters fought to preserve the trains when the Koloa Plantation was taken over by Grove Farm Plantation in 1947 and later when the trains were taken out of service in the late 1950s. About 1970, the trains were almost sold to the Disney Company for $500 each, when Mabel Wilcox matched the price and kept the locomotives in Kauai. When Mabel Wilcox turned the Plantation she had inherited into the Grove Farm Museum in the 1970s, the four 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge locomotives were given to the museum. When she died in 1978, her estate included an endowment for the operations of the Museum, including the locomotives. They are currently listed in the National Register of Historic Places as Grove Farm Company Locomotives. The collection includes four locomotives, all of which saw extensive service on Kauai.
Pride of place in the Grove Farm Museum locomotive collection is one of the earliest steam locomotives in Kauai, an 1887 Hohenzollern steam engine built in Düsseldorf, Germany for the Koloa Plantation for $4,000, which arrived in 1888. This engine is also notable because it is today the oldest steam locomotive in the state of Hawaii currently being run on rails; it pre-dates all steam locomotives in the State, in any condition, except for two: one is a 24-inch (610 mm) gauge Baldwin Locomotive from 1883 that is said to be buried in a sand dune in Puunene, on the island of Maui; the other is the Claus Spreckels, dating from 1882, originally a coal-fired engine later converted to oil, which is in storage in Maui in operational condition.
At one time, it was thought the first locomotive on Kauai was this 1887 engine. It is a wood-fired side-tank locomotive weighing some 10 tons and has a 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge. This engine is named Paulo, a tribute to Paul Isenberg, a wealthy sugar planter in the 1880s. Paul Isenberg spent many years in Kauai, arriving in 1858 and by 1862, at age 25, was manager of the Lihue Plantation, the second oldest plantation after Koloa. He greatly expanded the plantation and also was a partner in the Koloa sugar mill and the Kekaha sugar mill. He returned to his native Germany in 1878, leaving his brother Carl to assume his responsibilities at Lihue Plantation. Paul remained active in the business, however, and arranged for the immigration of 124 people from Germany to Kauai. The Paulo engine was shipped from Germany in 1887 to Koloa Plantation. Carl Isenberg started the Lihue Plantation Railway in 1891.
The Paulo engine remained in active service hauling cane until 1920, when it was retired and put on display by the Koloa Sugar Plantation. Grove Farm Plantation bought the Koloa Sugar Plantation in 1947, and Paulo became property of Grove Farm. Paulo was restored to full operating condition in 1981 after years of preservation work by the Grove Farm Museum and a team of volunteers led by Scott Johnson, who maintains the Grove Farm collection. Johnson grew up on Maui and has worked on almost every steam engine in the state. The Grove Farm Museum locomotives are displayed at the Lihue Plantation Sugar Mill site and run on a revived section of the Lihue Plantation Railroad once a month and on special occasions such as Ohana Day (‘ohana’ translates as ‘family’) in 2010 with the opening of the Kauai Museum exhibition, ‘The Industrial Revolution on Kaua‘i: Steam Power and Other Innovations’. In addition, the museum reconstructed a flat car and a cane car, and has two replicas with benches for passengers.
The Wainiha, a 1915 locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, was originally owned by the McBryde Plantation, and was sold to the Lihue Plantation in 1932. The McBride Plantation introduced two electric locomotives to its operations prior to 1899, when it added two steam engines. Grove Farm Company acquired the Wainiha, named for a stream and valley on Kauai’s north shore, in 1957, and it was the last steam locomotive in service for the sugar industry in Hawaii. It is operational, having been restored in 1975. In 2000, the Wainiha was used in filming a World War II drama, To End All Wars, to portray a Japanese train transporting British prisoners of war. The Paulo engine also was in the film.
The Wahiawa, also from Baldwin, was designed primarily to pull a passenger train in 1921 for the Kauai Railway Company. Its name was originally Port Allen, after the harbor on the western shore of Kauai and the terminus of that rail line. The engine passed through the hands of the McBryde Sugar Company in 1938 when it acquired its present name, after a stream in west Kauai, and in 1947 was sold to Grove Farm Company. Restoration of this engine is on-going as funds allow.
The Kaipu, a 1925 engine, also from Baldwin, was one of the last locomotives built for the Hawaiian sugarcane industry. Originally named the Kokee by its first owner, the Hawaiian Sugar Company, it was renamed for one of the plantation’s lunas, or foremen, in 1941 when acquired by Grove Farm. This unusual engine has a steel cab, with driving wheels smaller than the other Kauai Baldwins, and external counterweights with main rods connected to the rear drivers. It was retired in 1953, restored in 1983, and is operational.
In 2004, Grove Farm Museum locomotives began rolling on a short stretch of historic, 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge Lihue Plantation Railroad right-of-way from the Lihue sugar mill to Grove Farm Plantation, along Haleko Road, near the center of modern Lihue. Haleko Road was originally known as Halekoa, or “house of cane” Road.
This right-of-way was unknown when the Grove Farm Museum purchased 7 acres (28,000 m2) from Lihue Plantation Company and another 15 acres (61,000 m2) from William Hyde Rice Ltd. to provide a buffer from development in the area. Only later did the Grove Farm Museum officials discover that the right-of-way for the Lihue Plantation passed through the newly purchased plot, and restored the disused track bed.
The Kauai Plantation Railway opened for business in January, 2007 as “the first new railroad to be built in Hawaii in 100 years.” Indirectly, both the Grove Farm and Kauai Plantation heritage railways share common ancestry. Kauai Plantation Railway offers a tour of Kilohana, the former estate of Gaylord Parke Wilcox (1881–1970), manager of Grove Farm Plantation. His sister, Mabel Wilcox, heir to much of the Wilcox fortune, created Grove Farm Museum from her former family homestead nearby. They were grandchildren of missionary Abner Wilcox (1808–1869), with the fortune grown by their uncles George Norton Wilcox (1839–1933) and Albert Spencer Wilcox (1844–1919).
The Kauai Plantation Railway follows a 3-mile (4.8 km) loop through agricultural displays on the historic Kilohana estate and plantation. The Kauai Plantation Railway was designed by Boone Morrison, a historic restoration architect. Its rolling stock is new, but carefully modeled after passenger cars of 1880s trains that operated on the Big Island of Hawaii. The railway has both enclosed coaches and a coach with open sides. The coaches sit on six 35-foot (11 m) flatcars originally built in 1941 at Pearl Harbor by the U.S. Navy, which were then used by the Oahu Railway and Land Company and afterwards sold to White Pass and Yukon Route in Alaska.
The original plan for the railway called for steam engines to pull the coaches, with diesel engines in reserve. The railway opened under the power of a 1948 diesel-electric end-cab two-axle General Electric locomotive, however, with a 1939 two-axle Whitcomb diesel-mechanical locomotive providing backup. Steam locomotives are scheduled to take over from the diesel engines when renovation of a pair of Baldwin outside-frame 0-6-2 tank engines is complete. These steam engines had originally worked at the Honolulu Plantation Company on Oahu prior to World War II. They were purchased for the Kauai Plantation Railway from a company in the Philippines where they had been in service until 2001.
The trains run on rails salvaged from a Soo Line Railroad branch in North Dakota. Most of its 31,680 spikes were driven by hand with 11-pound mauls. The Kauai Plantation Railway is 3 ft (914 mm) gauge, which has no historical precedent in Kauai; most of the previous railways were smaller 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge. The route passes a 16,000-square-foot (1,500 m2) estate home built in 1935 for Gaylord Wilcox. In more recent times, the 105-acre (0.42 km2) Kilohana Plantation, has been devoted to preserving the island’s plantation-era heritage and interpreting it for both locals and tourists. The Kauai Plantation Railway is an outgrowth of this activity, which included horse-drawn carriage rides on the estate. The train passes plots leased by farmers who grow a wide variety of crops, from the culturally important taro to pineapple, papaya, rambutan, tropical hardwood trees, tobacco, and coffee, a more recent cash crop in Kauai. The idea is to show the future of Kauai’s agricultural industry in its rich historic and cultural context. It is located at 21°58′15″N 159°23′29″W / 21.97083°N 159.39139°W / 21.97083; -159.39139 (Kilohana), just off Route 50.
Over 200 miles (320 km) of mostly 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge track existed in 1915 in Kauai. By 1959, Kauai railroads were replaced by trucks. Today, even the trucks are gone, and the last sugar plantation on Kauai, Gay & Robinson, processed its last crop in October 2009.

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